Курсовой проект

  • 221. S.W.I.F.T. в системе международных межбанковских расчетов
    Банковское дело
  • 222. Secrets of 3D computer graphics
    Иностранные языки

    In the example below, you see an animated sequence showing a walk through the new How Stuff Works office. First, notice that this sequence is much simpler than most scenes in a 3D game. There are no opponents jumping out from behind desks, no missiles or spears sailing through the air, no tooth-gnashing demons materializing in cubicles. From the "what's-going-to-be-in-the-scene" point of work, this is simple animation. Even this simple sequence, though, deals with many of the issues we've seen so far. The walls and furniture have texture that covers wireframe structures. Rays representing lighting provide the basis for shadows. Also, as the point of work changes during the walk through the office, notice how some objects become visible around corners and appear from behind walls -- you're seeing the effects of the z-buffer calculations. As all of these elements come into play before the image can actually be rendered onto the monitor, it's pretty obvious that even a powerful modern CPU can use some help doing all the processing required for 3D games and graphics. That's where graphics co-processor boards come in.

  • 223. Sigmund Freud-курсовая на английском

    Freud believed that dreams acted as a form of fantasy, a defense mechanism against the unacceptable urges of the id. Fantasy allows the individual to act out events in the imagination, which can satiate the urges of the id which are repressed. Freud theorized that dreams were a subconscious manifestation of these repressed urges, and that they served mainly to satisfy sexual and aggressive tendencies. The interpretation of dreams has come to be one of the aspects of Freud's studies which are most popularized, as he took the importance of dreams far more seriously than many of those who came before him or studied after him, even students of his own science: psychoanalysis.
    Freud recognized that the interpretation of dreams was a very difficult task. Many barriers to clear insights into dreams exist, and many elements of contamination may render the analysis of the dream as being incorrect, or make the dream impossible to analyze at all. One of the biggest problems was remembering the dream in detail. As dreams take place on a totally subconscious level, there is a good chance that aspects of dreams will be muddled or forgotten completely, aspects which may have had a significant impact on the analysis of the dream. He also realized that a the patient might fabricate the missing pieces of the dream, which would render it ingenuine and result in an inaccurate interpretation. Freud stated that the dream must be accepted as total fact if the dream is to be analyzed, which seems contrary to his typical practice of constantly questioning the validity of patients' statements.
    Another significant barrier to interpretation of dreams is the fact that there is often no textbook diagnosis available. This is to say that dreams of comprised of symbolism, and that what an object symbolizes for the individual varies from person to person. Therefore, the analyst must rely on the patient to provide significant amounts of background information in order to determine what objects symbolize. Of course, another obvious problem is that the meaning of the symbol may be repressed as well, or stem from a repressed event, and therefore the patient can offer no explanation of the symbol. Freud himself admitted in his works that he often encountered problems with patients not divulging enough background information, and that aspects of dreams were left uninterpreted.
    Freud still offered some symbols as constants, however, and felt that all people incorporated these symbols and their meanings into dreams.However, the emphasis on sexual imagery is a majority of this text, ranging form symbolism of the genitals and other erogenous zones, to symbolism of sexual acts such as intercourse and orgasm. This is perhaps one of his most assaulted theories, as it not only states that there is a constant (or law) among all individuals that "object a = meaning a," but also that there is such an absurd amount of these sexual symbols that almost every dream could be boiled down to nothing more than an expression of sexuality. Though sexuality was certainly a present theme in nearly all Freud's works, modern analysts do not seem to find such a gross amount of sexual content in dreams.

  • 224. Singapoure

    Факт, что Сингапур известен как " Швейцария Востока " является доказательством к machinelike эффективности, с которой это преследовало успех. Предпринимательский талант никогда не был продающий пункт(точка). Даже в этом случае, что Сингапур делает, это делает исключительно хорошо. Это - бесспорно всемирная наиболее дружественная финансовая сердцевина: качество физической инфраструктуры, способностей телесвязи, и рабочей силы просто несоответствуете. В результате, Город Льва был магнит для инвестиционных банков и коммерческих банков подобно. Это, вместе с возрастающим интересом(процентом) в находящихся на стадии становления рыночных валютах, позволило Сингапуру оспорить Токио как вершина Азии forex центр. И это - уже премьер-министр области(региона) сердцевина производных, как сильный во внебиржевых изделиях, поскольку это находится в обмене - traded. Факт, что поражение(катастрофа) Раскрытий произошло на Simex поле(этаже), сделал немного, чтобы вдавить repution Сингапура или dampen обращение(апелляция). Но Simex - самостоятельно отражение

  • 225. Slang
    Иностранные языки

    The traditional breeding grounds of slang have always been secretive, often disenfranchised social groups and closed institutions with their rituals and codes. This has not changed, although the users in question have. Where once it was the armed forces, the public schools and Oxbridge that in Britain dominated socially and linguistically, now it is the media, the comprehensive playground and the new universities which exercise most influence on popular language: the office, the trading-floor and the computer-room have replaced the workshop, the factory and the street-market as nurturing environments for slang. The street gang and the prison, whence came nearly all the cant that filled the early glossaries, still provide a great volume of slang, as do the subcultures of rave, techno and jungle music, crusties and new agers, skaters and snowboarders. Football metaphors and in-jokes have long since ousted the cricketing imagery of yesteryear. Some special types of slang including pig-latin (infixing)and backslang (reversal, as in yob )seem virtually to have disappeared in the last few years, while the rhyming slang which arose in the early Victorian age continues to flourish in Britain and Australia, replenished by succeeding generations, and the even older parlyaree (a romance/romany/yiddish lingua franca) lingers on in corners of Londons theatre-land and gay community. The effect of the media and more recently of the Internet means that slang in English can no longer be seen as a set of discrete localised dialects, but as a continuum or a bundle of overlapping vocabularies stretching from North America and the Caribbean through Ireland and the UK on to South Africa, South and East Asia and Australasia. Each of these communities has its own peculiarities of speech, but instantaneous communications and the effect of English language movies, TV soaps and music means that there is a core of slang that is common to all of them and into which they can feed. The feeding in still comes mainly from the US, and to a lesser extent Britain and Australia; slang from other areas and the slang of minorities in the larger communities has yet to make much impression on global English, with one significant exception. That is the black slang which buzzes between Brooklyn, Trenchtown, Brixton and Soweto before, in many cases, crossing over to pervade the language of the underworld, teenagers ( - it is the single largest source for current adolescent slang in both the UK and US), the music industry and showbusiness. Within one country previously obscure local slang can become nationally known, whether spread by the bush telegraph that has always linked schools and colleges or by the media: Brookside, Coronation Street, Rab C. Nesbitt and Viz magazine have all helped in disseminating British regionalisms. This mixing-up of national and local means that past assumptions about usage may no longer hold true: the earnest English traveller, having learned that fag and bum mean something else in North America, now finds that in fashionable US campus-speak they can actually mean cigarette and backside. In the meantime the alert American in Britain learns that cigarettes have become tabs or biffs and backside is now often rendered by the Jamaican batty .

  • 226. SOC MPC8640D: архітектура систем, особливості команд, можливість використання
    Компьютеры, программирование
  • 227. Some problems of accentual structure in English
    Иностранные языки

    There are actually as many: degrees of stress in a word as there are syllables. A.C.Gimson, for example, shows the distribution of the degrees of stress in the word examination. The opinions of phoneticians differ as to how many degrees of stress are linguistically relevant in, a word. The British linguists usually distinguish three degrees of stress in the word. The primary stress is the strongest, it is marked by number 1 in the, word examination, the secondary stress is the second strongest marked by 2. All the other degrees are termed weak stress. Unstressed syllables are supposed to have weak stress. The American scholars В.Bloch and G.Trager find
    four contrastive degrees of word stress, namely: loud, reduced loud, medial and weak stresses. Other American linguists also distinguish four degrees of word stress but term them: primary stress, secondary stress, tertiary stress and weak stress. The difference between the secondary and tertiary stresses is very subtle and: seems subjective. The criteria of their difference are very vague. The second pretonic syllables of such words as libe'ration, ,recog'nition are marked by secondary stress in RP, in General American they are said to have a tertiary stress. In GA a tertiary stress also affects the suffixes -оrу, -ary, -ony of nouns and the suffixes -ate, -ize, -y of verbs, which are considered unstressed in RP e.g. 'territory, 'cere,mony, 'dictio,nary, 'demonst,rate, 'orga,nize, 'simpli,fy. British linguists do not always deny the existence of tertiary stress as a tendency to use a tertiary stress On a post-tonic syllable in RP is also traced. However, the British conception of three degrees of word stress is accepted as the teaching norm.

  • 228. Spider-player 2.011
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Если проигрывается несколько треков, чтобы выбрать предыдущий трек нужно нажать соответствующую клавишу (крайняя левая) на главной панели плеера или клавишу Z. Чтобы выбрать следующий трек нужно нажать соответствующую клавишу (крайняя правая) на главной панели плеера или клавишу X. Для того, чтоб остановить воспроизведение трека нужно нажать 2 слева клавишу или V . 3-я слева клавиша служит для начала воспроизведения трека, для этого можно нажать клавишу С. Для того, чтоб приостановить воспроизведение служит 2-я справа клавиша на главной панели или можно нажать «пробел».

  • 229. Sport and recreation in the United States
    Иностранные языки

    The United States has traditionally been a very successful player in international sports events. The Olympic Games are the highlight of international competition. The United States has had the pleasure to host Olympic winter or summer Games on seven occasions. The Centennial Games of the Olympic Movement took place in Atlanta in 1996. The Games were one of the largest in history so far, featuring almost 11.000 competitors. The U.S. Olympic Team has always performed very well and again finished first in the final medal standings in 1996 and in 2000. The next Olympic Winter Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City in 2002. Hosted by Athens the next Olympic Summer Games will take place in Greece in August 2004. Following the national trials the United States Olympic Committee nominates members of the Olympic team. The United States also participates in the Pan-American Games, the second largest sports event following the Olympic Games. They are held every four years preceding the Olympic Games. The Pan Am Games consists of all Summer Olympic sports, plus some non-Olympic sports. American athletes also compete in world championships and other international sports events. Cyclist Lance Armstrong won the prestigious Tour de France in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Pete Sampras and Andre Agassi have counted among the top tennis players in the world for many years. Tiger Woods dominates the international golf scene. Track athletes Michael Johnson, Maurice Greene, and Marion Jones are the fastest sprinters in the world. These and many more American sports heroes rank among the country's best-known celebrities. The modern Olympics also have female competitors from 1900 onward, though women at first participated in considerably fewer events. [14, www.usinfo.pl/aboutusa/ ...].

  • 230. Stendhal

    Cette aspiration а la libertй dйpasse le niveau de la revendication individualiste. Elle est porteuse d'un espoir plus vaste qui rйconcilierait l'homme rйvoltй avec la sociйtй. Mais cet espoir est exclu dans un systиme fondй sur le mensonge et l'obscurantisme. Qu'il s'agisse de l'Italie fйodale, de la France de la Restauration, ou de la monarchie de Juillet, partout c'est l'hypocrisie qui fait loi. Quel est le leitmotiv de l'enseignement dispensй par la Congrйgation sous Charles X : "Ce sont les livres qui ont perdu la France." Quelle est la philosophie en honneur dans les classes dirigeantes а Parme ? "Le marquis del Dongo professait une haine vigoureuse pour les Lumiиres : ce sont les idйes, disait-il, qui ont perdu l'Italie." Quel est le conseil donnй а Fabrice par le bon abbй Blanиs (dйtestй par le marquis "parce qu'il raisonne trop pour un homme de si bas йtage") : "Si tu ne deviens pas hypocrite, lui disait-il, peut-кtre tu seras un homme." Quelle est la rиgle de conduite impйrative dans le noble salon de l'hфtel de La Mole oщ Julien, qui fait ses premiers pas d'homme introduit dans le monde, s'aperзoit que "la moindre idйe vive semblait une grossiйretй" ? Stendhal nous rйsume cette rиgle non йcrite en paraphrasant Beaumarchais : "Pourvu qu'on ne plaisantвt ni de Dieu, ni des prкtres, ni du roi, ni des gens en place, ni des artistes protйgйs par la cour, ni de tout ce qui est йtabli, pourvu qu'on ne dоt de bien ni de Bйranger, ni des journaux de l'opposition, ni de Voltaire, ni de Rousseau, ni de tout ce qui se permet un peu de franc-parler, pourvu surtout qu'on ne parlвt jamais de politique, on pouvait librement raisonner de tout."

  • 231. Structural and semantic peculiarities of the texts of the council of Europe official documents and their translation into ukrainian
    Иностранные языки

    Todays fast-changing world is gradually turning into a single social and economic environment where everything that happens in one country influences the life of people in other countries. In Europe integrative processes are based around the activities of the European Union and the Council of Europe. CoE is an international organization promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation. The main official documents of CoE are conventions. Apart from them, a solid foundation for its activities has been formed by resolutions, charters, decisions, declarations, recommendations and other administrative documents.of CoE official documents belong to the official style of language. The main functions of these documents are advisory and regulatory. They are aimed at imposing obligations and giving recommendations on what measures should be taken by a member state to meet CoE standards and principles. Thats why such documents have logical, official, precise, stereotypical and imperative character. According to their dominant communicative intention, structural and semantic characteristics, texts of CoE documents can be divided into 1) texts of binding documents (conventions, statutes, treaties, agreements); 2) texts of binding documents with the titles resolution and recommendation; 3) texts of informative documents (declarations, statements, press releases). For the purposes of our study, we focused on the texts of the Council of Europe administrative documents: resolutions of the Parliamentary Assembly and recommendations of the Committee of Ministers., on the structural level texts of CoE resolutions and recommendations have an invariable form. They consist of certain structural parts: the title, the preamble, the main part and the concluding part. The preamble is characterized by a precise text organization: it is a complex sentence (with an average length of 214 words), introduced by a subject phrase followed by a number of parallel infinitive or participial constructions, each of which begins with an introductory word and forms a paragraph. It comprises the opening clauses, the central clauses and the closing sentences. The central clauses of the cm recommendation are divided into parts and paragraphs, the text of the PACE resolution consists of paragraphs. Long compound and complex sentences dominate in this part of CoE official documents. The impersonal sentences, infinitive and participial constructions are also widely used there. Apart from that, texts of CoE administrative documents are characterized by the neutralization of meaning of the Present Indefinite and the Present Perfect forms in the predicate of the preamble and the preference to use the Present Indefinite Tense and modal verbs should, would in the central clauses. All this determines the reference of these texts to the denotative future.to their nature and communicative purposes CoE official documents are to be precise and all-inclusive. Their language is impersonal. The word-stock of CoE resolutions and recommendations consist of learned and neutral words which correlate with the terminological and special vocabulary as well as with shortenings, abbreviations, non-assimilated words and word-combinations of Latin and French origin. Precision, clarity and unambiguity are the most essential features of the style of international agreements. That is why the words are used in their logical dictionary meaning, neologisms are not typical, the use of synonyms is limited. As a result a special system of clichés and set expressions is prolific in these texts.to special legal and political status of this international organization and development of integrative processes in Europe, texts of CoE documents have the following peculiarities: 1) their language is milder than the language of international agreements, with models bearing the character of statement and recommendation; 2) verbs of deontic modality shall, will and must are seldom used in their texts, they are replaced by should, would and may; 3) their language is influenced by the EuroEnglish.detailed analysis of the texts of CoE official documents makes it possible to draw the conclusion that communicative purposes of these documents as well as requirements and restrictions on their drafting are of crucial importance to the selection of language means and the ways of their usage.

  • 232. SWOT-анализ для ресторана "Cafе Vintage"

    Главные внешние возможностиГлавные внешние угрозыВнешние возможности и угрозы68. Технологии47. Новые конкуренты, которые могут выйти на рынок36. Потребительский рынок70. Уровень культуры населения (кинопоказ, журналы)59. Покупательная способность целевых потребителей41. Рыночная доляВнутренние силы и слабостиСамые сильные внутренние факторыполе СиВполе СиУ9. Географическое положение(9+47) За счет удачного географического положения, уменьшить количество новых конкурентов которые могут выйти на рынок1. Имидж предприятия(1+41) За счет привлекательного имиджа предприятия, занять устойчивое положение на рынке4. Цены на услуги(4+70) За счет приемлемых цен на услуги, повысить уровень культуры населенияСамые слабые внутренние факторыполе СЛиВполе СЛиУ28. Квалификация исполнителя на предприятии(28+36) За счет потребностей потребительского рынка, улучшить квалификацию исполнителей6. Эффективность рекламы(6+59) За счет высокой покупательной способности целевых потребителей, улучшить эффективность рекламы23. Своевременность выполнения заказов предприятия(23+68) За счет современных технологий улучшить, своевременность выполнения заказов

    1. Стратегии предприятия
    (9+47) За счет удачного географического положения, уменьшить количество новых конкурентов которые могут выйти на рынок(1+41) За счет привлекательного имиджа предприятия, занять устойчивое положение на рынке(4+70) За счет приемлемых цен на услуги, повысить уровень культуры населения(28+36) За счет потребностей потребительского рынка, улучшить квалификацию исполнителей(6+59) За счет высокой покупательной способности целевых потребителей, улучшить эффективность рекламы(23+68) За счет современных технологий улучшить, своевременность выполнения заказов

  • 233. SWOT-анализ компании "Tikkurila"

    Внешние факторы Внутренние факторыСильные стороны (S) 1. Существенный опыт компании в работе на северо- и восточноевропейском рынке 2. Широкий ассортимент продукции 3. Собственная «Школа маляров» 4. Научные центры и лаборатории 5. Высокий уровень информированности потребителей о бренде 6. Положительный образ компании 7. Бюджет формируется на основе детализированных плановСлабые стороны (W) 1. Некорректная работа с персоналом 2. Сложность прогнозирования цен на сырье 3. Трудности с дистрибуцией продукции 4. Отсутствие единого стиля упаковки 5. Недостаточно широкая известность российских брендов компанииВозможности (O) 1. Привлекательность инвестиций в премиум-сегмент, большой потенциал красок для интерьера, высокие показатели среднего сегмента 2. Ослабление конкурентов 3. Забота о здоровье человека и экологии очень приветствуется потребителем 4. Рост некоторых сегментов рынка, являющихся потенциальными клиентами компании 5. ИнновацииСтратегические опции SO: 1. Разработка новых экологичных красок и красок на основе нанотехнологийS4O3O5 2. Инвестиции в прибыльные сегменты с минимальным риском S2S3S6S7O1 3. Увеличение объемов производимой продукции, нацеленной на растущего потенциального клиента S1S5O2O4 Стратегические опции WO: 1. Создание необходимых условий труда для работников W1O3 2. Воспользоваться ростом среднего сегмента рынка и ослаблением конкурентов для популизации брендов W5O1O2O4 3. Оптимизация затрат и эффективности работы компании в кризисный периодW2W3O2Угрозы (T) 1. Клиенты сетевых форматов 2. Застой в сегменте универсальных красок 3. Активная рекламная деятельность конкурентов. Разработка собственных колеровочных систем ключевыми игроками рынка. 4. Строгие законы, касающиеся экологических красок, из-за которых увеличивается себестоимость продукции.Стратегические опции ST: 1. Ориентация на специализированные краски S2T2 2. Проведение агрессивной рекламной кампании для привлечения новых клиентов S5S6T3 3. Разработка наименьших по себестоимости новых продуктовS4T4Стратегические опции WT: 1. Наладить систему дистрибуции с помощью сетевых компаний и розничных точек продажи W3T1 2. Стабилизировать каналы поставки высококачественного сырья, соответствующего всем экологическим нормам W2T4 3. Перенять опыт конкурентов, направить свои силы на усиление маркетингового отделаW4O3

  • 234. SWOT–анализ ООО "Кей"

    «Сила и возможности»

    1. выход на новые рынки, увеличение ассортимента, добавление сопутствующих товаров и услуг позволит высокая квалификация персонала и достаточная известность;
    2. квалификация персонала, контроль качества, неудачное поведение конкурентов дадут возможность успеть за ростом рынка.«Сила и угрозы»
    3. усиление конкуренции, политика государства, инфляция и рост налогов, повлияют на проведение стратегии;
    4. известность добавит преимуществ в конкуренции;
    5. достоверный мониторинг уловит изменения вкусов потребителей.«Слабости и возможности»
    6. неучастие персонала в принятии решений безработицы может привести к саботажу;
    7. снижение уровня цен, размеров налогов и пошлин при сохранении среднего уровня цен позволит получать сверхдоходы.«Слабости и угрозы»
    8. появление новых конкурентов и высокий уровень цен ухудшит конкурентную позицию;
    9. неблагоприятная политика государства может привести к выходу из отрасли;
    10. неучастие персонала в принятии решений не предотвратит сбои в поставках.5. Определение основных направлений развития предприятия
  • 235. SWOT-анализ предприятия (на примере ГДЮСШ №5 "Ледовый дворец" г. Гомеля)

    ПоказателиЕд. изм.ГодИзменение (+;-)2007 год2008 год2009 год2008 г от 2007 г.2009 г от 2008 г.1. Стоимость основных средствтыс. руб3682197145733770583911778911799126574072. Доходы в фактических ценахтыс. руб1109127146550217538353563752883333.Среднесписочная численность работниковчел.133132130-1-24. Фондоотдачатыс. руб0,030,030,030,000,005. Фондоёмкостьтыс. руб33,2031,2133,29-1,992,096.Фондовооруженностьтыс. руб./чел.27685734646844916369611102695В 2009 году по сравнению с 2008 годом произошло увеличение среднегодовой стоимости основных средств на 12657407 тыс. руб. Значение показателя фондоотдачи 0,03 рублей в 2009 году свидетельствует о том, что за данный анализируемый период на рубль среднегодовой стоимости основных средств приходится 0,03 рубля выручки от реализации услуг. Это очень низкий показатель для сферы услуг, но учитывая социальную значимость объекта и его бюджетное финансирование вполне объяснимый.

  • 236. SWOT-анализ предприятия (на примере представительства в г. Уфе иностранной лизинговой компании)

    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формулировании личной стратегии или разработке стратегии бизнес-единицы, компании, корпорации, концерна <http://www.abird.ru/articles/startegy2> необходимо четко представлять возможности и угрозы на каждом из рынков. Необходимо уменьшить влияние слабостей. При анализе сильных и слабых сторон обязательно следует обратить внимание на сложившуюся корпоративную культуру <http://www.oai.ru/corpculture.htm> компании и политику Собственников. Она определяет ограничения и возможности при выборе направлений развития. При анализе рынка и угроз необходимо провести детальный анализ ключевых конкурентов. <http://www.oai.ru/competitor1.htm> Это поможет лучше понять сильные стороны компании и продумать возможные действия конкурентов при выборе новой стратегии или создании нового бизнеса. Любое сегментирование начинается со всестороннего изучения рыночной ситуации, в которой работает компания, и оценки типов возможностей и угроз, с которыми она может столкнуться. Отправной точкой для подобного обзора служит SWOT-анализ, один из самых распространенных видов анализа в маркетинге. Проще говоря, SWOT-анализ позволяет выявить и структурировать сильные и слабые стороны фирмы, а также потенциальные возможности и угрозы. Достигается это за счет того, что менеджеры должны сравнивать внутренние силы и слабости своей компании с возможностями, которые дает им рынок. Исходя из качества соответствия делается вывод о том, в каком направлении организация должна развивать свой бизнес и в конечном итоге определяется распределение ресурсов по сегментам.

  • 237. Swot-анализ рынка мобильной связи ОАО "МегаФон"

    Возможности:Угрозы:1. Благоприятные демографические изменения. Повышение рождаемости. 2. Снижение уровня конкуренции. Позволит уменьшить расходы на рекламу, и не снижать цены на услуги. 3. Увеличение уровня доходов населения. Увеличит сумму расходов населения на услуги сотовой связи. 4. Снижения налогов и сборов. Позволит снизить цены на услуги связи и тем самым стимулировать спрос, увеличить прибыль. 5. Снижение цен на взаимодополняющие товары и услуги. Повлечет за собой спрос на услуги компании. 6. Рост спроса на дополнительные услуги сети. Почти 90% доходов операторы получают голосовые услуги и SMS. И лишь 5-10 % доходов приходится на услуги передачи данных, в случае роста спроса на дополнительные услуги прибыль фирмы увеличится.1. Низкий темп роста рынка (сокращение роста). Повлечет за собой ужесточение конкуренции, снижение цен и. т. п. 2. Большое число конкурентов. 3. Снижение цены у конкурентов. Может вызвать отток абонентов, либо необходимость также снизить цены и соответственно прибыль. 4. Расширения зоны покрытия конкурентами. Повлияет на уровень конкуренции особенно в населенных пунктах, которые до этого не были освоены другими операторами. 5. Выход на рынок новых услуг заменителей. Появление на рынке новых более привлекательных услуг связи. 6. Снижение уровней доходов населения. Уменьшится сумма расходов населения на услуги сотовой связи. 7. Распространение предубеждений у населения против сотовой связи. Научные открытия доказывающие о вреде мобильной связи на здоровье человека, могут повлечь за собой отказ населения пользоваться сотовой связьюСильные стороны:«Сила и возможности»«Сила и угрозы»1. Лидер рынка. Компания ЗАО «МегаФон» определенно является лидером рынка сотовой связи Мурманской области. Абонентская база этого оператора составляет 854 тысячи абонентов (доля рынка 56%). 2. Большая зона покрытия. Данную сильную сторону можно характеризовать по двум параметрам: А). Качество (Абоненты могут пользоваться услугами связи, перемещаясь практически по всей территории Мурманской области т.е. полностью реализована мобильность). Б). Географический. (Зона покрытия охватывает почти все населенные пункты, что увеличивает количество потенциальных потребителей. Во многих населенных пунктах Мурманской области МегаФон является лишь одной доступной сотовой связью и у потребителей просто нет выбора). 3. Высокое качество услуг. Имеется ввиду малая доля сбоев и ошибок сети, а также простоты и перегруженности. 4. Постоянное внедрение новых услуг и технологий. Этот показатель особенно важен для «продвинутых» пользователей нуждающихся в передаче данных и доступа к сети Интернет, где бы они ни находились. Также наблюдается рост спроса у абонентов на информационные и развлекательные услуги. 5. Имидж марки. МегаФон можно назвать в какой то степени престижным оператором. Рекламные ролики позиционируют своих абонентов как успешных и активных людей строящих новую жизнь. Слоган компании - «Будущее зависит от тебя».- Внедрение новых услуг и технологий позволит увеличить прибыль; - достаточная известность будет способствовать выходу на новые рынки; - квалификация персонала, контроль качества, неудачное поведение конкурентов и развитие рекламных технологий дадут возможность успеть за ростом рынка; - четкая стратегия позволит использовать все возможности.- усиление конкуренции, изменение вкусов потребителей повлияют на проведение стратегии; - появление конкурентов вызовет дополнительные расходы финансовых ресурсов; - достоверный мониторинг уловит изменения вкусов потребителей.Слабые стороны:«Слабость и возможность»«Слабость и угрозы»1. Однородность рекламы для всех сегментов потребителей. Вытекает из последней в выше указанном списке сильной стороны. Эмоциональная окрашенность имиджевой информации в рекламе вымещает суть тарифа - информацию оценках и дополнительных условиях. 2. Большие издержки на обслуживания сети. Большая зона покрытие сети ребует большее количество базовых станций, что влечет за собой дополнительные расходы на инсталляцию и техническое обслуживание этих станций. 3. Высокая цена. Цены на голосовые услуги выше чем у конкурентов. 4. Низкая ценность инноваций для потребителя. Неоправданность внедрения новых услуг, неготовность большинства абонентов оценить новые возможности и соответственно нести дополнительные расходы за них. 5. Мало центров обслуживания. Недостаток официальных представительств влечет за собой неудобство абонентов в случае необходимости получения обслуживания которые не могут предоставит дилеры. - недостаток официальных представительств влечет за собой неудобство абонентов в случае необходимости получения обслуживания которые не могут предоставит дилеры; - плохая рекламная политика создаст затруднения при выходе на новые рынки; - неоправданность внедрения новых услуг, неготовность большинства абонентов оценить новые возможности и соответственно нести дополнительные расходы за них.; - снижение уровня цен, размеров налогов и пошлин при сохранении среднего уровня цен позволит получать сверхдоходы.- появление новых конкурентов; - высокий уровень цен ухудшит конкурентную позицию; - неблагоприятная политика государства может привести к выходу из отрасли; - непродуманная рекламная политика не удержит покупателей при изменении их вкусов;

  • 238. Teaching English Grammar


    1. Rogova, G.V., “Methods of teaching English”; М.,1970
    2. Harmer, Jeremy, “the practice English language teaching”; London-New York; Longman,1991
    3. Синявская, Е.В. и др., «Вопросы методики обучения иностранным языком за рубежом.» /сост.: Е.В.Синявская, М.М. Васильева, С.В.Калинина/; М., Просвещение,1978
    4. Handschin, Charles H., “Methods of teaching modern languages.”; N.Y.,World Book Co.,1926
    5. Bennett, William Arthur., ”Aspects of Language and language teaching.”; London-New York., Cambridge univ. press, 1968
    6. Lado Robert and Fries Charles C., “English pattern practices. Establishing the patterns as habits.”; The univ. of Michigan press, 1970
    7. F.L Billows., “The Techniques of Language Teaching.”; Longman, 1962
    8. Fries, Charles Carpenter., “Teaching and Learning English as a foreign language.”; The univ. of Michigan press, 1964
    9. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rogers., “ Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.”; Cambridge univ. press, 1986
    10. Elaine Tarone and George Yule., “Focus on Language Learner.”; Oxford univ., 1991
    11. Michael H. Long, Jack C. Richards., “Methology in Tesol: A book of Readings.”; USA., 1987
    12. Pooley, Robert., “teaching English grammar.”; N.Y., Appleton Century Crofts, 1957
    13. F.Genesee., “Educating second language children: the whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community.” Cambridge, 1994
    14. Griffith,S. “Teaching English Abroad”; Oxford,1991
    15. Rivers, Wilga M., “Speaking in many tongues: Essays in foreign-language teaching.”; 3rd ed., Cambridge, 1983
    16. Rixon, Shelagh., “How to use games in language teaching.”; London, The Macmillan press,1981
    17. Applegate, Maurel., “Easy in English. An imaginative approach to the teaching of language arts.”; N.Y.,1960
    18. Geoffrey Broughton, Christopher Brumfit, Roger Flavel, “Teaching English as a foreign language.”; London, 1981
    19. Swan M., Smith B., “Learner English. A teachers guide to interference and other problems.”; Cambridge, 1987
    20. Brown C. And Jule., “Teaching the spoken language.”; Cambridge, 1983
    21. www.teachingenglish.org.uk
    22. www.englishclub.narod.ru
  • 239. Teaching of English as an international language
    Иностранные языки

    While demographic statistics provide the evidence for redefining English as an International language, broad demographic surveys do not provide clear information about competence. The status of English as a "Language of International Communication" is no longer in dispute and rarely attracts the kind of critical scrutiny that an emerging field of inquiry requires. Important conceptualizations such as Kachru's (1985) three concentric circles, ('inner', where English is used as a first language, 'outer', where it is used as a second official language and 'expanding', where it is still classified as a foreign language) also require further scrutiny in relation to competence. Modiano (1999), for example, importantly suggests that Kachru's circles appear to predetermine competence according to nationality and argues that competence should be determined independently of origin. The key factor is the increase of the relative use of English across non-native settings compared to its use within native settings or between native and non-native settings.(1997, p.22) points out that "the speed with which a global language scenario has arisen is truly remarkable". The so-called "expanding circle" of foreign language speakers was said to include more than 750 million EFL speakers in 1997, compared to 375 million first-language speakers and 375 million second language speakers. A critical point of no return has been reached in that the number of English users is developing at a faster rate as a language of international communication than as a language of intra-national communication. The extent to which intra-cultural use has been surpassed by intercultural use is difficult to estimate exactly (See Crystal, 2004, pp.7-10, 1997, pp.53-63 and Graddol, 1999, pp.58-68) on the methods and difficulties of interpreting global statistics. A more recent IATEFL publication even suggests that communication between non-native speakers now represents 80% of global English use. (Finster, in Pulverness 2004, p.9).Crystal (1997) and Graddol (1999) have often been cited on the global dimensions of English, both insist that available statistics represent no more than estimates and that figures alone do not provide a full or clear picture. Melchers and Shaw (2003, pp.8-9) point out that "the EFL category is particularly difficult to pinpoint: it really depends on what level of proficiency a person should have to qualify as a speaker of English".is nonetheless important to have some picture of the dimensions in terms of quantity.U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Data Base http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbnew.html estimated the world population at around six billion. (5,844, 270,952 in 1997, to match Crystal's English language estimates, 6,445,576,554 in the year 2005.) They estimate growth to around nine billion by the year 2050. Crystal (1997, p. 60) estimates that "well over a third" of the world population (2,025 million in 1997) were "routinely exposed to English". Crystal warns that "only a proportion of these people actually have some command of English." Identifying only two broad categories, "native or native-like command" and "reasonable competence", he advises caution in estimating 'competence'.we are cautious by temperament, we will add these statistics together by choosing the lowest estimates in each category: in this way we shall end up with a grand total of 670 million people with a native or native-like command of English. If we go to the opposite extreme, and use a criterion of 'reasonable competence' rather than 'native-like fluency', we shall end up with a grand total of 1,800 million. A 'middle-of-the-road' estimate would be 1,200 - 1,500 million …" (Crystal 1997, p. 61)'middle-of-the road' estimate, means that about 20-25% of the world's population possess 'reasonable competence'. However, 'competence' here is only a vague, sub-theoretical construct with no clear definition. Crystal, for example, assumes "a reasonable level of attainment" (1997, p.55) in countries where English has official status and where it is taught in schools, for all those who have completed secondary or further education and are over the age of 25. Crystal's more recent publications do not radically change these figures. Crystal (2003, p.9) for example, estimates that about a quarter of the world's population (1,400 million, including "600 million or so who use it as a foreign language") have at least 'reasonable' competence in conversation, adding that "no other language is used so extensively - either numerically, or with such geographical reach".outcome of both Crystal and Graddol's discussions is that Kachru's three-way classification of inner circle, outer circle and expanding circle countries can only be a starting point in considerations of competence. Although linguists tend to favour acceptance of the notion of competence in relation to varieties of English, of world "Englishes" that extend far beyond an 'inner circle', competence cannot easily be related to linguistic demographics. Within the "outer" circle, there are a wide variety of situations, in which competence is difficult to estimate. Even the amount of English used within multilingual settings is difficult to pin down. In India, for example, a Malayalem speaker from the south may not speak the official Hindi tongue so may use English as a lingua franca with speakers of one of the other sixteen Indian languages. A colonial past may provide hostility towards the language of the former colonialists, but pragmatism often prevails, with English being the most useful tool as a kind of lingua franca (see Gupta, 2005). There are huge variations in the role of English and the number of competent speakers between the fifty or so countries that are classified for convenience in this category.significant for this discussion is the third group of the so-called "expanding circle" of countries, in which English is a foreign language, but with a difference. In many such countries, it is unrealistic to consider that international communication can be conducted only in the national language. Some of these countries have come to accept just one foreign language, English, as the most convenient means of international communication. Crystal (1997, p. 56) points out that Kachru's three concentric circles, while representing a breakthrough in our conception of global English use, can mask some important realities if the notion of competence is invoked. Northern European countries, such as the Netherlands and Scandinavian countries are classified as expanding circle countries. "There is much more use of English nowadays in some countries of the expanding circle, where it is 'only' a foreign language …, than in some of the countries where it has traditionally held a special place". Nunan (in Robertson et. al. 2005, p. 8) suggests that in an Asian context too, it makes more sense to refer simply to "learning English" than to EFL or ESL.(1997, p.55) was careful to point out the dangers of "hidden assumptions" and underlines the difficulty of drawing firm conclusions from the diverse statistical estimates available. How do compilers of linguistic demographics consider the notion of "competence"? For outer circle countries where English has an official status, we have noted that Crystal considers that those who have completed secondary education will have "a reasonable level of attainment". While useful as a starting point for global estimates, it is still necessary to underline the fact that competence is not rigorously defined in estimates of global English use. Crystal repeatedly affirms (see for example p. 61) the difficulty of acquiring accurate estimates. Careful use of modality is of the essence: "Even a small percentage increase in the number of speakers thought to have a reasonable (rather than a fluent) command of English would considerably expand the L2 grand total. A figure of 350 million is in fact widely cited as a likely total for this category". As Crystal (1997, p.5) points out, "why a language becomes a global language has little to do with the number of people who speak it. It is much more to do with who those speakers are." If all English speakers were located on one continent or in only one geographical area for example, this would reduce the importance of the figures. Only French and English are spoken as native languages on five continents.stated above, the main factor in according a 'global' status to English is also highly significant for the notion of competence. This is the fact that non-native use of English appears to be rivalling if not overtaking native use in terms of quantity. Again the statistical evidence needs to be considered with caution. It is not possible to estimate accurately the quantity of English spoken by any particular group of speakers or between any particular groups. Another factor not taken into account is the proportion of non-native English that speakers are routinely exposed to in terms of listening and reading. Here we must consider films, television, books, newspapers and other media sources.is made of the number of non-natives using English surpassing the number of native users, but this masks another reality which is rarely expressed because, while it could be seen as a professional duty to expose local realities as a basis for meaningful curriculum development, it is not considered politically correct to do so. Many nationals of many expanding circle countries still do not possess competence or confidence to communicate in English and are unlikely ever to do so. For the majority, global communication is a potential that is never realized.is little that can be done to confront global estimates critically without resorting to anecdotal local experience. However inadequate anecdotal or incomplete local experiential 'evidence' might be, it does help put global figures in perspective. While 'completing high school' is not a criterion for even basic estimates of competence in expanding circle countries, we might expect that a large proportion of those high school students who gain acceptance to university would all have "reasonable" competence in economically developed countries such as Japan. However, a placement test at the author's own university given to all new entrants to assess their ability to take part in a basic conversation (see Baker's (2000, p.78) category of BICS, cited above) indicates that around 30% of such students can demonstrate no ability to participate in a simple small-group conversation on everyday topics and only around 25% possess usable competence at lower intermediate level or above.wider scale investigation is needed and we can in no way generalize such findings to the population of the world's expanding circle countries, it is hard to imagine that the figures are unique to one situation to the extent that all other Japanese high school graduates possess basic communication ability in English.implications of English as an International Language are extremely varied and have only just started to be seriously considered un-polemically. The emerging reality is that English 'no longer belongs to its natives'. It is not so much that natives are suddenly being dispossessed, but more that non-natives are increasingly becoming 'possessed'. (See Phan Le Han, 2005 for a fuller discussion.) No language per se belongs exclusively to anyone unless political restrictions are imposed on who may use it. A language is part of the identity of anyone who is able to use it and competence also reflects the degree to which we "possess" a language. It still belongs in an essential way to its natives and they belong to it, to the extent that it is their main and inescapable means of communication and a deep and basic part of their cultural identity. However, as Graddol (1999, p. 68) emphasizes, "native" use of English is declining statistically and norms of use can no longer be codified as independent mono-cultural or mono-linguistic units.diversity inevitably leads towards a consideration of what constitutes a teachable standard. McArthur (in an interwork reported in Graddol et al., 1999, p.4) underlines the dilemma stating, "we all use it in different ways; we all approximate to something which isn't there, but which we idealise about, negotiate and compromise." McArthur (pp. 4-5) identifies East Asia as an example of an area where "the entire middle class seems to want English for their children as an international vehicle which they can use with the rest of the world - it's not a British or an American thing." Crystal (p.137) puts forward the notion of a "World Standard Spoken English (WSSE)" which is still so much in "its infancy", conceding that it is impossible to predict how or even if a standard will develop or whether fragmentation will become the norm. McArthur suggests that a move towards "hybridisation" represents a normal process of world languages. For McArthur hybridisation is "infinitely varied" but "the idea of hybrids is stable" in the sense that it is a normal and verifiable phenomenon.(p.8) implies that native norms may still dominate but they will also internationalize and blend with the varieties of new Englishes. Crystal argues (p.130) that no "regional social movement, such as the purist societies which try to prevent language change or restore a past period of imagined linguistic excellence, can influence the global outcome." Crystal (p. 137) suggests that competence needs to be considered on different levels. Local varieties "full of casual pronunciation, colloquial grammar and local turn of phrase", which are opposed to formal varieties for wider intelligibility, "full of careful pronunciation, conventional grammar, and standard vocabulary". He refers (p. 135) to a continuing presence of standard written English, in the form of newspapers, textbooks, and other printed materials," suggesting that these show "very little variation in the different English-speaking countries".avoid polemics between native and non-native perspectives, Melchers and Shaw (2003, p.39) suggest that we need to consider a user's "scope of proficiency" as an alternative to inclusive or exclusive notions such as "native" or "non-native". (See also Modiano, 1999.) They distinguish four levels. Internationally Effective Able to use communication strategies and a linguistic variety that is comprehensible to interlocutors from a wide range of national and cultural backgroundseffectiveWhat a South African would need to communicate with other South AfricansProficiencyThe proficiency someone needs to deal with people in his or her arealevel of the language learner who knows some English but cannot communicate in itcategories are an invaluable first step in that they allow a speaker of any background access to the highest level. However, they would need considerable refining to be made operational for teachers interested in assessing competence.

  • 240. Teaching reading at an advanced level

    Successful reading depends on the interaction of reading strategies for processing the text, background knowledge and linguistic competence (Wallace 1992:57). Silent reading may be subcategorized into intensive and extensive reading.reading is usually a classroom-oriented activity in which students focus on the linguistic or semantic details of a passage. Intensive reading calls students attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details, for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implication, rhetorical relationships. Intensive reading practised in class needs to be complemented by extensive reading in or out of class. It is important to be sure that students have ample time for extensive reading. Only then students are given the opportunity to operate strategies like prediction or guessing word meaning and to develop the ability to follow the lines of argument. It is carried out to achieve a general understanding of a text. All pleasure reading is extensive. Technical, scientific, and professional reading can also be extensive.idea that some words in the text may be skipped or ignored will certainly seem strange to students accustomed to plodding word by word; but the techniques of skimming and scanning require this [19, p.34]. These terms are sometimes used indiscriminatly, but we will distinguish them below.consists of quickly running ones eyes across the whole text to get the gist. It gives the learners the advantage of being able to predict the purpose of the passage, the main topic or message, and possibly some of developing or supporting ideas. This gives them a head start as they embark on more focused reading.- is quickly searching for some particular piece or pieces of information in a text. Scanning exercises may ask students to look for names or dates, to find the difinition of some concept. The purpose of scanning is to extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text. Skimming and scanning are useful skills. They do not remove the need for careful reading, but they enable a reader to select the texts, or the portions of the text, that are worth spending time on.strategy of semantic mapping or grouping the ideas into meaningful cluster, helps the reader to provide some order to the chaos. Making such semantis maps can be done individually, but they make for the productive group work technique as students collectively induce order and hierarchy to the passage [1, p.76].strategy is very broad on meaning. The students may guess the meaning of a word, the grammatical or discourse relationships, cultural references. Students should utilize all their skills and put forth as much efforts as possible to be on target with their hypothesis (Brown 1994:295). The key to the successful guessing is to make it reasonably accurate. We can help them to become accurate guessers by encouraging them them to use effective comprehension strategies in which they fill gaps in their competence by intelligent attempts to use whatever clues are available to them. Language based clues included word analysis, word associations, and textual structure.