Курсовой проект

  • 161. Interpolation, approximation and differential equations solvers
    Иностранные языки


    1. J. C. Butcher, Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations, ISBN 0471967580
    2. George E. Forsythe, Michael A. Malcolm, and Cleve B. Moler. Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977. (See Chapter 6.)
    3. Ernst Hairer, Syvert Paul Nørsett, and Gerhard Wanner. Solving ordinary differential equations I: Nonstiff problems, second edition. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1993. ISBN 3-540-56670-8.
    4. William H. Press, Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes in C. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988. (See Sections 16.1 and 16.2.)
    5. Kendall E. Atkinson. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons - 1989
    6. F. Cellier, E. Kofman. Continuous System Simulation. Springer Verlag, 2006. ISBN 0-387-26102-8.
    7. Gaussian Quadrature Rule of Integration - Notes, PPT, Matlab, Mathematica, Maple, Mathcad at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute
    8. Burden, Richard L.; J. Douglas Faires (2000). Numerical Analysis (7th Ed. ed.). Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-38216-9.
  • 162. Intonation system of English in the process of historical development
    Иностранные языки

    has a special branch, intonology, whose domain is the larger units of connected speech: intonation groups, phrases and even phonetic passages or blocks of discourse.descriptions of intonation show that phonological facts of intonation system are much more open to question than in the field of segmental phonology. Descriptions differ according to the kind of meaning they regard intonation is carrying and also according to the significance they attach to different parts of the tone-unit. J. D. O'Connor and G. F. Arnold assert that a major function of intonation is to express the speaker's attitude to the situation he/she is placed in, and they attach these meanings not to pre-head, head and nucleus separately, but to each of ten 'tone-unit types' *as they combine with each of four sentence types, statement, question, command and exclamation.. Halliday supposes that English intonation contrasts are grammatical. He argues first that there is a neutral or unmarked tone choice and then explains all other choices as meaningful by contrast. Thus if one takes the statement I don't know the suggested intonational meanings are: Low Fall - neutral. Low Rise - non-committal, High Rise - contradictory, Fall-Rise - with reservation, Rise-Fall - with commitment. Unlike J. D. O'Connor and G. F. Arnold, M. Halliday attributes separate significance to the prе-nuclear choices, again taking one choice as neutral and the other (s) as meaningful by contrast.. Crystal presents an approach based on the work "that any explanation of intonational meaning cannot be arrived at by seeing the issues solely in either grammatical or attitudinal terms". He ignores the significance of pre-head and head choices and deals only with terminal tones.is still impossible to classify, in any practical analysis of intonation, all the fine shades of feeling and attitude which can be conveyed by slight changes in pitch, by lengthening or shortening tones, by increasing or decreasing the loudness of the voice, by changing its quality, and in various other ways. On the other hand it is quite possible to make a broad classification of intonation patterns which are so different in their nature that they materially: change the meaning of the utterance and to make different pitches and degrees of loudness in each of them. Such an analysis resembles the phonetic analysis of sounds of a language whereby phoneticians establish the number of significant sounds it uses. [4,85]distinctive function of intonation is realized in the opposition of the same word sequences which differ in certain parameters of the intonation pattern. Intonation patterns make their distinctive contribution at intonation group, phrase and text levels. Thus in the phrases:Mary, comes let me à know at once (a few people are expected to come but it is Mary who interests the speaker)- >Mary comes let me à know at once (no one else but Mary is expected to come) the intonation patterns of the first intonation groups are opposed. In the opposition I enjoyed it - I enjoyed it the pitch pattern operates over the whole phrase adding in the second phrase the notion that the speaker has reservations (implying a continuation something like 'but it could have been a lot better').section of the intonation pattern, any of its three constituents can perform the distinctive function thus being phonological units. These units form a complex system of intonemes, tonemes, accentemes, chronemes, etc. These phonological units like phonemes consist of a number of variants. The terminal tonemes, for instance, consist of a number of allotones, which are mutually non-distinctive. The principal allotone is realized in the nucleus alone. The subsidiary allotones are realized not only in the nucleus, but also in the pre-head and in the tail, if there are any, cf.:. No, Tom. Oh, no, Mary.most powerful phonological unit is the terminal tone. The opposition of terminal tones distinguishes different types of sentence. The same sequence of words may be interpreted as a different syntactical type, i. e. a statement or a question, a question or an exclamation being pronounced with different terminal tones, e. g.:saw it (statement) - Tom saw it? (general question)'t you enjoy it? (general question) - Didn't you enjoy it? (exclamation)you be quiet? (request) - Will you be quiet? (command).number of terminal tones indicates the number of intonation groups. Sometimes the number of intonation groups may be important for meaning. For example, the sentence My sister, who lives in the South, has just arrived may mean two different things. In oral speech it is marked by using two or three intonation groups. If the meaning is: 'my only sister who happens to live in the South', then the division would be into three intonation groups: My sister, who lives in the South, has just arrived. On the other hand, if the meaning is 'that one of my two sisters, who lives in the South', the division is into two intonation groups.with the increase of loudness terminal tones serve to single out the semantic centre of the utterance. By semantic centre we mean the information centre which may simultaneously concentrate the expression of attitudes and feelings. The words in an utterance do not necessarily all contribute an equal amount of information, some are more important to the meaning than others. This largely depends on the context or situation in which the intonation group or a phrase is said. Some words are predisposed by their function in the language to be stressed. In English lexical (content) words are generally accented while grammatical (form) words are more likely to be unaccented although words belonging to both of these groups may be unaccented or accented if the meaning requires it.us consider the sentence It was an unusually rainy day. As the beginning of, say, a story told on the radio the last three words would be particularly important, they form the semantic centre with the nucleus on the word day. The first three words play a minor part. The listener would get a pretty clear picture of the story's setting if the first three words were not heard and the last three were heard clearly. If the last three words which form the semantic centre were lost there would be virtually no information gained at all. [5,48]same sentences may be said in response to the question What sort of day was it? In this case the word day in the reply would lose some of its force because the questioner already possesses the information that it might otherwise have given him. In this situation there are only two important words - unusually rainy - and they would be sufficient as a complete answer to the question. The nucleus will be on the word rainy. Going further still, in reply to the question Did it rain yesterday? the single word unusually would bear the major part of the information, would be, in this sense, more important than all the others and consequently would be the nucleus of the intonation pattern.words may be also important to the meaning if the context makes them so. The word was, for instance, has had little value in the previous examples, but if the sentences were said as a contradiction in the reply to It wasn 't a rainy day yesterday, was it?, then was would be the most important word of all and indeed, the reply might simply be It was, omitting the following words as no longer worth saying. In this phrase the word was is the nucleus of the semantic centre.variations of the accentuation achieved by shifting the position of the terminal tone serve a striking example of how the opposition of the distribution of terminal tones is fulfilling the distinctive function.the phrase I don't want you to read anything has the low-falling terminal tone on the word anything, it means that for this or other reason the person should avoid reading. If the same word sequence is pronounced with the falling-rising tone on the same word, the phrase means that the person must have a careful choice in reading.should be pointed out here that the most important role of the opposition of terminal tones is that of differentiating the attitudes and emotions expressed by the speaker. The speaker must be particularly careful about the attitudes and emotions he expresses since the hearer is frequently more interested in the speaker's attitude or feeling than in his words - that is whether he speaks nicely or nastily. For instance, the special question Why? may be pronounced with the low falling tone sounding rather detached, sometimes even hostile. When pronounced with the low-rising tone it is sympathetic, friendly, interested. [6,48]the other sections of the intonation pattern differentiate only attitudinal or emotional meaning, e. g.: being pronounced with the high рге-head, Hello sounds more friendly than when pronounced with the low pre-head, cf.:

  • 163. Intranet–технологии
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Развивающая функция связана с формированием общих мыслительных способностей на материале разных предметов с использованием цифровых технологий. Функции внутренней информационной сети школы не ограничиваются формальной передачей данных и их обработкой. Очень важно понимать, что «Intranet» является содержательной моделью реализуемой в школе педагогической технологии. Само устройство сети, правила ее использования, принципы организации информационных массивов являются наглядной моделью того типа мышления, которое школа хочет сформировать у учащихся (см. ниже - уровни «Intranet»). Специфика процессов мышления и коммуникации, происходящих в сети, определяется ее архитектурой, которая выступает, таким образом, в качестве инструмента образования и формирования мышления пользователей. Например, использование при навигации по информационным массивам гиперссылок способствует формированию надпредметного измерения мышления учащихся, оперирование с html-документами предполагает становление общей способности к моделированию. Объемность архитектуры сети (наличие в ней не только горизонтальных информационных связей, но и вертикальных - «уровень информации - уровень областей взаимодействия - метапредметный уровень») создает благоприятные условия для развития мышления ее пользователей, формирует эффективные и культуросообразные способы организации собственной мыслительной деятельности - учения, исследования, проблематизации и т.д.

  • 164. IP-телефония и видеосвязь
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Задержка имеет фиксированную и переменную составляющие. Фиксированная задержка определяется расстоянием, тогда как переменная зависит от меняющихся сетевых условий. Общая задержка складывается из различных компонентов. Рассмотрим наиболее значимые из них:

    1. Сетевая задержка вносится узловыми элементами сети VoIP. Для ее минимизации необходимо сократить число узлов сети на пути пакетов между абонентами. Некоторые провайдеры способны обеспечить задержки на своих сетях, не превышающие определенный уровень. Кроме того, для уменьшения сетевой задержки речевому трафику задают высший приоритет по отношению к нечувствительному к задержкам потоку данных.
    2. Задержка кодека вносится каждым алгоритмом сжатия. Например, G.723 добавляет фиксированную задержку в 30 мс. У других кодеков встроенная задержка может быть меньше, но при этом возможно снижение качества речи или увеличение требуемой полосы пропускания.
    3. Буфер компенсации джиттера также вносит свою задержку. Джиттером называют отклонения от средней задержки следования пакетов. Задержка может быть различной для каждого пакета, в результате чего, отправленные через равный интервал, они прибывают неравномерно, а то и не в исходной последовательности. Так как алгоритм декомпрессии требует фиксированного интервала между поступлением пакетов, в шлюзе необходим буфер компенсации джиттера. Он задерживает поступающие пакеты, чтобы передавать их устройству декомпрессии с заданным интервалом. Кроме того, он также фиксирует любые ошибки, контролируя номер последовательности в полях сообщений протокола RTP. Однако буфер компенсации зачастую вносит весьма значимую задержку. Его размер задают таким, чтобы буферизовать целое количество пакетов с учетом ожидаемого значения джиттера. Как правило, для каждого направления задержка буфера-составляет 80 мс.
  • 165. Java: Русские буквы и не только…
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Если кодировка указана не была, то по умолчанию предполагается кодировка UTF-8. На XML-парсер возложена обязанность корректно прочитать заголовок и использовать соответствующую кодировку для получения Unicode-символов. Разные парсеры могут поддерживать разные наборы кодировок, но UTF-8 обязаны поддерживать все. Здесь также, как и в случае с JavaMail наименования кодировок, описанные в стандарте XML могут расходится с наименованиями, принятыми в Java. Разные парсеры по разному выходят из положения. Crimson просто использует некоторое кол-во дополнительных синонимов, а в остальном полагается на синонимы кодировок из Java. Xerces же по умолчанию использует внутреннюю таблицу (класс org.apache.xerces.readers.MIME2Java), а если не находит там кодировку, то бросает исключение о неподдерживаемой кодировке. В Xerces версии 1.4.0 русских кодировок там всего две - KOI8-R и ISO-8859-5. Однако это поведение по умолчанию можно изменить при помощи разрешения у парсера специального feature "http://apache.org/xml/features/allow-java-encodings". Если этот feature разрешён (при помощи метода setFeature()), то парсер после поиска в таблице будет пытаться использовать стандартный Java-вский механизм и соответственно Java-вский набор кодировок. В случае использования интерфейса SAX сделать это можно таким, например, образом (при использовании JAXP):

  • 166. Java: Средства построения отчётов для Java-приложений
    Компьютеры, программирование

    К сожалению, пришлось иметь дело только с бета-версией данного продукта, которую не удалось заставить работать. Однако бета-версия продукта Style Report Lite 3.0 заслуживает самого пристального внимания. Из всех протестированных средств построения отчётов, её в большей степени удалось русифицировать. Управление отчётом на уровне API позволяет добиться большоё гибкости и комбинировать самые разнообразные данные приложения. Поддерживаются шрифты, изображения, богатый набор стилей таблиц. Однако расплатой за это является необходимость программирования отчётов. Дизайнер отчётов больше ориентирован на построение разметки страницы, чем на описания секций отчета, что затрудняет построение отчетов с группировками. Такая обработка выносится на уровень программы, и элементы отчёта предполагается создавать из программы без помощи дизайнера. Версии Style Report DataSource Edition является гораздо более удобным средством для построения отчётов по базам данных, однако посмотреть её функциональность не удалось. В целом этот продукт является серьёзным претендентом на встраивание в приложения. Хотя требует достаточно высокой квалификации для создания отчета. К недостаткам, можно также отнести невозможность запустить выполнения отчета во фрейме приложения. Если нужно составить несколько встроенных в приложение отчётов StyleReport прекрасно для этого подойдёт.

  • 167. Java-гра "Тетріс"
    Компьютеры, программирование
  • 168. Legal system
    Иностранные языки

    Also it is no trifling education that is needed for successful competition in this profession. The ramifications of the law are infinite, and the successful lawyer must be versed in all subjects. The law is not a mere conglomeration of decisions and statutes; otherwise "Pretty Poll" might pose as an able advocate. A mind unadapted to investigation, unable to see the reasons for legal decisions, is as unreliable at the bar as is a color-blind person in the employ of a signal corps. The woman lawyer who demands an indemnity against failure must offer as collateral security not only the ordinary school education, but also a knowledge of the world and an acquaintance with that most abstruse of all philosophieshuman nature. She must needs cultivate all the common sense and tact with which nature has endowed her, that she may adjust herself to all conditions. She must possess courage to assert her position and maintain her place in the presence of braggadocio and aggressiveness, with patience, firmness, order and absolute good nature; a combativeness which fears no Rubicon; a retentiveness of memory which classifies and keeps on file minutest details; a self-reliance which is the sin qua non of success; a tenacity of purpose and stubbornness of perseverance which gains ground, not by leaps, but by closely contested hair breadths; a fertility of resource which can meet the "variety and instantaneousness" of all occasions; an originality and clearness of intellect like that of Portia, prompt to recognize the value of a single drop of blood; a critical acumen to understand and discriminate between the subtle technicalities of law and an aptness to judge rightly of the interpretation of principles.

  • 169. Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts
    Иностранные языки

    Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production, in another language, of an equivalent text that communicates the same message. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, their idioms and the like. Consequently, as has been recognized at least since the time of the translator Martin Luther, one translates best into the language that one knows best. Traditionally translation has been a human activity, though attempts have been made to computerize or otherwise automate the translation of natural-language texts (machine translation) or to use computers as an aid to translation (computer-assisted translation). [1; 48] Perhaps the most common misconception about translation is that there exists a simple “word-for-word” relation between any two languages, and that translation is therefore a straightforward and mechanical process. On the contrary, historical differences between languages often dictate differences of expression. Hence, source and target texts may differ significantly in length. In addition, translation is always fraught with uncertainties as well as the potential for inadvertent “spilling over” of idioms and usages from one language into the other, producing linguistic hybrids, for example, "Franglais" (French-English), "Spanglish" (Spanish-English) and "Poglish" (Polish-English). [2; 31]

  • 170. Machine Translation
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Different electronic devices have become common nowadays. Taking information from foreign languages with the help of different electronic devices represents quite a new approach in modern translation practice. Due to the fundamental research in the systems of algorithms and in the establishment of lexical equivalence in different strata of lexicon, machine translation has made considerable progress in recent years. Nevertheless, its usage remains restricted in scientific, technological, lexicographic realms. That is because machine translation can be performed only on the basis of programmes worked out by linguistically trained operators. Besides, the process of preparing programmes for any matter is inseparably connected with great difficulties and takes much time, whereas the quality of translation is far from being satisfactory even at the lexical level, which have direct equivalent lexemes in the target language. Considerably greater difficulties, which are insurmountable for machine translation programs, present morphological elements like prefixes, suffixes, endings, etc. Syntactic units (word combinations, sentences) with various means of connection between their components are also great obstacles for machine translation. Moreover, modern electronic devices which perform translation do not possess the necessary lexical, grammatical and stylistic memory to provide the required standard of correct literary translation. Hence, the frequent violations of syntactic agreement and government between the parts of the sentence in machine translated texts. Very often the machine translation program can not select in its memory the correct order of words in word-combinations and sentences in the target language. And as a result of it, any machine translation requires a thorough proof reading and editing and this takes no less time and efforts and may be as tiresome as the usual hand-made translation of the passage.

  • 171. Marketing in tourism
    Иностранные языки

    Consumer involvement is the perceived personal importance and interest consumers attach to the acquisition, consumption, and disposition of a good, service, or an idea. As their involvement increases, consumers have a greater motivation to attend to, comprehend, and elaborate on information pertaining to the purchase. (Mowen & Minor, 1998, p.64). In the case of low involvement, consumer works a purchase as unimportant and regards the outcome of his or her decision as inconsequential. Because the purchase carries a minimal degree of personal relevance or identification, the individual feels there is little or nothing to be gained from attending to the details of a purchase. (Hanna & Wozniak, 2001, p.290). High involvement purchases are those that are important to the consumer either from a financial, social, or psychological point of works. The purchase is characterized by personal relevance and identification with the outcome. (Hanna & Wozniak, 2001, p.291). An individual anticipates a potentially significant gain from expending time and effort in comparison-shopping before buying. For example, a girl purchasing an expensive ball dress has a high degree of personal identification. Therefore, a high level of felt involvement can increase an individuals willingness to search for, process, and transmit information about a purchase.

  • 172. Marketing Research Project for a Russian Company
    Иностранные языки


    1. We revealed a negative correlation between income per head and consumption of pastas. The biggest part of buyers were representatives of the lower class or the lower middles (31% and 33% respectively). 27% were higher middles, and 16% belonged to the high class. Since only pasta buyers were asked, the average consumption of pasta is lower than our research show, but nevertheless we can get an idea of structure of consumption of pastas. According to our calculations, the consumption of pastas per head is:
    2. Lower class- 0.6 kg/month
    3. Lower middles 0.55 kg/month
    4. Higher middles 0.32 kg/month
    5. High class - 0.13 kg/month
    6. Only 12% of the respondents claimed they consume more than 1.3 kg of pastas a month per head. We can treat the lower class and the lower middles as the heavy half and the higher middles and the high class as the light half.
    7. 36 % of respondents claimed they prefer corns to other pastas, 22%like spirals, 26% like shells, 7% prefer vermicelli, and 2% usually buy spaghetti.
    8. 46% of buyers claimed the price to be the most important factor which influenced their purchase decision, for 37% of consumers the quality is the priority. 5% think they should buy only automatically packed pastas, and 3% claimed some specific features as taste (we should assume that good taste is a part of quality and that is why this group is small). There were also 4% of loyals who are driven by a familiar brand name while making their decision.
    9. Usually people plan to purchase pastas in advance (87%). In spite of this, the decision about the particular sort and brand name (if there is any) is usually impulse (63%).
    10. The crisis dramatically affected the market of pastas. We talked to the salesmen of pastas to shed light on this question. All of the salesmen we talked to said that before the crisis people preferred imported pastas to domestic ones. Now domestic pastas of low quality (37%) and middle quality (45%) are bought (according to our survey, not to salesmen). We expected changes to happen, but we did not expect them to be so huge, though LBS Corporations manufacture of pastas very notably increased since before August, 17th.
    11. The most desirable size of package is 1kg (57%), then goes a 500g package (38%).
    12. People almost do not purchase domestic automatically packed pastas. Their price is almost equal to the price of imported pastas.
    13. 72% of respondents said that they would prefer automatically packed pasta to manually packed one. 35% would do it because they are afraid of being given light weight, 19% do not like unawareness about the manufacturer, and 11% think the quality is poor.
      In spite of this, people are not willing to pay much for packaging, though 82% of them agree that they would prefer automatically packed pasta to manually packed one. Only 9% were willing to pay more than 1 ruble for a 500g package, 24 % would pay from 0.6 to 1 ruble for a 500g package, 28% would pay about 0.5 ruble, and 10% would pay nothing at all (some even said they would prefer manually packed pastas because they can use the packaging).
    14. People would not like to buy pastas in cardboard or other non-glassy packaging. Actually all of the respondents said they need to look at the product to estimate its quality.
    15. Though people agree that imported pastas tend to be better than the domestic ones, most of them (67%) would not like to pay more than 25% more for imported pastas.
    16. People do not worry a lot about the brand name. There are no hard-core loyals. There are a few split loyals (11%). They are among the people who still prefer imported pastas. The most popular brands are: Nordic (27% of imported pastas purchased were of this brand), Big (21 %). Non of the respondents was a loyal of any domestic trademarks.
    17. Actually all people said that it is bad that Russia substitutes natural resources for industrial goods, but only 4% said they often think about it when they make their purchase decision, 7% said they sometimes do, 5% seldom think of this.
    18. Since it was difficult for the respondents to answer weather they used to consume more or less pastas before the crisis (more than 50% could not answer at all or hesitated), we used the salesmen as our reserve source of information. According to them, the overall consumption of pastas decreased by approximately 15%, and consumption of imported pastas has just slummed- by more than 50%.
  • 173. MatLab
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Лучший способ начать работу с MATLAB это научиться обращаться с матрицами. В этой главе мы покажем вам, как надо это делать. В MATLAB матрица - это прямоугольный массив чисел. Особое значение придается матрицам 1x1, которые являются скалярами, и матрицам, имеющим один столбец или одну строку, векторам. MATLAB использует различные способы для хранения численных и не численных данных, однако вначале лучше всего рассматривать все данные как матрицы. MATLAB организован так, чтобы все операции в нем были как можно более естественными. В то время как другие программные языки работают с числами как элементами языка, MATLAB позволяет вам быстро и легко оперировать с целыми матрицами.

  • 174. Media in China
    Иностранные языки

    Talk radio in China allows a much freer exchange of works than other media formats. In effect, talk radio has shifted the paradigm from authorities addressing the people to people addressing the authorities. For example, until 1991 the 14 million inhabitants of Shanghai were served by only one radio station Radio Shanghai which primarily aired predictable, pro-government propaganda. In 1992, East Radio was established with a format that catered to citizens' individual concerns and deemphasized propaganda. Competition between the two Shanghai radio stations has resulted in much livelier coverage by both including call-in programs that air discussions of politics, lifestyle, and previously forbidden social subjects. Because callers usually are not required to identify themselves, such discussions are far more candid than would be possible on television. Party officials regularly give guidance to the hosts and producers of talk-radio programs, but such guidance is usually ignored without penalty because party officials do not want to create problems by moving against these highly popular programs.

  • 175. Methods of teaching speech

    In schools, however, pupils often have to speak on a topic when they are not yet prepared for it. As a result only bright pupils can cope with the task. In such a case the teacher trying to find a way out 'gives his pupils a text which covers the topic. Pupils learn and recite it in class. They reproduce the text either in the very form it was given or slightly transform it. Reciting, though useful and necessary in language learning, has but little to do with speech since speaking is a creative activity and is closely connected with thinking, while reciting has to do only with memory. Of course pupils should memorize words, word combinations, phrases, sentence patterns, and texts to "accumulate" the material and still it is only a prerequisite. The main objective of the learner is to be able to use the linguistic material to express his thoughts. This is ensured by the pupil's ability to arrange and rearrange in his own way the material stored up in his memory. Consequently, while assigning homework it is necessary to distinguish between reciting and speaking so that the pupil should know what he is expected to do while preparing for the lesson to reproduce the text or to compile a text of his own. His answer should be evaluated differently depending on the task set. If the pupil is to recite a text, the teacher evaluates the quality of reproduction, i. e., exactness, intonation and fluency. If the pupil is to speak on a subject, the teacher evaluates not only the correctness of his speech but his skills in arranging and rearranging the material learnt, i. e., his ability to make various transformations within the material he uses while speaking. The teacher should encourage each pupil to speak on the subject in his own way and thus develop pupils' initiative and thinking.

  • 176. Microsoft Excel, его функции и возможности
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Рабочая книга представляет собой набор рабочих листов, каждый из которых имеет табличную структуру. В окне документа отображается только текущий (активный) рабочий лист, с которым и ведётся работа. Каждый рабочий лист имеет название, которое отображается на ярлычке листа в нижней части окна. С помощью ярлычков можно переключаться к другим рабочим листам, входящим в ту же рабочую книгу. Чтобы переименовать рабочий лист, надо дважды щёлкнуть мышкой на его ярлычке и заменить старое имя на новое или путём выполнения следующих команд: меню Формат, строка Лист в списке меню, Переименовать. А можно и, установив указатель мышки на ярлык активного рабочего листа, щёлкнуть правой кнопкой мыши, после чего в появившемся контекстном меню щёлкнуть по строке Переименовать и выполнить переименование. В рабочую книгу можно добавлять (вставлять) новые листы или удалять ненужные. Вставку листа можно осуществить путём выполнения команды меню Вставка, строка Лист в списке пунктов меню. Вставка листа произойдёт перед активным листом. Выполнение вышеизложенных действий можно осуществить и с помощью контекстного меню, которое активизируется нажатием правой кнопки мышки, указатель которой должен быть установлен на ярлычке соответствующего листа. Чтобы поменять местами рабочие листы нужно указатель мышки установить на ярлычок перемещаемого листа, нажать левую кнопку мышки и перетащить ярлычок в нужное место.

  • 177. Modern technologies in teaching FLT


    1. Adair-Hauck, B., & Donato, R. (1994). Foreign language explanations within the zone of proximal development. The Canadian Modern Language Rework 50(3), 532-557.
    2. Anderson, A., & Lynch, T. (1988). Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    3. Armstrong, D. F., Stokoe, W. C., & Wilcox, S. E. (1995). Gesture and the nature of language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
    4. Arndt, H., & Janney, R. W. (1987). InterGrammar: Toward an integrative model of verbal, prosodic and kinesic choices in speech. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    5. Asher, J. J. (1981). Comprehension training: The evidence from laboratory and classroom studies. In H. Winitz (Ed.), The Comprehension Approach to Foreign Language Instruction (pp. 187-222). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    6. Bacon, S. M. (1992a). Authentic listening in Spanish: How learners adjust their strategies to the difficulty of input. Hispania 75, 29-43.
    7. Bacon, S. M. (1992b). The relationship between gender, comprehension, processing strategies, cognitive and affective response in foreign language listening. Modern Language Journal 76(2), 160-178.
    8. Batley, E. M., & Freudenstein, R. (Eds.). (1991). CALL for the Nineties: Computer Technology in Language Learning. Marburg, Germany: FIPLV/EUROCENTRES.
    9. Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    10. Faerch, C., & Kasper, G. (1986). The role of comprehension in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 7(3), 257-274.
    11. Felder, R. M., & Henriques, E. R. (1995). Learning and teaching styles in foreign language education. Foreign Language Annals 28, 21-31.
    12. Felix, U. (1995). Theater Interaktiv: multimedia integration of language and literature. On-CALL 9, 12-16.
    13. Fidelman, C. (1994). In the French Body/In the German Body: Project results. Demonstrated at the CALICO '94 Annual Symposium "Human Factors." Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.
    14. Fidelman, C. G. (1997). Extending the language curriculum with enabling technologies: Nonverbal communication and interactive video. In K. A. Murphy-Judy (Ed.), NEXUS: The convergence of language teaching and reseearch using technology, pp. 28-41. Durham, NC: CALICO.
    15. Fish, H. (1981). Graded activities and authentic materials for listening comprehension. In The teaching of listening comprehension. ELT Documents Special: Papers presented at the Goethe Institut Colloquium Paris 1979, pp. 107-115. London: British Council.
    16. Garrigues, M. (1991). Teaching and learning languages with interactive videodisc. In M. D. Bush, A. Slaton, M. Verano, & M. E. Slayden (Eds.), Interactive videodisc: The "Why" and the "How." (CALICO Monograph Series, Vol. 2, Spring, pp. 37-43.) Provo, UT: Brigham Young Press.
    17. Gassin, J. (1992). Interkinesics and Interprosodics in Second Language Acquisition. Australian Rework of Applied Linguistics 15(1), 95-106.
    18. Hoven, D. (1997a). Instructional design for multimedia: Towards a learner-centred CELL (Computer-Enhanced Language Learning) model. In K. A. Murphy-Judy (Ed.), NEXUS: The convergence of language teaching and research using technology, pp. 98-111. Durham, NC: CALICO.
    19. Hoven, D. (1997b). Improving the management of flow of control in computer-assisted listening comprehension tasks for second and foreign language learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved July 25, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://jcs120.jcs.uq.edu.au/~dlh/thesis/.
    20. Richards, J. C. (1983). Listening comprehension: Approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly 17(2), 219-240.
  • 178. Monumentum
    Культура и искусство

    Вот такое время и было - время ноги, попавшей в колесо. Отсюда и поворот от фаллической символики к вагинальной, и порожденная им жуть художественных образов. Чтобы разобраться, как же это произошло, необходимо рассмотреть трансформацию фаллоориентированных мифов русского народа в зеркале русской литературы. Как бы мы к этому ни относились, но все мифы о национальных особенностях есть мифы о национальной исключительности, о национальном превосходстве; это прямое следствие национального нарцизма. Надо признать, что в наше время многое сделано для его ограничения. Если раньше любой народ мог априорно считать себя самым сильным или самым крутым в драке, то теперь мы признаем Олимпийские игры в качестве всеобщего наднационального арбитра. В области ума и таланта эту роль в определенной степени выполняют Нобелевские премии. В конце концов, почти все достижения, даже самые нелепые, занесены в книгу рекордов Гиннеса. Свобода маневра у национального нарцизма осталась только в фаллоориентированной области. Высказанный вслух национальный фаллоориентированный миф - что у нас самый большой, самый твердый, самый продуктивный в мире пенис - звучит бредово, по детски нелепо; но его скрытое воздействие трудно переоценить. Я хочу подчеркнуть, что национальный фаллоориентированный миф, миф о национальном фаллическом превосходстве - явление универсальное, всеобщее. Когда я говорил о «стамеске», я по умолчанию предполагал, что для европейцев обрезанность - уже есть символическая кастрация. Но для мусульман все верно с точностью до наоборот, для них необрезанность есть признак фаллической слабости. Таким образом, национальный миф ненационален, существует определенная универсальная матрица, куда, исходя из контекста страны и эпохи, вставляются конкретные имена и подробности. Но я рассматриваю здесь даже не сам миф, а лишь его отражения в русской литературе. Согласно данному мифу, истинный народный герой должен обладать названными свойствами в совершенно несуразной мере, он должен быть гипертрофированно фалличен. Попадая в анекдоты, любимые народные герои - поручик Ржевский, Василий Иванович, Штирлиц - автоматически наделяются этим качеством. Но самый фалличный герой русского фольклора - Лука Мудищев. Это тоже чисто русский феномен. Обычно фольклор подразумевает либо полное отсутствие автора, либо его полумифичность, т.е. недостоверность имени и биографии. Фольклор, как массовое явление, есть искусство долетописного периода; с появлением письменности, а тем более книгопечатания, его заменила авторская литература. Иван Семенович Барков, автор Луки Мудищева, жил не так уж давно - с 1732 по 1768, т.е. в эпоху авторской литературы. Он имел и биографию, и собрание стихов, которые хотя при его жизни и не издавались, зато широко распространялись в рукописном виде. Первая книга Баркова вышла только в 1872, через сто четыре года после смерти автора. Как фольклорный феномен Луку Мудищева вновь возродила сталинская эпоха. Люди передавали поэму из уст в уста, так как уже не решались хранить у себя какие-либо бумаги с неодобренными властями текстами. Подобную ситуацию описал Бредбери в романе «451 градус по Фаренгейту». Но то, что в американской фантастике считалось жуткой антиутопией, здесь было реальностью.

  • 179. Mortgage crediting

    The peasants now prefer to act by methods related to natural economy. And also the banks do not invest willingly money into agricultural section. First, agriculture it is object of crediting, connected with the high risk because of its dependence on factors which cannot be forecast. Second, the existing legislation limits the right to consider as collateral agricultural property, that is land. Absence of legislation of land finally influences not only on the sphere of mortgage crediting, but on many other factors of the market. However, if to speak about private property on land, it is hardly possible that after adoption of this law today to-morrow we will get high-developed market of mortgage crediting in agriculture. It is necessary to recall the example of Lithuania where in the period of government of Pruskene the land was distributed practically free of charge, however the peasants did not want to take it. It is possible that the reasons here are deeper, and even not legal or economic, but psychological . You know, before 1917 the secondary market of mortgage developed in Russia rather successively, however compulsory interruption of seventy years odd not only cancelled mechanism of its activity, but led to psychological negative attitude of people to possibility of undertaking any responsibility. It is absolutely that the above-mentioned has large meaning in the idea of organization of mortgage crediting, but it is more important in this relation realization of already adopted and confirmation of acts and decrees on home questions not adopted yet, because mortgage home crediting occupies leading positions in this section.

  • 180. My Final Essay on Kant’s Critique

    The concept of a walking fish is empty (unless we actually see something like this), like a concept of an angel (if we did not see him/her ourselves or dismiss the testimonies of others, who would be witnesses). The concept of God, even manifested in human forms of alternative forms described in thousands of books of many nations (if not all of them) is an empty concept, because Kant did not see those manifestations himself, and all miraculous reports are labeled as simpleminded peoples delusions, or those of perpetrators, and cannot be considered as sensible. The possibility of totality representing itself in a limited form to conform with the limitations of human understanding is not considered by Kant as a philosophical issue. The regular empirical criterion is too strong. Humes future can easily be under no obligation to mimic the past, but God should be definitely under obligation to manifest Himself to everybody and anytime, to have the right even to be considered as also an empirical reality. The soul too is not the object of intuition if it is considered only as transcendentally thinkable. The pure intuition of self without sense perception of any kind as well as thinking of any kind cannot be legitimate, because Kant does not experience anything of the kind and neither his colleagues do. I think that creates a problem (of illusory and legitimate concepts) which has to be dealt with in future. May be the concepts Kant considered as paralogisms are not really that. May be human intuition can reach farther than Kant expected. May be the Greek word empireia (observation) can be legitimately used not just in the realm of physical senses. But the detailed discussion on that is not the subject of this paper and should be treated separately, in a book with a name like Transcending the Ordinary Limitations of Observable ( including the possibility and logic of pure intuition of truth).