• 341. Control in management

    Peoples behavior, naturally, is not the unique factor determining efficiency of the control. In order to achieve the purposes of the organization the control should possess several important characteristics:

    1. It must be understood by those involved in its operation.
    2. Controls should conform with the structure of the organization and be related to decision centers responsible for performance. Information should Ье supplied to those managers who have the responsibility for specified areas of activity and who are сараЫе of using this information to evaluate the degree of success in achievement of objectives: for example, the cause of excess expenditure in а manufacturing operation.
    3. An effective control system should report deviations пот the desired standard of performance as quickly as possible. Ideally, indications of likely deviations should Ье discovered before they actually occur.
    4. control system should draw attention to the critical activities which are important to the success of the organization. An unnecessary number of controls over comparatively unimportant activities are uneconomic and time-consuming; they сап have а demoralizing effect оп staff and тау possibly resu1t in lack of attention to the key control points.
    5. То Ье effective, а control system must Ье flexible. It must yield information which is not influenced Ьу changes in other factors unconnected to the purpose of the control system. Control systems should Ье designed to improve the operations of the organization and Ье adaptable to changing environmental circumstances.
    6. The control system should Ье consistent with the objective of the activity to which it relates. In addition to locating deviations from the planned standard of performance, the control system should Ье sophisticated enough to indicate ways in which performance сап Ье improved
    7. Control systems should themselves Ье subject to а continual rework to ensure that they are effective and appropriate in terms of the results they produce. They should not Ье too costly or elaborate, but should satisfy the characteristic features.
  • 342. Copley, John Singleton

    Copley was born on July 3, 1738, in Boston, Mass., to immigrants recently arrived from Ireland. He began to paint in about 1753. His earliest works show the influence of his stepfather, an engraver, and the Boston artist John Smibert. In about 1755 Copley met the English artist Joseph Blackburn, whose use of rococo lightness and coloring he quickly adopted. He also made use of the rococo device called portrait d'apparat--portraying the subject with objects associated with his daily life--that gave his work a distinction not usually found in 18th-century American painting.

  • 343. Coronations in Westminster Abbey

    The service to-day has four parts: first comes the Introduction ,consisting of: the entry of the Sovereign into the Abbey; the formal recognition of the right of the Sovereign to rule - when the Archbishop presents the Sovereign to the congregation and asks them if they agree to the service proceeding, and they respond with an assent; the oath, when the Sovereign promises to respect and govern in accordance with the lows of his or her subjects and to uphold the Protestant reformed Church of England and Scotland; and the presentation of the Bible to the Sovereign, to be relied on as the source of all wisdom and low. Secondly, the Sovereign is anointed with holy oil, seated on the Coronation Chair. Thirdly, the Sovereign is invested with the royal robes and insignia, then crowned with St Edwards crown. The final ceremony consists of the enthronement of the Sovereign on a throne placed on a raised platform, bringing him or her into full work of the assembled company for the first time, and there he or she receives the homage of the Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal and the congregation, representing the people of the realm.

  • 344. Corot, Jean-Baptiste-Camille

    At the age of 26 he abandoned a commercial career for art, and from the first showed a strong vocation for landscape painting. He lived in Paris, but travelled about France making sketches from nature and from these he composed in his studio. In addition to his journeys in France, he visited England, the Low Countries, Switzerland, and Italy three times (1825-28, 1834, and 1843). Throughout his life Corot found congenial the advice given to him by his teacher Achille-Etna Michallon `to reproduce as scrupulously as possible what I saw in front of me'. On the other hand he never felt entirely at home with the ideals of the Barbizon School, the members of which saw Romantic idealization of the countrysite as a form of escapism from urban banality, and he remained more faithful to the French Classical tradition than to the English or Dutch schools. Yet although he continued to make studied compositions after his sketches done direct from nature, he brought a new and personal poetry in the Classical tradition of composed landscape and an unaffected naturalness which had hitherto been foreign to it. Through he represented nature realistically, he did not idealize the peasant or the labors of agriculture in the manner of Millet and Courbet, and was uninvolved in ideological controversy.

  • 345. Could This Happen Today?

    Despite world always changes, all the time there are such people, who cant understand meaning of their life due to many reasons, either social or personal. Problem of social inequality persists since the beginning of human existence. Someone can afford everything to itself, but other one is even unable itself to subsist on. Therefore these different classes of people often quarrel with each other; again this inequality gives birth to evil. Those who are at the low level of living sometimes try to carry out the experiments on approving that they also can do anything they want, as the people from “the heights” always do, in a way of committing crimes. They have no choice, as they think, for the reason that there is already nothing to loose for them. Thus, the do such dreadful things like murders. From my point of work all of this is explainable. At first, all these poor (in their material and psychological matter) people have the same, equal rights for living as we, humans, all do have, and the do not want always to be suppressed and humbled. Secondly, lack of respect to them by other people makes them disrespect themselves. They start to think that they are unneeded in this cruel world, thats why they are ready to conduct crazy actions. They lost the right path in their life, the path, where they used to be happy, as many others do, because God created us to live in peace and harmony. In the book the path of Rodions life leads through many adventures to an acceptance of religion over individualism (even some kind of egoism).

  • 346. Country-side

    I think everyone enjoys being out in the country. The-re is a great charm about gathering berries or looking for mushrooms in the silence of the wood. Perhaps you enjoy sauntering in the fields or rambling through the sweet-scented woods where as you move along you stop now and then to admire the white-stemmed birch trees or some blossoming shrubs. You may like climbing lulls or following strange trails or looking for unusual plants. At the top of each hill, at each turn in the trail you come upon something new, unexpected.

  • 347. Courbet, Gustave

    In 1848 a political revolution in France foreshadowed a revolution in art, as people in the arts became more open to new ideas. Courbet's early work was exhibited successfully in 1849. That same year he visited his family in the countryside and produced one of his greatest paintings, The Stone-Breakers, followed by Burial at Ornans in 1850. Both were quite unlike the romantic pictures of the day because they showed peasants in realistic settings instead of the rich in glamorized situations. In 1855 he completed a huge canvas, The Artist's Studio, and, when it was refused for an important exhibition, Courbet boldly displayed his work himself near the exhibition hall.

  • 348. Cranach, Lucas the Elder

    Cranach, Lucas the Elder (1472-1553). German painter. He takes his name from the small town of Kronach in South Germany, where he was born, and very little is known of his life before about 1500-01, when he settled in Vienna and started working in the humanist circles associated with the newly founded university. His stay in Vienna was brief (he left in 1504), but in his period there he painted some of his finest and most original works. They include portraits, notably those of Johannes Cuspinian, a lecturer at the university, and his wife Anna (Reinhart Collection, Winterhur), and several religious works in which he shows a remarkable feeling for the beauty of landscape characteristic of the Danube school. The finest example of this manner is perhaps the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (Staatliche Museen, Berlin), which shows the Holy Family resting in the glade of a German pine forest. It was painted in 1504, just before Cranach went to Wittenberg as court painter to Frederick III (the Wise), Elector of Saxony.

  • 349. Creative Activity

    Poe's third book, Poems, appeared in 1831, and the following year he moved to Baltimore, where he lived with his aunt and her 11-year-old daughter, Virginia Clemm. The following year his tale “A MS. Found in a Bottle” won a contest sponsored by the Baltimore Saturday Visitor. From 1835 to 1837 Poe was an editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. In 1836 he married his young cousin. Through the next decade, much of which was marred by his wife's long illness, Poe worked as an editor for various periodicals in Philadelphia and New York. In 1847 Virginia died and Poe himself became ill; his disastrous alcohol addiction and his alleged use of drugs may have contributed to his early death in Baltimore, on October 7, 1849.

  • 350. Creators of slang

    Civilized society tends to divide into a dominant culture and various subcultures that flourish within the dominant framework. The subcultures show specialized linguistic phenomena, varying widely in form and content, that depend on the nature of the groups and their relation to each other and to the dominant culture. The shock value of slang stems largely from the verbal transfer of the values of a subculture to diametrically opposed values in the dominant culture. Names such as fuzz, pig, fink, bull, and dick for policemen were not created by officers of the law. (The humorous "dickless tracy," however, meaning a policewoman, was coined by male policemen.)

  • 351. Critical Rework of Daniel Sprick’s “Release Your Plans”
  • 352. CTP стимулирует ЧМ-растрирование

    Со времени ввода более десятилетия назад частотно-модулированного растрирования (ЧМ-растрирование) оно не получило широкого одобрения, что было обусловлено его слишком высокими требованиями к процессу репродуцирования, с одной стороны, и необходимостью высокой точности печати, с другой стороны. Однако перспективы этого способа значительно возросли с расширением технологии CТP в допечатном производстве. «Сегодня воспроизведение изображений на термопластинах способом CТP устраняет многие проблемы, связанные с частотно-модулированным или стохастическим растрированием, а также с использованием Hexachrome, утверждает Алекс Бринер, один из трех компаньонов фирмы click it AG, ответственный за работу репросектора. Прямой способ формирования изображений на пластине исключает отклонения, которые возникают при работе с пленок, обеспечивает лучший контроль размеров растровых точек, а также их более высокую четкость; устраняется проблема запыления и загрязнения формы».

  • 353. Cubism

    Braque avoue «quand nous avons fait du Cubisme, nous n'avions aucune intention de faire du Cubisme, mais d'exprimer ce qui йtait en nous». Et Picasso s'exprime dans le mкme sens. Mais, si proches l'un de l'autre qu'ils aient йtй, si ressemblants а certains йgards, ce qui les unit demeure moins important que ce qui les divise. Leurs voies s'йcartent de plus en plus au fur et а mesure qu'ils feront du Cubisme une aventure personnelle. Le terme, Cubisme, йtant d'ailleurs nй d'une maniиre toute fortuite sous la plume du critique d'art de Gil Blas, Louis Vauxcelles, qui avait йcrit en effet que «Braque mйprise les formes, rйduit tout, sites, figures et maisons romaines, а des schйmas gйomйtriques, а des cubes». Le mot avait fait fortune et, l'annйe suivante, les toiles prйsentйes au Salon des Indйpendants йtaient dйfinies bizarreries cubiques.

  • 354. Cultural Values

    Why questions

    1. Why is shopping a three step process? It's so inefficient. Maybe it prevents shoplifting.
    2. Why is only one person doling out money?
    3. Why is only one door open?
    4. Why is service so bad? Is it because there is no tipping and so no motivation?
    5. Why can we sit in a cafe all day without buying very much?
    6. Why do women wear such high heels?
    7. Why do people crowd others and cut in line?
    8. Why do shop attendants go on so many breaks or just close down?
    9. Why are things so unpredictable? Nothing is consistent.
    10. There are no schedules at school. I arrive at school to teach and I'll be told "there is no fourth grade today." Why can't
      people tell me in advance?
    11. Why are restaurant workers so indifferent or outright rude?
    12. Why do Russian women think they need a man for anything technical or physical?
    13. Why must everyone sit at a party?
    14. Why can't people put bags on the floor?
    15. Why do men carry purses (for women)?
    16. Who does everything break so easily?
    17. Why does everything need to be stamped?
    18. Why are there so many forms?
    19. Why do women dress like hookers (prostitutes)?
    20. Why do women wear see-through trousers with thongs and stiletto heels?
    21. Why is everything so dirty?
    22. Why do people spit and blow their noses onto the street?
    23. Why are people so mean to each other (at stores, yelling at customers)?
    24. Why do people push in front of others?
    25. When a husband beats his wife in public, why doesn't anyone do anything? Why are people so reluctant to stop and help?
    26. Why are there no public toilets even approaching American standards? Why do people accept such things?
    27. Why do toilets have no seat covers? Is there a shortage? Can't they find them somewhere?
    28. Why do Russians drink so much tea? Why don't they drink during meals?
    29. Why do Americans say "excuse me1 when they bump into strangers and Russian don't?
    30. Why are Russians so formal when you first meet them?
  • 355. Culture in Great Britain

    It you're staying in London for a few days, you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You'll find opera, ballet, comedy, drama, rework, musical comedy and variety. Most theatres and music-halls have good orchestras with popular conductors. At the West-End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything being done on the most lavish scale.

  • 356. Culture of the youth

    - Yes, there are. "Heavy metal" is one of them. This music of failure is widely despised by those who enjoy pop, reggae or soul. Unlike other rebel cults the followers of heavy metal behave them selves as victims. They wear gothic script and grinning sculls, expression of disheartened interests. It is known that cults arise and disappear over periods of a decade or two. Ragga and Gothic arose in the 1980s. Raggas are American-inspired. They are clothed in baseball caps, tracksuits trousers and chunky trainers. Gothic is a blend of 1970s Punk and 1960s Hippies. "Goths" wear their hair very long and dyed black, and dress in cheap, loose clothes. They put on make-up, looking very pale with cosmetics around the eyes. They are not aggressive, and seem to feel nostalgia for the youth culture and music of the 1960s. At the end of the 1980s Acid House was a fashionable sub-culture. It fascinated thousands juveniles who had not earlier belonged to a cult. Acid House guaranteed fun and all-night dancing. It had its own music which was another variation on black music from America ("House Music"). By the 1990s this movement was also in decline. It is interesting to note that sub-cultures follow a cycle. At first they shock then provoke a strong response. As soon as the sub-culture gains momentum it magnetizes youth in search of rebel unity. Many adopt it for fun, and play at rebellion in their leisure time. The sub-culture rapidly ceases to express serious dissent. In the end it becomes another recognized and colourful part of urban culture.

  • 357. Culture shock
    Иностранные языки

    Culture shock has several stages. The 1st stage is the incubation stage. During the first few weeks most individuals are fascinated by the new. This time is called the "honeymoon" stage, as everything encountered is new and exciting. This stage may last from a few days or weeks to six months, depending on the circumstances.

    Afterwards, the 2nd stage presents itself. It is characterized by a hostile and aggressive attitude towards the host country. This happens due to the difficulties a person faces in daily life, such as communication or transportation problems.

  • 358. Customs and traditions

    Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life. For example, London, the capital of England, is traditionally devided into three parts: the West End, the East end,and the City. The City is a histrorical, financial and business centre of London. The East End is the district inhabied by the workers, and the West End is a fashionable shopping and entertaining centre. English people like to spend their free time in numerous pubs where they can have a glass of beer and talk about different things with their friends.

  • 359. Customs and Traditions in Britain

    Some British customs and traditions are famousall over the world and a lot of them have very long histories. First I will tellyou about British customs during the year. In January, there is a festival, calledUp-Helly-Aa.In the ninth century, men from Norway came to the Shetlands. The Shetlands areislands near Scotland. These men were theVikings. They came to Britain in shipsand carried away animals, gold, and sometimes women and children, too. Now, 1000 years later, people in the Shetlands remember the Vikings with a festival.They call the festival "Up-Helly-Aa". Every winter the people of Lerwick, thisis a town in the Shetlands, make a model of a ship. It´s a Viking"longship", with the head of a dragon at the front. Then, on Up-Helly-Aa nightin January, the Shetlanders dress inViking clothes, carry the ship through thetown to the sea and there they burn it. They do this because the Vikings puttheir dead men in the ship and burned them. It goes without saying that therearen´t any men in the modern ships. Now the festival is a party for thepeople of the Shetland Islands. Like our traditions there is also in BritainSt Valentine´sDay in February andApril Fool´sDay on April1st. In May there is also a tradition with a longhistory. May 1st was an important day in the Middle Ages. In the veryearly morning, young girls went to the fields and washed their faces with dew.They belived this made themvery beautiful for a year after that. Also onMayDay the young men of each village tried towin prizes with their bows and arrows, and people danced around the maypole.Many English villages still have a maypole, and on May 1st, thevillagers dance round it. Midsummer´sDay is on June 24th. This isthe longest day of the year. On that day you can see a very old custom atStonehenge in Wiltshire. Stonehenge is one of Europe´s biggest stonecircles, a lot of the stones are ten or twelve metres high. It´s also veryold, the earliest part of Stonehenge is nearly 5 000 years old. The Druids, theywere the priests in Britain 2 000 years ago, used it for a calendar. They usedthe sun and the stones at Stonehenge to know the start of months and seasons.There are Druids in Britain today, too and every June 24th a lot ofthem go to Stonehenge, because on that morning the sun shines on one famousstone-the Heel stone. For the druids this is a very important moment in theyear. In October is Halloween. Halloween is an oldword for "Hallows Evening", the night bevor "All Saints´ Day". On that onenight of the year, ghosts and witches are free. A long time ago people wereafraid and stayed at home on Hallowe´en. But now in Britain it´s atime for fun. There are always a lot of parties on October 31st . Atthese parties people wear masks and they dress as ghosts and witches, or asDracula or Frankenstein´s monster. And some peoples make special Halloweenlamps from pumpkins. November 5th isGuy Fawkes´Day in Britain. All over the countrypeople build wood fires or "bonefires", in their gardens. On top of each bonfireis a guy. That´s a figure of Guy Fawkes. People make guys with straw, oldclothes and newspapers. The British remember Guy Fawkes on November5th, because on this day in the year 1605, he tried to kill KingJames I. He and a group of friends put a bomb under the Houses of Parliament inLondon. But the King´s men found the bomb and found Guy Fawkes, too. Theytook him to the Tower of London and there the King´s men cut off hishead. In December there are lots of Christmas and NewYear traditionsin Britain. Before Christmas, groups of singers go fromhouse to house. They collect money and sing traditional Christmas songs orcarols. There are a lot of very popular BritishChristmasCarols. Three famous ones are: "Good KingWenceslas", "The Holly and The Ivy" and "We Three Kings". OnChristmasEve that´s on December24th, British children don´t open their presents. FatherChristmas brings their presents inthe night and then they open them on themorning of the 25th. In Britain the most important meal on December25th is Christmas dinner. Nearly all Christmas food is traditional,but a lot of the traditionsare not very old. For example, there were no turkeysin Britain before 1800. And even in the nineteenth century, goose was thetraditional meat at Christmas, but not now. A twentieth- century BritishChristmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas, Brussels sproutsand gravy, but there are sausages and bacon, too. Then, after the turkey, thereis Christmas pudding. Crackers are also usual at Christmas dinner. These came toBritain from China in the nineteenth century. Two people pull a cracker andusually there´s a small toy in the middle and often there´s a joke ona piece of paper, too. December 26th isBoxingDay. Traditionally boys from the shops ineach town asked for money at Christmas. They went from house to house onDecember 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each housepeople gave them money and this was their Christmas present. So the name ofDecember 26th doesn´t come frome the sport of boxing, it comesfrom the boys´ wooden boxes. Now, Boxing Day is an extra holiday afterChristmas Day. In Scotland there is a tradition, calledFirstFooting. The name for New Year´s Evein Scotland isHogmanay. After midnight people visit their friends and they takea piece of coal as a present, because traditionally the first visitor of theyear must carry coal into the house. This is first footing and it brings goodluck. It also helps to make fire in the middle of winter. In Britain there are many RoyalTraditions. For example thetrooping of thecolour: The Queen is the only person in Britain with twobirthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st , but she has an"official" birthday on the second Saturday in June, too. And on the Queen´sofficial birthday, there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping of theColour. It´s a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers atHorse Guards´ Parade in London. A "regiment" of the Queen´s soldiers,the Guards, march in front of her and at the front of the parade is theregiment´s яag or "colour", which the guards are trooping. Thousands ofLondoners and visitors watch in Horse Guards´ Parade and millions of peopleat home watch it on television. The changing of theguard is an another royaltradition: This happens every day at Buckingham Palace, theQueen´s home in London. Soldiers stand in front of the palace. Each morningthese soldiers (the "guard") change. One group leaves and another arrives. Insummer and winter tourists stand outside the palace at 11.30 every morning andwatch the Changing of the Guard.

  • 360. Customs and traditions in GB

    Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life. For example, London , the capital of England , is traditionally divided into three parts: the West End , the East end, and the City. The City is a historical, financial and business center of London . The East End is the district inhabited by the workers, and the West End is a fashionable shopping and entertaining center. English people like to spend their free time in numerous pubs where they can have a glass of beer and talk about different things with their friends.