• 201. Abraham Lincoln


    1. Introduction page 3
    2. Early Life page 3
    3. Ancestry page 4
    4. Childhood page 6
    5. Young Manhood page 6
    6. Politics and Law page 6
    7. Illinois Legislator page6
    8. Marriage page6
    9. Congressman page 7
    10. Disillusionment with Politics page7
    11. Return to Politics page 8
    12. Campaigns of 1856 and 1858 page 8
    13. Election of 1860 page 9
    14. Presidency page 9
    15. Sumter Crisis page10
    16. Military Policy page11
    17. Emancipation page 12
    18. Foreign Relations page 12
    19. Wartime Politics page13
    20. Life in the White House page 14
    21. Reconstruction page 14
    22. Death page 15
    23. Source page 16
  • 202. Abstract Expressionism

    The first public exhibitions of work by the ``New York School'' of artists-- who were to become known as Abstract Expressionists-- were held in the mid '40s. Like many other modern movements, Abstract Expressionism does not describe any one particular style, but rather a general attitude; not all the work was abstract, nor was it all expressive. What these artists did have in common were morally loaded themes, often heavyweight and tragic, on a grand scale. In contrast to the themes of social realism and regional life that characterized American art of previous decades, these artists valued, above all, individuality and spontaneous improvisation. They felt ill at ease with conventional subjects and styles, neither of which could adequately convey their new vision. In fact, style as such almost ceased to exist with the Abstract Expressionists, and they drew their inspiration from all directions.

  • 203. Achievements of our country

    I can be proud and of our Austronautics and, certainly, Constantine Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, the founder of austronautics. He had given an idea about space travel. A popular report on this subject was first published in 1895. Tsiolkovsky's idea of a spaceship was based on the use of liquid fuels. Tsiolkovsky published several works dealing with the mathematical theory of rocket fly. Calculations made by Tsiolkovsky are used in the theory of cosmonautics and practical guided missile flights. Tsiolkovsky is called "Father of Cosmonautics" due to his contribution to the theory and practice of space flights.

  • 204. Advantages and disadvantages of television

    Television is one of the greatest achievements of the 20-th century. It is the most popular part of mass media. Today every family has a TV-set. TV has changed much since the time of its invention and so has its role. There have been numerous debates concerning advantages and disadvantages of television. When TV first appeared its main purpose was to give official information to people. It was supported by the government. Now television plays a big role in every civilised society. Today television gives people a possibility to be well informed and enjoy "civilised pleasures." The programmes are various and people have a chance to select what they want to see. Television provides great opportunities for education. There are programmes devoted to specialised subjects. With the help of TV it is possible to learn foreign languages, to know a lot of wonderful things concerning the world flora and fauna. TV teaches the ideals of democracy and political argument. Watching television can be compared with reading books. It provides an outlet for creative talents. By the beginning of the 21-st century TV became a coloured world network. Numerous programmes people can receive by satellite or cable. The choice of the channels ranges from six to twenty. These channels show programmes of various kinds from documentaries, current events and sports to programmes American films and science fiction cartoons. Now this medium of communication allows people to see and speak with each other if they are separated by thousands of kilometres. TV bridges between Russia and the USA once were very popular. They showed that TV was a unifying force and that our planet in reality is a small world. Previously innovations were promoted on TV. TV shocked, surprised and stimulated. It brought ballet, opera, and theatre to big masses of people. It was even in the vanguard of new drama. Moreover, TV can keep children quiet. If they are noisy their mothers turn on the set. If people do not like TV they do not buy it or switch it off.

  • 205. Advantages and disadvantages of TV

    We talk to various people from different countries about their attitudes about TV. Does TV educate or stimulate? Or it is a drug or tranquilizer used to control the population. There are some works, e.g. “TV has been the greatest instrument of social democracy in Western European socialites”, - said Mr. Smith from British film institute. Some people disagree, 90 % of TV programmes in some countries are foreign. And some people think and feel, that TV has disrupted local culture and social ties. Why do developing countries introduce TV? Perhaps government do it for prestige, to show that they have introduced new technology into their societies. Another possible reason is that political leaders want their people to see them on TV.

  • 206. Advertisement

    I want to refute your suggestion with reference to believe that advertising is needed nowadays. Dont you know that economists tend to argue that if we dont have advertising there wouldnt be such a wide choice of things to buy? I know that for the moment this is a global problem that many papers and TV-providers are over and over again criticized by public because of advertisements. However, I cant be in agreement with these people. Advertising helps people easily to find the right product from the thousands of them, which obeys to their necessities. You may see what you need along with buying in newspapers and magazines, posters and small ads or in commercials on TV, even being at home, than hourly go shopping and to return home without anything plus wasting your expensive time. Advertisements are made for the most comfort and simplicity of the people. I dont think like you Max that advertising makes things more expensive, to the contrary money are spending on improving quality and making things cheaper. This is a dreadful mistake calling ads, as rubbish in our life. You must not think of misleading of the ads, but to trust and belief it in real. I think sometime itll be so and this will be the best and the finest times, which one ever were.

  • 207. Advertisement as a service

    The public advertising seen on street hoardings, railway stations and buildings makes peoples life more joyful. Moreover, all those small ads in the press concerning “employment”, “education” and “For sale and wanted” columns, help ordinary people to find a better job or a better employee, to sell or to buy their second-hand things and find services, or learn about educational facilities, social events such as, concerts, theatre plays, football matches, and to announce births, marriages and deaths. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded by all the advertisers information we must admit that they do perform a useful service to society, and advertisements are an essential part of our everyday life.

  • 208. Advertising

    Generally speaking, there are a lot of means to make products popular, but it is evident, that the businesses need to advertise; otherwise no-one would learn of the existence of their wares or services. In part, advertising is aimed at conveying necessary information to customers and clients, but it is also used to persuade the public to buy Your product or service. The mastery of performing both of these tasks is called the art of advertising and it requires a basic understanding of psychology, the needs of human beings and how they can be satisfied. And this often becomes the area in which advertising is criticized, because of misleading and false advertisements. Although, to make untrue statements about goods, services or prices is prohibited by the law and ethics of advertising. But advertisers need to create a demand and to raise sales. That is why they are ready to use any innovation to meet their objectives. For instance, by using certain frequencies of TV signals, the workers subconscious can be greatly influenced or even programmed to desired actions.

  • 209. Agatha Christie

    Agatha Christie was sure the worlds best selling crime writer. Moreover, she was an immensely prolific writer. 79 shot stories, 4 non-fiction ones and 19 plays were written by that strange woman. They were translated into 136 languages. Over 3 billion books by Agatha Christie were sold worldwide. She is popular for ingenuity of plots, which are classical murder mysteries: marooned places and a well-mannered murderer. Her way to present the stories was quite definite from that of her colleagues. At first her stories appealed to the readers detective inside, so you cant find much blood and violence in her stories.

  • 210. Air contamination caused by human activity

    Insertion into atmosphere or the creation of the chemical agents and substances caused by natural, and anthropogenous factors forms an air contamination. The natural sources of contamination of an atmosphere are volcanos, wood fires, dusty storms, a weathering etc. These factors do not threaten with negative consequences to natural ecosystems, except some catastrophic natural phenomena. For example, the eruption of a volcano Cracatao in 1883, when into atmosphere 18 km cubes of ashes powder were thrown out ; eruption of a volcano Catmay (Alaska) in the 1912 that had thrown out 20 km cubes of friable products. The ashes of these eruptions were spread over large part of the surface of the Earth and has caused the reduction of solar radiation by 10-20 % that accordingly has caused in northern hemisphere reduction of annual average temperature of air by 0.5 C.

  • 211. Air pollution

    Smog or dust dome is most often formed when a layer of cool air is trapped beneath a layer of still warmer air. The mixture of benzopyrene ( a cancer causing substance that is produced by the evaporation of petrol), the waste of hydrocarbons, combined with nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and sunlight produce the photochemical smog which can be recognized as the yellow cloud over every big city in the world. Besides that optical effect it causes an increase of ozone in the lower atmosphere and the health conditions of the particular organism living in such an area. For example, it is estimated that “Washington DC receives 10% less sunlight than at the begging of the century due to the shielding of atmospheric pollution.” The ozone enters the leaves of plants turning them brown and makes it difficult for plant to photosynthesize. In addition to that, it causes skin cancer on humans. Most seriously though, it increases the acidity of the rain which is mainly caused by the rise of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that get caught up by clouds. All ready unpolluted rain is slightly acid due to dissolved carbon dioxide, but polluted rain may be very acidic. The effect of acid rain on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems can be very different. “In Scandinavia, which receives a high proportion of its air pollution from Britain, once productive lakes are now completely devoid of fish.” In addition to its direct effect on water, acid rain allows metal ions such as aluminum, which is highly toxic to fish, to be leached from the soil . Acid rain reduces the growth of trees and disables plants to photosynthesize which destroys them in the long term. It also reduces the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In the event of a nuclear accident or war, the main risks do lay only partly in the pollution of air and air as a carrier of the polluted particles. The main risks arise from inhalation of contaminant particles, fallout of radioactive isotopes on soil with subsequent incorporation into food, and contamination of water supplies. The outcome of all those pollutant factors are enormous. The smoke from car engines which contains lead, that causes brain damage in children, stinging eyes, damage of the lung, the death rate of 40.000 asthma patients every year, and the destruction of whole forests includes only a few examples of the effects of air pollution. There are many ways to control and reduce air pollution and it is not the lack of technology but the unwillingness of the humans to change their attitudes and life styles.

  • 212. Air Pollution in Russia

    Two capitals - Moscow and "The Northern Palmyra" - always drew special attention. The analysis shows that the City of St.-Petersburg is more cleaner than the City of Moscow. May be because it is smaller and may be, not in the last place, because the consumption of black oil as fuel was reduced in the thermal power stations (gas fuel makes 82%). Besides the Main State Sanitary Inspector prohibited importing into the city and selling of the ethylated gasoline. Thus still it is necessary to take into account, that in 2000 in the Northern Capital 67 facilities for the cleaning of atmosphere emissions were built and reconstructed and at the gasoline stations the systems of the gas-return are being installed - and this also decreases emissions. And for the Moscow this problem emission of polluting substances from the motor transport into the atmospheric air - remains one of the main problems.

  • 213. Alabama state

    During the early 1500's Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. But Europeans were not seen in the interior of Alabama until 1540, when Hernando de Soto passed through with a band of well-armed soldiers. De Soto forced the peaceful Indians to provide him with food and servants, and his harsh methods stirred up resentment. When he reached the land governed by the gigantic Choctaw chieftain, Tuskaloosa, he ran into trouble. De Soto captured the chief and took him to the tribe's strongly fortified village. Here the Indians rose up to free their chief. For many hours the bloody battle raged. The Spanish soldiers slaughtered Indian men, women, and children alike. When the battle was over, the village was in ruins and its population was destroyed. De Soto's troops also suffered heavy losses. Later, in 1559, Spanish colonists started a settlement on Mobile Bay, but storms and other troubles caused the settlers to leave.

  • 214. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

    The State of Alaska is frightened of extinction. More than 1,000 wolves killed every year. Not a single wolf pack is protected from hunting and trapping throughout its entire variety in Alaska. Trapping within and outside of the park, cruelly impacts Denali National Park wolves, the longest studied and most widely worked in the world. Trappers killed Denalis Savage River pack, and the last remaining female of the Headquarters pack. Nearly 12,000 grizzly bears were killed in Alaska in the past 10 years. Alaska hunters kill about 22,000 caribou every year.

  • 215. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson

    Besides brilliancy and ambition, Hamilton had other qualities which served him well. He possessed great personal attractiveness. With reddish-brown hair, bright brown eyes, fine forehead, and firm mouth and chin, he was very handsome, his face animated and pleasant when he talked, severe and thoughtful when he was at work. He liked a lively dinner party and shone in any circle which offered intellectual companions, and witty talk. As leader of the New York patriots, he was brought to Washington's notice and made him the general's principal aide, it enabled him to lead a dramatic assault at the siege of Yorktown, it rendered him the principal figure in Washington's administration, and it gave him command of a great party. He had remarkable talents as an executive and organizer. He wrote and spoke much. Yet he also showed striking defects. He was quick-tempered. He quarrelled with Washington near the end of the war and rejected the advances that Washington made to heal the breach. His arrogance of spirit brought him into unnecessarily conflicts - with Jefferson, with the Washington administration, and with Aaron Burr, ending in his own death in a duel.

  • 216. Alfred Nobel

    Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man on many contrasts. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, he was cheerful in company but said in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a family or wife to love him. He was a patriotic son of his native land and he died on foreign soil. He invented dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of road mining and road building, but he saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injured his fellow man. During his life he often felt he was useless. He was world famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoid publicity. But since his death his name brought fame and glory to others.

  • 217. Alfred Tennyson

    His father, George Clayton Tennyson (17781831), was a rector for Somersby (18071831), also rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, and vicar of Grimsby (1815). The reverend was the elder of two sons, but was disinherited at an early age by his own father, the landowner George Tennyson (17501835) (who belonged to the Lincolnshire gentry as the owner of Bayons Manor and Usselby Hall),[3] in favour of his younger brother Charles, who later took the name Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt. Rev. George Clayton Tennyson raised a large family and "was a man of superior abilities and varied attainments, who tried his hand with fair success in architecture, painting, music, and poetry."[3] Rev. Tennyson was "comfortably well off for a country clergyman and his shrewd money management enabled the family to spend summers at Mablethorpe and Skegness, on the eastern coast of England."[3] His mother, Elizabeth Fytche (17811865) was the daughter of Stephen Fytche (17341799), vicar of Louth (1764) and rector of Withcall (1780), a small village between Horncastle and Louth.[3] Tennyson's father "carefully attended to the education and training of his children."[3]

  • 218. Allocation of powers between directors and shareholders

    c)Delegation of Authority--the board has the power to appoint committees of its own members to act for it either in particular matters or to handle day-to-day management between board meetings. Typically, these committees cannot amend the articles or bylaws, adopt or recommend major corporate changes (e.g., merger), recommend dissolution, declare a dividend, or authorize issuance of stock unless permitted by the articles or bylaws. Note that while the board may delegate operation of the business to an officer or management company, the ultimate control must be retained by the board.

  • 219. Altdorfer, Albrecht

    No architectural work by him is known, but his interest in architecture and his skill in handling intricate problems of perspective are demonstrated by his Birth of the Virgin (Alte Pinakothek, Munich). It is possible that he was involved in the design of the pilgrim church Zur Schцnen Madonna (now the new Neupfarrkirche) at Regensburg. Although none of his architectural projects survive, the influence of Venetian, Milanese and Lombard architecture, and to a lesser extent that of Bramante, can be seen in the prominent structure in his 1526 painting of Susanna in the Bath and the Stoning of the Elders. In his extant works there is a nearly pantheistic synthesis of man and nature that has been compared both the writings of Paracelsus and the Neo-Platonists. His paintings assert the primacy of landscape, his figures are rarely individualized, and he produced only a handful of portraits. While Altdorfer seems to have had a large workshop, few individual members other than his brother, Erhard (c. 1480-1561), and Hans Mielich are identifiable.

  • 220. Alyonushka

    It was hard for the merchant to agree to kill Ivanushka, as he loved the goat like a person. But, begin deceived by the witch, he felt his wife's wishes to be the most important. Ivanushka asked the merchant if he could go to the river for one last drink before he died, and the merchant agreed. There at the river's edge the goat cried out to his sister, and she answered him that she couldn't help him with a stone tied around her neck. Neither the brother nor sister realized that this time a peasant had overheard their conversation, and was on his way to stop the merchant form killing Ivanushka.