• 261. Bassano (family da Ponte)

    He also had the ability to devise new ideas for compositions that possessed great force of expression. Trained in his father's studio, Jacopo broke away from the local popular and devotional tradition by studying prints by Raphael and developments in Mannerism. His early Mannerist works used elongated figures and brilliant colors. During the 1540s his painting was experimental, the anatomy of his characters was forced and their postures unnatural. This phase proved crucial in the development of his own very personal style which was capable of assimilating new ideas and translating them into an art with enormous communicative power. Jacopo Bassano's popular realism was underpinned by his exceptional use of light and characterized by the lifelike quality of the people and details, especially the animals, in his pictures. Local taste required that art illustrate reality, and Jacopo drew inspiration from the simple human scenes, farm life, and changing aspects of nature he observed in his hometown. To Mannerism's energy, extreme movement, and tightly compressed space, he added realism and earthiness. A humble and subtle observer, his sitters may seem unaware of his presence. Increasingly, he used religious and philosophical subjects as pretexts for painting genre scenes and landscapes.

  • 262. Bazarov: a lunatic or visionary?

    The young Kirsanov, barely twenty-three years of age, apparently had not yet formed a sound system of morals and values and was drawn into discipleship of nihilism primarily by the power of Bazarovs charisma and the “freshness” of the nihilists ideas, rather than their sensibility. Arkady is a person lacking character and devoid of an independent intellectual backbone. He constantly needs someones support and Bazarov just happens to be vivid enough a personality to attract such a simple life form as Arkady. Over the course of their friendship, Arkady breathes every word spoken by his sensei, seldom displaying signs of independent thought. He delightfully rejects authority, but his nihilistic fervor is not sincere; Arkady semi-consciously follows his friend, who softly and ambiguously ridicules him as a phony, for Bazarov knows that Arkadys subscription to nihilism is very strongly contradicted by his demeanor, and his frequent displays of feelings and emotions. But why does Bazarov not renounce this friendship? Why does he tolerate the company of Arkady, this dim hypocrite, and why does he agree to travel to Maryino? Well, there was no reason not to. As devoted to work and science as Bazarov was, he saw no harm in spending a little time in the mellow and pleasant country estate of his young friends parent. Moreover, Bazarov yet again pursues a selfish motive by agreeing to travel to Maryino: he dreads boredom, which would probably consume him at his true destination, his own parents homestead.

  • 263. Bellini, Giovanni

    In his early pictures, Bellini worked with tempera, combining a severe and rigid style with a depth of religious feeling and gentle humanity. From the beginning he was a painter of natural light. In his earliest pictures the sky is often reflected behind human figures in streaks of water that make horizontal lines in narrow strips of landscape. The Agony in the Garden was the first of a series of Venetian landscape scenes that continued to develop for the next century. Four triptychs (a triptych is a set of three panels used as an altarpiece) in the Venice Accademia and two Pietas, both in Milan, are all from this early period. Bellini's St. Vincent Ferrer altarpiece, which is still in the church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice, was painted in the mid-1470s.

  • 264. Big Ben England

    This bell came originally from the old Palace of Westminster, it was given to the Dean of St. Paul's by William III. Before returning to Westminster to hang in its present home, it was refashioned in Whitechapel in 1858. The BBC first broadcast the chimes on the 31st December 1923 - there is a microphone in the turret connected to Broadcasting House.

  • 265. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

    Bilateral Relations Between Countries and the Complexity of Newspaper Editorials Scoring manual for conceptual integrative complexity. In C. P. Smith (Ed.), Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Charles, J., Shore, L., & Todd, R. (1979). The New York Times coverage of lower and equatorial Africa. Journal of Communication, 29, 148-155. Downing, J. D. H. (1988). Trouble in the backyard: Soviet media reporting on the Afghanistan conflict. Journal of Communication, 38, 5-32. Dreier, P. (1982). The position of the press in the U.S. power structure. Social Problems, 29, 298- 310. Emery, E., & Emery, M. (1984). The press and America, 5th Ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall. Ertel, S. (1972). Erkentniss und Dogmatismus [Cognition and dogmatism]. Psychologische Rundschau, 23, 241-269. George, A. (1969). The operational code. International Studies Quarterly, 13, 190-222. Hermann, M. G. (1980). Explaining foreign policy behavior using the personality characteristics of political leaders. International Studies Quarterly, 24, 7-46. Lasswell, H. D., Leites, N., & associates (1949). Language of politics: Studies in quantitative semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mehrabian, A. (1967). Attitudes inferred from non-immediacy of verbal communications. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 294-295. Porter, C. A., & Suedfeld, P. (1981). Integrative complexity in the correspondence of literary figures: Effects of personal and societal stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 321-330. Roxburgh, A. (1987). Pravda: Inside the Soviet news machine. London: Gollancz. Rutherford, P. (1978). The making of the Canadian media. Toronto: McGraw-Hill-Ryerson. Salisbury, H. E. (1980). Without fear or favor: The New York Times and its times. New York: Times Books. Suedfeld, P. (1981). Indices of world tension in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Political Psychology, 2, 114-123. Suedfeld, P. (1985). APA presidential addresses: The relation of integrative complexity to historical, professional, and personal factors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1643- 1651. Suedfeld, P., & Bluck, S. (1988). Changes in integrative complexity prior to surprise attacks. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32, 626-635. Suedfeld, P., & Rank, A. D. (1976). Revolutionary leaders: Long-term success as a function of changes in conceptual complexity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 169-178. Suedfeld, P., & Tetlock, P. E. (1977). Integrative complexity of communications in international crises. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21, 169-184. Suedfeld, P., Tetlock, P. E., & Ramirez, C. E. (1977). War, peace, and integrative complexity: UN speeches on the Middle East problem, 1947-1976. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21, 427- 442. Suedfeld, P., Tetlock, P. E., & Streufert, S. (1992). Conceptual/integrative complexity. In C. P. Smith (Ed.), Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Tataryn, L. (1985). Power, politics and the press: The pundits. Toronto: Deneau. Tetlock, P. E. (1988). Monitoring the integrative complexity of American and Soviet policy rhetoric: What can be learned? Journal of Social Issues, 44, 101-131. Tetlock, P. E., & Boettger, R. (1989). Cognitive and rhetorical styles of traditionalist and reformist Soviet politicians. Political Psychology, 10, 209-232. Tetlock, P. E., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1985). Impression management versus intrapsychic explanations in social psychology: A useful dichotomy? Psychological Rework, 92, 59-77. Wallace, M. D., & Suedfeld, P. (1988). Leadership performance in crisis: The longevity-complexity link. International Studies Quarterly, 32, 439-451. Westell, A. (1977). The new society. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. Winter, D. G. (1987). Leader appeal, leader performance, and the motive profiles of leaders and followers: A study of American presidents and elections. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 196-202. 611

  • 266. BIOS и его настройки
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Другими полезными опциями могут стать автоматическое включение и загрузка компьютера в заданное время, а также его переход в спящий режим; в случае бездействия. Следует отметить, что настройку энергосберегающих режимов для монитора, жесткого диска и системы в целом можно осуществить и средствами Windows. В BIOS для этого необходимо включить функцию Power Management. Если в корпусе установлен блок питания стандарта ATX, в меню Automatic Power Up можно задать точное время запуска компьютера - единоразово, каждый день или в определенные дни месяца. Для того чтобы получить удаленный доступ к своему компьютеру и при этом не держать его постоянно включенным (в режиме сна), можно использовать режим PWR Up on Modem Act, который позволит BIOS включить компьютер в ответ на входящий телефонный звонок. При этом для загрузки и входа в систему не должны требоваться пароли, и, кроме того, система инициирует работу модема только после своей загрузки, а значит, процедуру соединения придется повторить. Кстати, в таком режиме щелчок тумблера модема сможет инициализировать включение компьютера. Есть и другие способы запуска компьютера - нажатие на пробел либо на кнопку мыши (если они подключены через порт PS/2), для чего в BIOS имеется опция PWR up on PS2 KB/Mouse.

  • 267. Blake, William

    "I do not behold the outward creation... it is a hindrance and not action." Thus William Blake--painter, engraver, and poet--explained why his work was filled with religious visions rather than with subjects from everyday life. Few people in his time realized that Blake expressed these visions with a talent that approached genius. He lived in near poverty and died unrecognized. Today, however, Blake is acclaimed one of England's great figures of art and literature and one of the most inspired and original painters of his time.

  • 268. Books

    And finishing my story about books I want to tell you about my favourite Belorussian writer. Every Belarussian man has his favourite Belarusian writer. As for me, he is Janka Kupala. He was born in the village Vyazynka. His father was a poor peasant, thats why his family always needed money. From his childhood Janla was fond of folk music, traditions and songs. Later it reflects on his creative works. He wrote such popular folk poems as “Dream near the Hill”, “She and I”, “The Grave of a Lion”. In the last poem he wrote about strong and brave peasant, called Masheka. He loved one woman. But after a rich man married her, he settled in the forest and began to rob rich men. Once when he robbed a cart he saw a beautiful woman, who looked like his love. She influenced on Masheka, and he didnt kill her. But some days later she killed Masheka and came back home. After that the place where it happened was called The Grave of the Lion or Mogilev. Kupala represents one of the peaks of Belarussian poetry. Not only owing to his genius, but to the fact that he was always with the people, most fully expressed the Spirit, the character and hopes of his people; belonged to the people, and wrote works which all appealed to the people.

  • 269. Books and libraries

    I usually take books from school library. The library is helpful when I have to make a report, when I need information on some subjects. The choice of books in our school library is very good. There are many short stories and novels, textbooks and reference books, dictionaries and encyclopedias there. All books are arranged in alphabetical order. I pay attention to the cover of the book, its illustrations, the name of the author, the title of the book and the contents.

  • 270. Books and Reading

    Books can fit almost every need, temper, or interest. Books can be read when you are in the mood; they don't have to be taken in periodic doses. Books are more personal and more impersonal than professors. Books have an inner confidence which individuals seldom show; they rarely have to be on the defensive. Books can afford to be bold, and courageous, and explanatory; they don't have to be so careful of boards of trustees, colleagues, and community opinion. Books are infinitely diverse; they run the gamut of human activity. Books can express every point of work; if you want a different point of work, you can read a different book. Reading is probably the most important skill you will need for success in your studies. You will have to read lengthy assignments in different subjects with varying degrees of detail and difficulty. If you read inaccurately, you will fail to understand some of the information and ideas you read. If you read slowly, you will have to spent too much time reading your assignments so that your other work may suffer.

  • 271. Books in My Life

    Reading books is a very important role in the life of people. It educates a person, enriches his intellect. Books bring pleasure and delight. I consider that books are with us during all our life. When I was a child my parents read them to me, I was pleased to listen to the stories and tales. I have learned a lot of interesting things from books since then. Now I like to read books on science. I am keen on reading the great variety of encyclopedias, reference books, technical magazines, etc.

  • 272. Books in Our Life

    There are some problems in our life and sometimes it is difficult to solve them. I think that books can help us. Last year I read a very interesting book "An American Tragedy" by Theodore Dreiser. This novel was published at the beginning of the 20th century. The novel describes the tragic fate of a boy and a girl, Clyde and Roberta by name. It is a sad story. This novel was written many years ago, but it is popular nowadays.

  • 273. Bosch, Hieronymus

    Even a more naturalistic painting like The Path of Life contains sinister elements. Apart from the dog snarling at the poverty-stricken old man, and the animal bones and skull in the foreground, robbers attack a traveller in the background, and a gallows is visible on the skyline above the old man's head. The Path of Life is on the outer face of the wings of a triptych. The three inside panels display Bosch's tragic work of human existence, dwelling upon the triumph of sin. Man's exile from Paradise is shown on the left, the infinite variation of human vice in the centre, and its consequence--exile to Hell--on the right.

  • 274. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

    The central panel of this triptych illustrates the kneeling figure of St Anthony being tormented by devils. These include a man with a thistle for a head, and a fish that is half gondola. Bizarre and singular as such images seem to us, many would have been familiar to Bosch's contemporaries because they relate to Flemish proverbs and religious terminology. What is so extraordinary is that these imaginary creatures are painted with utter conviction, as though they truly existed. He has invested each bizarre or outlandish creation with the same obvious realism as the naturalistic animal and human elements. His nightmarish images seem to possess an inexplicable surrealistic power.

  • 275. Botticelli, Sandro

    After Masaccio, Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Moriano Filipepi, 1444/5-1510) comes as the next great painter of the Florentine tradition. The new, sharply contoured, slender form and rippling sinuous line that is synonymous with Botticelli was influenced by the brilliant, precise draftsmanship of the Pollaiuolo brothers, who trained not only as painters, but as goldsmiths, engravers, sculptors, and embroidery designers. However, the rather stiff, scientifically formulaic appearance of the Pollaiuolos' painting of The Martyrdom of St Sebastian, for instance, which clearly follows anatomical dictates, finds no place in the painting of Botticelli. His sophisticated understanding of perspective, anatomy, and the Humanist debate of the Medici court never overshadows the sheer poetry of his vision. Nothing is more gracious, in lyrical beauty, than Botticelli's mythological paintings Primavera and The Birth of Venus, where the pagan story is taken with reverent seriousness and Venus is the Virgin Mary in another form. But it is also significant that no-one has ever agreed on the actual subject of Primavera, and a whole shelf in a library can be taken up with different theories; but though scholars may argue, we need no theories to make Primavera dear to us. In this allegory of life, beauty, and knowledge united by love, Botticelli catches the freshness of an early spring morning, with the pale light shining through the tall, straight trees, already laden with their golden fruit: oranges, or the mythical Golden Apples of the Hesperides?

  • 276. Boucher, François

    Boucher, the son of a designer of lace, was born in Paris. He studied with the painter Franзois Le Moyne but was most influenced by the delicate style of his contemporary Antoine Watteau. In 1723 Boucher won the Prix de Rome; he studied in Rome from 1727 to 1731. After his return to France, he created hundreds of paintings, decorative boudoir panels, tapestry designs, theater designs, and book illustrations. He became a faculty member of the Royal Academy in 1734. He designed for the Beauvais tapestry works and in 1755 became director of the Gobelins tapestries. In 1765 he was made first painter to the king, director of the Royal Academy, and designer for the Royal Porcelain Works. His success was encouraged by his patron, Marquise de Pompadour, mistress to Louis XV. He painted her portrait several times.

  • 277. Bread in our life
    Иностранные языки

    The Bible tells of the matzoh the Israelites ate as they fled Egypt. Because the former slaves dough had no time to rise, it baked on their backs as they escaped into the desert. Whether or not the story is historically accurate, we do know that lifestyle plays a major role in the kinds of breads people eat. In central Asia, where both grain and fuel are scarce, nomads make small, thin rounds that cook quickly over a fire. To survive long, cold winters, the people of central Anatolia hang rings of bread from the rafters. When fresh bread is needed, a ring is brought down, moistened with water, and soon is ready to eat.

  • 278. Britain

    Britain is only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. Edinburgh, Scotland's capital, is very beautiful. The heart of the city is the castle, where the kings of Scotland lived for centuries. Edinburgh has a busy cultural life. Every year, in August, the International Festival takes place. Musicians, actors and singers come from all over the world and thousands of visitors fill the city. In the evening, the opera house, the theatres and concert halls are full. In cafes and pubs, small groups sing, act and read poetry. The castle is at its best in Festival time. Every night there is a magnificent military "Tattoo". Highland soldiers wearing "kilts" play the bagpipes and march to the music. Tartans, the patterns of the kilts, have an interesting history. Since the fifteenth century, each Scottish family (or 'clan') has worn its own tartan as a kind of badge. It was a useful way of recognizing people, especially in times of war. Many tartans date only from the nineteenth century, but some of the old patterns still exist. "Dress" tartans, worn on special occasions, have light, bright colours. Hunting tartans are usually green, blue, or brown.

  • 279. British and American Families

    The typical British family has a car, a colour TV set, a washing machine, and a cat or dog as well. They start the day at about 7 o'clock, have breakfast at 8. and are off to work by 8.30 . More and more women now go out to work as well as men. The children have lunch at school at about 12.30, and come home at 4 in the afternoon. Their parents are usually home by 6 o'clock, and the family eats together at 6.30 or 7. In the evenings, father may go to the pub for a drink, or stay at home and watch TV with the others. Children go to bed early, at about 8 o'clock, two or three hours before their parents.

  • 280. British holidays

    The 25th of December is Christmas Day. It is one of the people's favourite holidays. People put Christmas trees in their houses and decorate them. There are beautiful Christmas decorations in the streets. On Christmas Eve everybody puts the presents under the Christmas tree. People say that at night Father Christmas puts presents into the stockings which children usually hang on their beds. The traditional Christmas meal is roast turkey and Christmas pudding.