• 461. Estonian Towns

    By putting up in the summertime Pärnu, in the town of bright sun, salty sea, invigorating western wind, enchanting boulevards, excellent swimming opportunities, modern treatment facilities, music and friendly people, you can shake off the shadows of the tomorrow from the countenance of todays generation, whatever the challenges posed today”. This was written in 1936. The present spa town of Pärnu attracts the young by its beaches and the ruckus of summer events, and the not so young by fresh air, mud baths, and peace and quiet. There is something for everyones pleasure! Pärnu is a health resort of international stature. Proof to this is the visitors arriving from around fifty countries, and the following two honours bestowed upon it: in 2000, Pärnu joined the ESPA (European Spas Association) and in 2001 Pärnu flew the European Blue Flag at its beach.

  • 462. ETS450WLL Wireless Access System

    Помимо основных телефонных услуг, беспроводные абоненты системы ETS450WLL также имеют доступ к множеству дополнительных видов обслуживания (ДВО) включая: сокращённый набор, горячая линия и услуги отсутствия абонентов. Она также обеспечивает услугу «не беспокоить», ограничение исходящего вызова, отслеживание злонамеренных вызовов, будильник, переадресация вызова, ожидание вызова, трехсторонние услуги, конференц-связь и так далее. ETS450WLL также поддерживает передачу факсов G3 и низкоскоростную передачу данных по модему.

  • 463. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

    In the wake of the national liberation movement arose Belarusian scientific-literary circle of students of St. Petersburg University. Members of the circle, and the first known later library activist Eugene Hlebtsevich, who initiated the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus. As the historian of librarianship MI Bye, "was created 11 public libraries: nine in the Grodno province and two in Minsk. They distributed literature among the residents of more than 100 villages "[1, pp. 55]. The basis of these libraries were progressive book publisher FF Pavlenkov. Brother Eugene Hlebtsevicha Vladimir wrote that "a well-known publisher Pavlenkov donated as a bequest capital on the device of public libraries" [2, pp. 139]. Active participation in the selection of literature for public libraries and their supply has democratic intelligentsia of Belarus. For example, Yanka Kupala, who was at that time in St. Petersburg, ensure people's library of publications of Belarusian publishing house "Look sonce ³ ® our akontsa. Members of the Belarusian scientific and literary circles of St. Petersburg University bustled about getting books from publishers "Knowledge", "mediator" and others, organized evenings and concerts, part of the collection of which was to purchase books for public libraries. At the request of members of the group Petersburg Academy of Sciences as an exception to free allocated libraries works of Russian classical literature, sent their books Tolstoy, Gorky, Serafimovich. Due to public libraries Belarusian peasants first opportunity to get acquainted with the works of their national writers Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas, aunts, F. Bahusevic and others, with the first Belarusian newspaper "Our share" and "Nasha Niva".

  • 464. Euro-Atlantic integration and Ukrainian youth. Opinions and problems
    Иностранные языки

    Official representative of YATA in Ukraine is Youth Centre of Atlantic Council in Ukraine (YCACU), public organization established within the framework of Youth Program of Ukrainian Atlantic Council with a purpose of spreading among the youth the information and propaganda the ideas of Ukraines integration into European and Euroatlantic structures. The main working activities of Youth Centre ACU are:

    1. informing and popularizing of the main objectives of the centre, including working with the media;
    2. contribution to researching work, organization and consulting work regarding formation of political, economical, scientific, technical priorities as well as strategic interests of Ukraine.
  • 465. Europe

    I`d like to tell you about Europe. Europe is our common home. All the history is going up from Europe. Europeans had opened other continent and the European languages are speaking all over the world today. It consists of 42 countries, such as the UK, France, Germany and others, and Russia is among them. Europe is the second smallest part of the world after Australia. The area of Europe is about 10 million sq. km. The population is about 700 million people. The largest countries by the area are: the European part of Russia (4 million sq. km.) and the Ukraine (600.000 sq. km.). The largest countries by population are the European part of Russia (100 million people) and Germany (79 million people). There are some facts about Europe.

  • 466. Europe in the Middle Ages

    Little of Europe's coming dynamism was apparent in the year 1000, although there were signs that the Continent was getting richer. Wider use of plows had made farming more efficient. The planting of new crops, notably beans and peas, added variety to Europe's diet Windmills and watermills provided fresh sources of power. Villages that were to become towns and eventually cities grew up around trading markets. Yet the modern nation-state, with its centralized bureaucracies and armies under unified command came into being in the 15th century. For most of the Middle Ages, Roman Catholicism was Europe's unifying force. Benedictine abbeys had preserved what fragments of ancient learning the Continent possessed. Cistercian monks had cleared the land and pioneered in agricultural experimentation. Ambitious popes competed with equally ambitious kings to determine whether the spiritual realm would hold power over the temporal, or vice versa. Symbolic of the church's power were the great Gothic cathedrals of Europe: construction of Reims began in the 13th century, and Charters-the most glorious of all such edifices-was consecrated in 1260.

  • 467. European Union

    Although the EU is the fifth major trade bloc in the world, there are some weak sides the EU should consider very carefully. At first the EU has to set special policies concerning the trade with nonmember countries to avoid or secure from expected outsiders barriers. Instead the EU can enact such policy that will deepen the relationships with nonmember countries. As soon as 13 countries enter into this free trade zone or bloc, the EU will become more successful and will increase exports to support member countries consumers. Yet, however much nations and regions integrate their trading policies and standards, each nation still has unique features that must be understood. A nations readiness for different products and services and its attractiveness as a market to foreign firms depend on its economic, political legal, and cultural environments. The EU became driving force into the international market for member countries. Such kind of economic communities are needed to increase todays economic growth and make countries better off.

  • 468. Examining english business letters

    This letter contains the quotation in reply to an inquiry. In lots of similar letters the quotations are simply prices and another information asked for. But this sample is quite the opposite: it shows the customer that he met the sales-cautious businessman, who uses every opportunity to stimulate his correspondents interest in his goods by including the sales message. And the assurance that the customer will receive personal attention is read between the lines. In order to draw the attention of the customer to the products in question the supplier offers "cuttings of our materials and a colour chart". On the whole a firm offer is subject to certain conditions, a deadline for the receipt of orders, or a special price for certain quantities.

  • 469. Explorers

    Amundsen was the first to leave, on 16 October, 1911. He had teams of dogs pulling the sledges and all his men were on skis. Because of this, he made rapid progress. Scott left on 1 November and soon had problems. His two motor sledges broke down. Amundsen reached the Pole on 14 December and put a Norwegian flag there. Scott finally arrived at the Pole with his men on 17 January. They were devastated when they saw Norwegian flag.

  • 470. Expressionism and Fauvism

    Even at their wildest, the Fauves had retained a sense of harmony and design, but Die Brьcke abandoned such restraint. They used images of the modern city to convey a hostile, alienating world, with distorted figures and colors. Kirchner does just this in Berlin Street Scene (1913; 121 x 95 cm (47 1/2 x 37 1/2 in)), where the shrill colors and jagged hysteria of his own vision flash forth uneasily. There is a powerful sense of violence, contained with difficulty, in much of their art. Emil Nolde (1867-1956), briefly associated with Die Brьcke, was a more profound Expressionist who worked in isolation for much of his career. His interest in primitive art and sensual color led him to paint some remarkable pictures with dynamic energy, simple rhythms, and visual tension. He could even illuminate the marshes of his native Germany with dramatic clashes of stunning color. Yet Early Evening (1916; 74 x 101 cm (29 x 39 1/2 in)) is not mere drama: light glimmers over the distance with an exhilarating sense of space.

  • 471. Expressionnism

    Expressionism, artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse in him. He accomplishes his aim through distortion, exaggeration, primitivism, and fantasy and through the vivid, jarring, violent, or dynamic application of formal elements. In a broader sense Expressionism is one of the main currents of art in the later 19th and the 20th centuries, and its qualities of highly subjective, personal, spontaneous self-expression are typical of a wide range of modern artists and art movements. Expressionism can also be seen as a permanent tendency in Germanic and Nordic art from at least the European Middle Ages, particularly in times of social change or spiritual crisis, and in this sense it forms the converse of the rationalist and classicizing tendencies of Italy and later of France.

  • 472. Eyck, Jan van

    Van Eyck's most famous and most controversial work is one of his first, the Ghent altarpiece (1432), a polyptych consisting of twenty panels in the Church of St. Bavo, Ghent. On the frame is an incomplete inscription in Latin that identifies the artists of the work as Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The usual interpretation is that Hubert van Eyck (d. Sept. 18, 1426) was the brother of Jan and that he was the painter who began the altarpiece, which Jan then completed. Another interpretation is that Hubert was neither Jan's brother nor a painter, but a sculptor who carved an elaborate frame for the altar. Because of this controversy, attribution of the panels, which vary somewhat in scale and even in style, has differed, according to the arguments of scholars who have studied the problem. The exterior of the altar depicts Jodocus Vijdt, the donor, and his wife kneeling on either side of two grisaille (painted in gray to resemble statuary) representations of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist; above is an Annunciation. The brightly colored interior is dominated by a panel representing the Adoration of the Holy Lamb. Equally famous is the wedding portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife (1434; National Gallery, London), which the artist signed "Johannes de Eyck fuit hic 1434" (Jan van Eyck was here), testimony that he witnessed the ceremony. Other important paintings are the Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (1433-34 Louvre, Paris) and the Madonna of Canon van der Paele (1436; Groeninge Museum, Bruges).

  • 473. Eyck, Jan van: altarpiece in Ghent

    His most striking demonstration of his new conception of art, however, he reserved for the inner wings: the figures of Adam and Eve after the Fall The Bible tells us that it was only after having eaten from the Tree of Knowledge that they 'knew they were naked'. Stark naked indeed they look, despite the fig leaves they hold in their hands. Here there is really no parallel with the masters of the early Renaissance in Italy who never quite abandoned the traditions of Greek and Roman art. We remember that the ancients had 'idealized' the human figure in such works as the Venus of Milo or the Apollo Belvedere. Jan van Eyck would have had none of this. He must have placed naked models in front of him and painted them so faithfully that later generations were somewhat shocked by so much honesty. Not that the artist had no eye for beauty. He clearly also enjoyed evoking the splendors of Heaven no less shall the master of the Wilton Diptych had done a generation earlier. But look again at the difference, at the patience and mastery with which he studied and painted the sheen of the precious brocades worn by the music-making angels and the sparkle of jewelry everywhere. In this respect the Van Eycks did not break as radically with the traditions of the International Style as Masaccio had done. They rather pursued the methods of such artists as the Limbourg brothers and brought them to such a pitch of perfection that they left the ideas of medieval art behind. They, like other Gothic masters of their period, had enjoyed crowding their pictures with charming and delicate details taken from observation. They were proud to show their skill in painting flowers and animals, buildings, gorgeous costumes and jewelry, and to present a delightful feast to the eye. We have seen that they did not concern themselves overmuch with the real appearance of the figures and landscapes, and that their drawing and perspective were therefore not very convincing. One cannot say the same thing of Van Eyck's pictures. His observation of nature is even more patient, his knowledge of details much more exact. The trees and the building in the background show this difference clearly. The trees of the Limbourg brothers, as we remember, were rather schematic and conventional. Their landscape looked like a back-cloth or a tapestry rather than actual scenery. All this is quite different in Van Eyck's picture. In the details we have real trees and a real landscape leading back to the city and castle on the horizon. The infinite patience with which the grass on the rocks and the flowers growing in the crags arc painted bears no comparison with the ornamental undergrowth in the Limbourg miniature. What is true of the landscape is true of the figures. Van Eyck seems to have been so intent on reproducing every minute detail on his picture that we almost seem able to count the hairs of the horses' manes, or on the fur trimmings of the riders' costumes. The white horse in the Limbourg miniature looks a little like a rocking-horse. Van Eyck's horse is very similar in shape and posture, but it is alive. We can see the light in its eye, and the creases in its skin, and, while the earlier horse looks almost flat, Van Eyck's horse has rounded limbs which arc modeled in light and shade.

  • 474. Eyck, Jan van: portraits

    Van Eyck's art reached perhaps its greatest triumph in the painting of portraits. One of his most famous portraits is The betrothal of the Arnolfini, which represents an Italian merchant, Giovanni Arnolfini, who had come to the Netherlands on business, with his bride Jeanne de Chenany. In its own way it was as new and as revolutionary as Donatello's or Masaccio's work in Italy. A simple corner of the real world had suddenly been fixed on to a panel as if by magic. Here it all was - the carpet and the slippers, the rosary on the wall, the little brush beside the bed, and the fruit on the window-sill. It is as if we could pay a visit to the Arnolfini in their house. The picture probably represents a solemn moment in their lives - their betrothal. The young woman has just put her right hand into Arnolfini's left and he is about to put his own right hand into hers as a solemn token of their union. Probably the painter was asked to record this important moment as a witness, just as a notary might be asked to declare that he has been present at a similar solemn act. This would explain why the master has put his name in a prominent position on the picture with the Latin words 'Johannes de eyck fuit hic' (Jan van Eyck was here). In the mirror at the back of the room we see the whole scene reflected from behind, and there, so it seems, we also see the image of the painter and witness. We do not know whether it was the Italian merchant or the northern artist who conceived the idea of making this use of the new kind of painting, which may be compared to the legal use of a photograph, properly endorsed by a witness. But whoever it was that originated this idea, he had certainly been quick to understand the tremendous possibilities which lay in Van Eyck's new way of painting. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term.

  • 475. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

    A panel shows the sacrificial Lamb on the high altar, its sacred blood pouring into a chalice. Angels surround the altar, carrying reminders of the Crucifixion and in the foreground gushes the Fountain of Life. Coming from the four corners of the earth are the worshippers, a diverse collection that includes prophets, martyrs, popes, virgins, pilgrims, knights, and hermits. It is likely, as with many great religious works of the time, that van Eyck would have been advised by a theologian, and these figures seem to represent the hierarchy of the Church. Set in a beautiful, lush landscape, the holy city gleams on the horizon, its outline very much that of a Dutch city; the church on the right is probably Utrecht Cathedral. The very perfection and accuracy, the convincingness of the vast altarpiece explain why this mystic vision has laid such a hold on the affections of those who see it. The Ghent Altarpiece envelops the worker in a mood of contemplation, but any more rigorous analysis becomes a massive intellectual effort. We can move more easily into a smaller painting, such as his long, slender Annunciation.

  • 476. Fables

    SOME DOGS, finding the skin of a lion, began to tear it in pieces with their teeth. A Fox, seeing them, said, “If this lion were alive, you would soon find out that his claws were stronger than your teeth.” “It is easy to kick a man that is down.” The Eagle and the Fox AN EAGLE and a Fox formed an intimate friendship and decided to live near each other. The Eagle built her nest in the branches of a tall tree, while the Fox crept into the underwood and there produced her young. Not long after they had agreed upon this plan, the Eagle, being in want of provision for her young ones, swooped down while the Fox was out, seized upon one of the little cubs, and feasted herself and her brood. The Fox on her return, discovered what had happened, but was less grieved for the death of her young than for her inability to avenge them. A just retribution, however, quickly fell upon the Eagle. While hovering near an altar, on which some villagers were sacrificing a goat, she suddenly seized a piece of the flesh, and carried it, along with a burning cinder, to her nest. A strong breeze soon fanned the spark into a flame, and the eaglets, as yet unfledged and helpless, were roasted in their nest and dropped down dead at the bottom of the tree. There, in the sight of the Eagle, the Fox gobbled them up.

  • 477. Faculty of clinical psycology

    За эти годы AMA стал центром, обеспечивающим выше медицинское образование к целому Archangel Область. Это недавно yw/ановило множество новых факультетов (способностей), чтобы обучить специалистов в пределах о6ласти(поля) человеческих у слуг, включая общественное благосостояние, восстановление, забота дня для детей, медицинского обслуживания, юных и взрослых исправлений, старших услуг, алкоголя(спирта) и злоупотребления лекарственного средства, занятости и обучая обслуживание (службу), образование и так далее.

  • 478. Family relations

    To create a happy marriage is their own duty. Both husband and wife must create their happiness together. A happy marriage does not mean that husband and wife must have similar characters but the ability to understand each other. Its really very difficult to keep up a marriage without mutual understanding. When a family is happy, it means that all the members of the family trust each other, tell each other about their joys and sorrows.

  • 479. Famous people

    He fought courageously for human rights in the former USSR and in 1975 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. His international repute as a scientist kept him out official, but in 1980 he was deprived of all his titles and orders and exiled to the city of Gorky. There he continued to work for peace, justice and human rights.

  • 480. Fantin-Latour, Henri

    Homage to Delacroix (Musйe d'Orsay, Paris, 1864) shows Fantin-Latour himself, with Baudelaire, Manet, Whistler, and others grouped round a portrait of Delacroix; and A Studio at Batignolles (sometimes called Homage to Manet) (Musйe d'Orsay, Paris, 1870) shows Monet, Renoir, and others in Manet's studio. In spite of his associations with such progressive artists, Fantin-Latour was a traditionalist, and his portraits particularly are in a precise, detailed style.