• 521. H. G. Wells

    Though Tono-Bungay was not a science-fiction novel, radioactive decay plays a small but consequential role in it. Radioactive decay plays a much larger role in The World Set Free (1914). This book contains what is surely his biggest prophetic "hit." Scientists of the day were well aware that the natural decay of radium releases energy at a slow rate over thousands of years. The rate of release is too slow to have practical utility, but the total amount released is huge. Wells's novel revolves around an (unspecified) invention that accelerates the process of radioactive decay, producing bombs that explode with no more than the force of ordinary high explosive but which "continue to explode" for days on end. "Nothing could have been more obvious to the people of the earlier twentieth century," he wrote, "than the rapidity with which war was becoming impossible... [but] they did not see it until the atomic bombs burst in their fumbling hands." Leó Szilárd acknowledged that the book inspired him to theorise the nuclear chain reaction.[12]

  • 522. Hals, Frans

    His reputation did not long outlive him, however, and with rare exceptions -- Reynolds was one of them -- few critics before 1850 praised him. It was only in the second half of the 19th century that there was a renewed appreciation of his genius. The spontaneity of his work appealed to the generation of the Impressionists, and from about 1870 to about 1920 he was one of the most popular of the Old Masters, becoming a model for society portraitists. Lord Hertford's purchase of his most famous work, The Laughing Cavalier (Wallace Collection, London, 1624), for the then enormous sum of 51,000 francs in 1865, was a milestone in the revival of his fortunes, and the buoyant confidence of his paintings later made him a particular favorite with the new generation of fabulously rich American collectors -- self-made men -- who were beginning to dominate the picture market. This explains why so many works by him are in American collections.

  • 523. Happy New Year

    In Europe traditions vary considerably, but most of them involve a meal or special food. Swiss housewives bake special bread, rich in butter, eggs and raisins. They also cook roast goose. Children go from house to house greeting the occupants and receiving invitations to come inside. People in Italy hold all-night parties, where salt pork lentils are included on the menu. Lentils are supposed to be lucky and bring money - perhaps because they look like small piles of gold coins. There is a practical reason for meals featuring in these new year festivities. Most people stay up all night, or at least until midnight to "see the New Year in", so sustenance is essential. Also there is common superstition that if the new year begins well it will continue like that.

  • 524. Harry Potter: Films, Books etc

    The books Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States) Story time: 1981, 1991 to 1992 Release: 26 June 1997 (UK); 1 September 1998 (US) US sales: 17 Million. Hardcover 6.1 million, Paperback 10.9 million Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Story time: 1943, 1992 to 1993 Release: 2 July 1998 (UK); 2 June 1999 (US) US sales: 14.7 million. Hardcover 7.3 million, Paperback 7.5 million Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Story time: 1993 to 1994 Release: 8 July 1999 (UK); 8 September 1999 (US) US sales: 12.8 million. Hardcover 7.6 million, Paperback 5.2 million Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Story time: 1944, 1994 to 1995 Release: 8 July 2000 (UK/US) US sales: 12.3 million. Hardcover 8.9 million, Paperback 3.4 million Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Story time: 1976, 1995 to 1996 Release: 21 June 2003 (UK/US) US sales: 13.7 million. Hardcover 12.2 million, Paperback 1.5 million. 5 million in first 24 hours, initial printing 8.5 million copies. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Story time:1926, 1960, 1970, 1996 to 1997 Release: 16 July 2005 (UK/US) US Sales: 20 million. 7 million in 24 hours, initial printing 10.8 million copies. Title unknown Story time: 1997 to ???? (possibly 1998) Release: unannounced date (probably worldwide) As of 1 January 2006, over three hundred million (300,000,000) copies of Harry Potter books have been sold worldwide.

  • 525. Harry S Truman

    Thus far, he had followed his predecessor's policies, but he soon developed his own. He presented to Congress a 21-point program, proposing the expansion of Social Security, a full-employment program, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, and public housing and slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote, "symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of President in my own right." It became known as the Fair Deal.

  • 526. Haushaltsberatungen

    Das Schwergewicht der AusschuЯarbeit liegt beim HaushaltsausschuЯ, der den Etat in alien Einzelheiten unter den Gesichtspunkten von Sparsamkeit und politischer ZweckmдЯigkeit prьft. Durch Zustimmung, Kьrzen oder Streichen von Positionen kann der HaushaltsausschuЯ die Politik der Regierung beeinflussen. Bei alien Дnderungen am Haushaltsentwurf muЯ der AusschuЯ darauf achten, daЯ der Etat den rechtlichen Verpflichtungen entspricht, Einnahmen und Ausgaben ausgeglichen sind - wie es das Grundgesetz vorschreibt.

  • 527. Health

    When we are ill, we call a doctor, and he examines us and diagnoses the illness. When we have a headache, a stomach ache, a sore throat, a cold, or a pain in some parts of the body, we call a doctor. He takes our temperature and our pulse. He examines our heart, our lungs, our stomach or the part where we have pain, and tells us what the matter is with us. The doctor prescribes medicine, and gives us a prescription, which we take to the chemist's, who makes up the medicine.

  • 528. Heavy Metals

    Average daily lead intake for adults in the UK is estimated at 1.6µg from air, 20µg from drinking water and 28µg from food. Although most people receive the bulk of their lead intake from food, in specific populations other sources may be more important, such as water in areas with lead piping and plumbosolvent water, air near point of source emissions, soil, dust, paint flakes in old houses or contaminated land. Lead in the air contributes to lead levels in food through deposition of dust and rain containing the metal, on crops and the soil. For the majority of people in the UK, however, dietary lead exposure is well below the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation.

  • 529. Heian Art

    The Ho-o-do (Phoenix Hall, completed 1053) of the Byodoin, a temple in Uji to the southeast of Kyoto, is the exemplar of Fujiwara Amida halls. It consists of a main rectangular structure flanked by two L-shaped wing corridors and a tail corridor, set at the edge of a large artificial pond. Inside, a single golden image of Amida (circa 1053) is installed on a high platform. The Amida sculpture was executed by Jocho, who used a new canon of proportions and a new technique (yosegi), in which multiple pieces of wood are carved out like shells and joined from the inside. Applied to the walls of the hall are small relief carvings of celestials, the host believed to have accompanied Amida when he descended from the Western Paradise to gather the souls of believers at the moment of death and transport them in lotus blossoms to Paradise. Raigo (Descent of the Amida Buddha) paintings on the wooden doors of the Ho-o-do are an early example of Yamato-e, Japanese-style painting, because they contain representations of the scenery around Kyoto.

  • 530. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century

    In 1834, Longfellow was appointed a professorship at Harvard. From 1836 to 1854, Longfellow served as Smith Professor of Modern Languages. He returned to Europe for a year to study German, and his first wife, Mary Storer Potter, accompanied him. Between appointments and meetings (he had letters of introduction to influential people), Longfellow walked the countries of Denmark, England, Germany, Holland, Sweden and Switzerland. Drawing upon his love of music, he played his silver flute to make people feel at ease with him. He enjoyed meeting people no matter what they did for a living or their place in society. In 1835, tragedy occurred when his wife, Mary, died in Rotterdam. Later, Longfellow returned to Cambridge where he boarded at Craigie House (once headquarters to George Washington). In 1839, Longfellow published his first book of poems, Voices of the Night. He felt that teaching interfered with his writing and resigned from Harvard in 1854. In June of that year he started writing The Song of Hiawatha.

  • 531. Hepatitis A Prevention

    Who is at risk for hepatitis A?

    • Persons who share a household or have sex contact with someone who has the hepatitis A
    • Travelers to countries where hepatitis A is common and where clean water and proper sewage disposal are not available
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Persons who use street drugs
    • Children and employees in child care centers (especially centers that have children in diapers) where a child or employee has hepatitis A
    • Residents and staff of institutions for developmentally disabled persons when a resident or employee has hepatitis A
    • Workers who handle HAV-infected animals or work with HAV in a research laboratory setting. (This does not include laboratories doing routine testing.)
    • Persons with clotting factor disorders who receive clotting factor concentrates
  • 532. Herodotos

    As such, his Histories give us a fair insight into how the Ancient Egyptians worked their own history. Thus he confirms the Ancient Egyptian tradition which names Menes as their first king. He also states that this Menes was the founder of the city of Memphis, which is probably a reflection of the chauvinism of the Memphite priests who were his main source of information.

  • 533. High education in Great Britain

    After three or four years the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelors degree: Bachelor of Arts for History or Bachelor of Science. The first postgraduate degree is Master of Arts, Master of Science. Doctor of Philosophy is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge. Open Days are a chance for applicants to see the university, meet students and ask questions. All this will help you decide whether you have made the right choice.

  • 534. Higher Education in the USA

    Множество университетов и колледжей, как бесплатных, так и частных, получили репутацию за предложение особенно спорных курсов, и за обеспечение их студентов более высоким качеством образования. Вообще подавляющее большинство их расценивается весьма удовлетворительно. Некоторые другие учреждения, наоборот, обеспечивают только достаточное образование, их студенты посещают занятия, сдают экзамены и оканчивают как просто компетентные специалисты, но не как выдающиеся ученые и профессионалы. Факторами, определяющими является ли учреждение одним из лучших, или одним из менее престижных, являются: качество обучения факультетов, качество оборудования для исследований, уровень финансирования библиотек, специальных программ, и т.д., а также компетентность и число претендентов на прием, то есть насколько данное учреждение свободно в выборе студентов. Все эти факторы дополняют друг друга. Вообще в Соединенных Штатах признано, что есть более и менее предпочтительные учреждения для обучения и получения высшего образования. Более предпочтительные учреждения обычно, но не всегда, являются более дорогостоящими, и окончание одного из них может принести значительные преимущества, поскольку каждый человек ищет возможность занятости и социальную подвижность в пределах общества. Конкурс на поступление в такой колледж побуждает миллионы старшеклассников сдавать SAT каждый год. Но недавно акцент на вступительных экзаменах широко критиковался в Соединенных Штатах, потому что экзамены позволяют определить компетентность в математике и английском языке. В защиту использования экзаменов как критериев при поступлении, руководители многих университетов говорят, что использование SAT позволяет справедливо решить, кого принять, когда имеется 10 или 12 претендентов на одно место.

  • 535. Hight medical course

    The third through fifth years are called the Senior Course. During the third year students study pathology, pharmacology general surgery and surgical anatomy. In the latter, students learn to perform three basic operations - appendectomy, tracheotomy, and correction for ectcopic pregnancy - on cadavers .In the 4 year long course of propedentical of eliciting them diagnosis, and theoretical aspects of pathology. The course also includes subjects such as physician's ethics and deontology. The latter is concerned with how and when to communicate critical information to patients. Clinical practice is begun during the Senior Course Croups of 10 or fewer students accompany a professor examining patients. Students gather anamnesis, perform physical examination, observe instrumental diagnostic procedures and treatment, and analyze laboratory data under their professors supervision. Students are evaluated by their ability to write a case history, to logically construct a diagnosis and by oral examination.

  • 536. Hillary Rodham Clinton

    As the nation's First Lady, Hillary continued to balance public service with private life. Her active role began in 1993 when the President asked her to chair the Task Force on National Health Care Reform. She continued to be a leading advocate for expanding health insurance coverage, ensuring children are properly immunized, and raising public awareness of health issues. She wrote a weekly newspaper column entitled "Talking It Over," which focused on her experiences as First Lady and her observations of women, children, and families she has met around the world. Her 1996 book It Takes a Village and Other Lessons Children Teach Us was a best seller, and she received a Grammy Award for her recording of it.

  • 537. Hiroshige, Ando

    Ando Hiroshige was born in Edo (now Tokyo) and at first, like his father, was a fire warden. The prints of Hokusai are said to have first kindled in him the desire to become an artist, and he entered the studio of Utagawa Toyohiro, a renowned painter, as an apprentice. In 1812 Hiroshige took his teacher's name (a sign of graduation), signing his work Utagawa Hiroshige. His career falls roughly into three periods. From 1811 to about 1830 he created prints of traditional subjects such as young women and actors. During the next 15 years he won fame as a landscape artist, reaching a peak of success and achievement in 1833 when his masterpiece, the print series Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido (scenes on the highway connecting Edo and Kyoto), was published. He maintained this high level of craftmanship in other travel series, including Celebrated Places in Japan and Sixty-nine Stations on the Kiso Highway. The work he did during the third period, the last years of his life, is sometimes of lesser quality, as he appears to have hurriedly met the demands of popularity. He died of cholera on October 12, 1858, in Edo.

  • 538. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

    One might have expected that the triumph of English would lead to weakening of the French influence upon English. In reality, however, the impact of French became more apparent. As seen from the surviving written texts, French loan-words multiplied at the very time when English became a medium of general communication. The large-scale influx of French loads can be attributed to several causes. It is probably that many French words had been in current use for quite a long time before they were first recorded. As it was aforementioned records in Early M.E. were scare and came mostly from the Northern and Western regions, which were least affected by French influence. Later M.N. texts were produced in London and in the neighboring areas, with a mixed and largely bilingual population. In numerous translation from French which became necessary when the French language was going out of use-many loan-words were employed for the sake of greater precision, for want of a suitable native equivalent or due to the translators inefficiency. It is also important that in the course of the 14th c. the local dialects were brought into closer contact; they intermixed and influenced one another: therefore the infiltration of French borrowings into all the local and social varieties of English progressed more rapidly.

  • 539. History of Andorra

    Tradition holds that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) granted a charter to Andorran people in return for fighting against the Moors. Overlordship of the territory passed to the local count of Urgell and eventually to the bishop of the diocese of Urgell. The Bishop then handed over the territory to the Lord of Caboet. The Caboet family married into the family of the French Count of Foix and through this marriage, the Count inherited all of the Spanish lord's land, including Andorra. In the eleventh century a dispute arose between the bishop and his northern neighbour over Andorra.

  • 540. History of Belarus

    Joseph Stalin implemented a policy of Sovietization to isolate the Byelorussian SSR from Western influences.[23] This policy involved sending Russians from various parts of the Soviet Union and placing them in key positions in the Byelorussian SSR government. The official use of the Belarusian language and other cultural aspects were limited by Moscow. After Stalin died in 1953, successor Nikita Khrushchev continued this program, stating, "The sooner we all start speaking Russian, the faster we shall build communism".[23] When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev began pushing through his reform plan, the Belarusian people delivered a petition to him in December 1986 explaining the loss of their culture. Earlier that year, Byelorussian SSR was exposed to nuclear fallout from the explosion at the Chernobyl power plant in neighboring Ukrainian SSR.[25] In June 1988 at the rural site of Kurapaty near Minsk, archaeologist Zianon Pazniak, the leader of Christian Conservative Party of the BPF, discovered mass graves which contained about 250,000 bodies of victims executed in 1937-1941.[25] Some nationalists contend that this discovery is proof that the Soviet government was trying to erase the Belarusian people, causing Belarusian nationalists to seek independence.[26]