• 501. Gesetzgebung in der Bundesrepublik

    In der Bundesrepublik ist die Staatsgewalt zwischen Bund und Lдndem aufgeteilt. Als oberste gesetzgebende Gewalt berat und verabschiedet der Deutsche Bundestag Gesetze. Anregungen zu Gesetzen kцnnen auch von Verbдnden oder Interessengruppen kommen. Gesetze einzubringen ist das Recht des Bundestages selbst sowie der Bundesregierung und des Bundesrates. AusschlieЯliche Gesetzgebung liegt voll in der Kompetenz des Bundes (z. B. auswдrtige Angelegenheiten, Verteidigung, Wдhrung). Konkurrierende Gesetzgebung ist das Befugnis der Lдnder. Sie sind befugt, Gesetze zu erlassen, soweit der Bund nicht im Interesse einer bundeseinheitlichen Regelung tдtig ist. Gleiche Wirkung wie das fцrmliche Gesetz haben die Rechtsverordnungen. Bundesregierung, ein Bundesminister oder eine Lдnderregierung kцnnen durch Gesetz zum ErIaЯ von Rechtsverordnungen ermдchtigt werden.

  • 502. Ghirlandaio, Domenico

    Ghirlandaio, Domenico (1449-94). Florentine painter. He trained with Baldovinetti and possibly with Verrocchio. His style was solid, prosaic, and rather old-fashioned (especially when compared with that of his great contemporary Botticelli), but he was an excellent craftsman and good businessman and had one of the most prosperous workshops in Florence. This he ran in collaboration with his two younger brothers, Benedetto (1458-97) and Davide (1452-1525). His largest undertaking was the fresco cycle in the choir of Sta Maria Novella, Florence, illustrating Scenes from the Lives of the Virgin and St John the Baptist (1486-90). This was commissioned by Giovanni Tornabuoni, a partner in the Medici bank, and Ghirlandaio depicts the sacred story as if it had taken place in the home of a wealthy Florentine burgher. It is this talent for portraying the life and manners of his time (he often included portraits in his religious works) that has made Ghirlandaio popular with many visitors to Florence. But he also had considerable skill in the management of complex compositions and a certain grandeur of conception that sometimes hints at the High Renaissance.

  • 503. Giotto di Bondone

    In spite of his fame and the demand for his services, no surviving painting is documented as being by him. His work, indeed, poses some formidable problems of attribution, but it is universally agreed that the fresco cycle in the Arena Chapel at Padua is by Giotto, and it forms the starting-point for any consideration of his work. The Arena Chapel (so-called because it occupies the site of a Roman arena) was built by Enrico Scrovegni in expiation for the sins of his father, a notorious usurer mentioned by Dante. It was begun in 1303 and Giotto's frescos are usually dated c. 1305-06. They run right round the interior of the building; the west wall is covered with a Last Judgement, there is an Annunciation over the chancel arch, and the main wall areas have three tiers of paintings representing scenes from the life of the Virgin and her parents, St Anne and St Joachim, and events from the Passion of Christ. Below these scenes are figures personifying Virtues and Vices, painted to simulate stone reliefs -- the first grisailles. The figures in the main narrative scenes are about half-size, but in reproduction they usually look bigger because Giotto's conception is so grand and powerful. His figures have a completely new sense of three-dimensionality and physical presence, and in portraying the sacred events he creates a feeling of moral weight rather than divine splendor. He seems to base the representations upon personal experience, and no artist has surpassed his ability to go straight to the heart of a story and express its essence with gestures and expressions of unerring conviction.

  • 504. Giza, Wonder of the World

    But most interesting of all is the fact that the Southeast corners (bottom right in the map above) of each of the royal pyramids form one straight line, a diagonal running from the Northeast to the Southwest. Because the pyramid of Mykerinos is smaller, this explains why its centre is not aligned with the centres of the two greater pyramids. We can only speculate as to the reasons for this amazing alignment, and even more so at similar alignments in Abusir and Saqqara. Perhaps the Northeast diagonal was intended to point to the sanctuary at Heliopolis, home of the solar cult.

  • 505. GlassFish Золотая Рыбка
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Проект GlassFish был анонсирован на конференции JavaOne 2005. Менее чем через год, на следующей конференции JavaOne, был представлен первый выпуск. Причем этот сервер приложений можно было скачать с сайта Sun либо с сайта сообществаотличия были только в инсталляторе и названиях. GlassFish v. 1 был сфокусирован на выполнении спецификации Java ЕЕ 5 и функциональности класса предприятия, которые не были включены в предыдущую версию сервера приложений от Sun. GlassFish v. 2 на момент написания статьи все еще находится в стадии разработки (правда, последнюю версию можно скачать с официального сайта). Таким образом, GlassFish v. 1 распространяется с мая 2006-го, a GlassFish v. 2 окончательно доводится до ума. Фактически все сообщество сейчас работает над второй версией, и специалисты рекомендуют немного подождать ее выхода. GlassFish v. 2 включает весь необходимый набор функций для корпоративных приложений из предыдущей версии. Кроме того, он поддерживает концепцию профилей, поэтому может быть сконфигурирован для использования в режиме разработки, в режиме «предприятия» или кластера. GlassFish v. 3 находится в стадии планирования (в рамках сообщества GlassFish употребляется термин «Concept Creation» стадия концепции программного продукта, или просто прототипирования). Ведется переработка модульной архитектуры, что позволит увеличить скорость загрузки и скажется на производительности в целом. Планируется, что первые версии для тестирования появятся в середине года. У пользователей также есть выбор при установке конкретного дистрибутива GlassFish: можно взять либо версию Sun, либо сообщества разработчиков GlassFish. Эти программные продукты различаются только инсталлятором и поддержкой. Для тех, кому будет недостаточно по той или иной причине поддержки сообщества, смогут воспользоваться коммерческим вариантом фирмы Sun.

  • 506. Global warming

    “Global warming” has been introduced by the scientific community and the media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that result from higher average global temperatures. Hundreds of scientists from many different countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a consensus on several important aspects. In general, Global warming will produce far more profound climatic changes than simply a rise in global temperature.
    A recent study by an international panel of scientists suggested that if trends in current emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols continue, the globe may warm by an average of 2°C by the year 2100. The average rate of warming would probably be greater than any seen in the last 10,000 years
    An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth has warmed an average of 0.5°C over the past 100 years. This is consistent with predictions of global warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect and increased aerosols. Yet, it could also be within acceptable limits for natural temperature variation. The twelve warmest years of the twentieth century have occurred since 1980. The Earths warmest years since 1861 have been: 1981, 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998. 1997 and 1998 were the two warmest years recorded during that period. This lends support to the assumption that the Earths climate is warming. However, it may take another decade of continued increases in global temperatures to provide conclusive evidence that the worlds climate is warming as a result of the enhanced greenhouse effect.
    Global surface air temperature in 1997 was warmer than any previous year this century, marginally exceeding the temperature of 1995. Part of the current global warmth is associated with the tropical El NiЯo, without which a record global temperature would probably not have occurred.
    Global surface temperatures in 1998 set a new record for the period of instrumental measurements, report NASA/GISS researchers who analyzed data collected from several thousand meteorological stations around the world. The global temperature exceeded that of the previous record year, by such a wide margin that the 1998 calendar year is certain to also set a new record. The United States experienced in 1998 its warmest year in the past several decades. As for the Russia, global surface air temperatures in 1997-98 were not warmer than previous years.

  • 507. Gogh, Vincent van

    From 1881 to 1885 van Gogh lived in the Netherlands, sometimes in lodgings, supported by his devoted brother Theo, who regularly sent him money from his own small salary. In keeping with his humanitarian outlook he painted peasants and workers, the most famous picture from this period being The Potato Eaters (Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam; 1885). Of this he wrote to Theo: `I have tried to emphasize that those people, eating their potatoes in the lamp-light have dug the earth with those very hands they put in the dish, and so it speaks of manual labour, and how they have honestly earned their food'. In 1885 van Gogh moved to Antwerp on the advice of Antoine Mauve (a cousin by marriage), and studied for some months at the Academy there. Academic instruction had little to offer such an individualist, however, and in February 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met Pissarro, Degas, Gauguin, Seurat, and Toulouse-Lautrec. At this time his painting underwent a violent metamorphosis under the combined influence of Impressionism and Japanese woodcuts, losing its moralistic flavour of social realism. Van Gogh became obsessed by the symbolic and expressive values of colors and began to use them for this purpose rather than, as did the Impressionists, for the reproduction of visual appearances, atmosphere, and light. `Instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I have before my eyes,' he wrote, `I use color more arbitrarily so as to express myself more forcibly'.

  • 508. Good Neighbours. Test

    Есть другая польза также. Во время, так как 'схема' Присматривающего Соседства появилась, там растет основание нового общественного духа (настроения). Это примиряет людей как никогда прежде, и ободряет людей, чтобы беспокоиться друг о друге. Новая дружба сделана, и контакт часто устанавливается со стариками, живущими самостоятельно, которые - часто наиболее пугаемы и большинство подвержены риску.

    1. 'Схема' Присматривающего Соседства в Молингтоне была начата
    2. потому что полиция не могла защитить людей
    3. первее всего в стране
    4. после 50000 краж в области
    5. потому что некоторые жители хотели уехать на праздник
    6. Когда члены группы 'Присматривающих' видят подозрительных людей, они,
    7. пробуют и отпугивают их
    8. связываются с полицией
    9. пытаются и арестовывают их,
    10. вызывают других членов группы 'Присматривающих'
    11. Когда новая схема 'Присматривающих' начинается в области,
    12. люди снабжаются новыми замками к их дверям и окнам
    13. полиция посылают небольшое количество офицеров в область
    14. уменьшается вероятность, что грабители ворвутся в дома
    15. жители помещают вывески на двери.
    16. Ещё одна польза схем 'Присматривающих' - то, что
    17. люди узнают друг друга лучше
    18. члены 'Присматривающих' заботятся о стариках
    19. различные виды людей привлечены, чтобы жить в области
    20. Старики больше не боятся преступлений
    21. Вообщем, автор, кажется, думает, что
    22. полиция должна сделать больше, чтобы защитить людей
    23. Схемы 'Присматривающих' не очень полезны в сокращении преступления
    24. 'схемы' Присматривающего Соседства были успешным
    25. трудно иметь любую секретность в 'области' Присматривающего Соседства
  • 509. Good Teacher

    At second, a good teacher, whether it will be woman or man, ought to know how to organize classwork in more efficient and right way, is able to maintain discipline and order, to present her- or him- self so that it would be interesting to all to conduct lessons, using a lot of different materials, equipment and teaching methods and attempts, and spend time obtaining of knowledge at an occasion with entertainment. Insistence, but justice these words can be applied to an image of a perfect teacher, who makes the students work hard and sets high standards. There wont be any silence in class, if discussed topic doesnt interests pupils. Here is important the special approach which each teacher appropriate.

  • 510. Goya (y Lucientes), Francisco (José) de

    Goya (y Lucientes), Francisco (Josй) de (b. March 30, 1746, Fuendetodos, Spain--d. April 16, 1828, Bordeaux, Fr.), consummately Spanish artist whose multifarious paintings, drawings, and engravings reflected contemporary historical upheavals and influenced important 19th- and 20th-century painters. Like Velбzquez, Goya was a Spanish court painter whose best work was done apart from his official duties. He is known for his scenes of violence, especially those prompted by the French invasion of Spain. The series of etchings Los desastres de la guerra ("The Disasters of War", 1810-14) records the horrors of the Napoleonic invasion. His masterpieces in painting include The Naked Maja and The Clothed Maja (c. 1800-05). He also painted charming portraits such as Senora Sabasa Garcia.

  • 511. Grammar


  • 512. Grammatical difference between British and American English


    1. Murphy Raymond. English Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    2. Орлов Г.А. Современный английский язык в Австралии. Москва, «Высшая школа», 1978.
    3. Варианты полинациональных литературных языков Киев, «Наукова думка», 1981.
    4. Швейцер А.Д. Американский вариант литературного английского языка: пути формирования и современный статус.//Вопросы языкознания,1995, №6,стр. 3-17.
    5. Г.Б.Антрушина, О.В.Афанасьева. Лексикология английского языка. - М. Изд. Дрофа. 1999
    6. F.R.Palmer. Semantics. A new outline. - M. V.Sh. 1982.
    7. Александрова С.Я. Семантический анализ сложноподчиненных предложений с придаточными, вводимыми союзами as и as thougt // Вопросы грамматической структуры предложения и текста в английском языке:Сб. науч. тр. - М., 1985. - Вып.247. - С.86-96.
    8. Бабалова Л.Л. Об употреблении союзов и, а, но в сложном предложении // Русский язык за рубежом. - 1980. - N4. - С.57-62.
    9. Биренбаум Я.Г. К теории сложного предложения (На материале английского языка) // Вопросы языкознания. - 1982. - N2. - С.50-58.
    10. Биренбаум Я.Г. Сопоставление сложноподчиненных предложений русского и английского языков // Сопоставительный лингвистический анализ: Науч. тр. - Куйбышев, 1977. - Т.202. - С.29-32.
    11. Валимова Г.В. О сочинительных союзах в сложном предложении // Материалы IX и X конференций Северо-Кавказского зонального объединения кафедр русского языка. - Ростов н/Д: Изд-во Рост. ун-та, 1971. - С.87-93.
    12. Верховская И.П. К вопросу о классификации сложноподчиненных предложений в современном английском языке // Проблемы грамматики английского языка: Сб. науч. тр. - М,1981. - Вып.173. - С.31-43.
    13. Гвоздев А.Н. Современный русский литературный язык. Ч.2: Синтаксис. - М.: Просвещение, 1958. - 301 с.
    14. Гепнер Ю.Р. Сложное предложение и принципы его изучения: Учеб. пособие. - Харьков, 1963.
    15. Данкова М.П. Структурные и статистические характеристики сложносочиненных предложений в авторской и разговорной речи художественной прозы (на материале английского языка) // Теория и практика лингвистического описания разговорной речи. - Горький, 1976. - Вып.7. - С.127-133.
    16. Жельвис В.И. К вопросу о видах синтаксической связи между частями сложного союзного предложения (На материале английского языка) // Ученые записки Ленинградского государственного педагогического института. Кафедра английского языка. - 1958. - Т.181, вып.3. - С.343-366.
    17. Жельвис В.И. Существуют ли в языке сочинительные и подчинительные союзы ? (На материале английского языка) // Ученые записки Ленинградского государственного педагогического института. Вопросы английской филологии. -1962. - Т.226. - С.253-273.
    18. Ильиш Б.А. Современный английский язык: Теорет. курс. : Учеб. пособие для вузов. -2-е изд., испр. и доп. - М., 1948. - 347 с.
    19. Ильиш Б.А. Строй современного английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студ.пед.ин-тов.-2-е изд. - Л.: Просвещение, 1971. - 365 с.
    20. Ильиш Б.А. Структура сложноподчиненного предложения в современном английском языке // Ученые записки Ленингр. гос. пед. ин-та. Вопросы английской филологии. - 1962. - Т.226. - С.3-25.
    21. Иофик Л.Л. Сложное предложение в новоанглийском языке. - Л.: Изд-во Ленигр. ун-та, 1968.
    22. Карпова Л.В. О функциональном критерии в синтаксисе (на материале сложноподчиненных предложений с союзом as, when) // Некоторые проблемы слова и предложения в современном английском языке: Респ. сб. - Горький, 1976. - С.176-192.
    23. Конькова И.П. Сложносочиненное союзное предложение в современном английском языке. Душанбе, 1969. - 240 с.
    24. Леденев Ю.И. О наиболее существенных свойствах русских союзов // Русский язык: Материалы и исследования - Ставрополь, 1971. - Вып.3. - С.36-42.
    25. Оганесова Р.Д., Скорлуповская Е.В. О выделении сочинительных союзов // Материалы IX и X конференций Северо-Кавказского зонального объединения кафедр русского языка. - Ростов н/Д: Изд-во Рост. ун-та, 1971. - С.94-102.
    26. Петерсон М.Н. Союзы в русском языке // Русский язык в школе. - 1952. - N5. - С.28-34.
    27. Хаймович Б.С., Роговская Б.И. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка:Учеб.пособие для вузов. - М.: Высшая школа,1967. - 297с.
    28. Ширяев Е.Н. Дифференциация сочинительных и подчинительных союзов на синтаксической основе// Филологические науки. - 1980. - N2. - С.49-54.
    29. Семантико-стилистические исследования текста и предложения:Межвуз. сб. науч. тр. / Отв.ред. З.Я.Тураева. - Л., 1980. - 125 с.
    30. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами. М, 1997. - 717 с.
    31. Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. - М., 1973.
    32. Гальперин И.Р. Очерки по стилистике английского языка. - М., 1958.
    33. Cronin A.J. The Citadel. - М., 1966.
    34. Galsworthy J. To let. - М, 1954.
    35. London I. Martin Eden. - М., 1954.
    36. Green G. Quet Amerikan. - М., 1956.
    37. Hardy T. Tess of the d Urbervilles. - М, 1950.
    38. Dickens Ch. Adventures of Oliver Twist. - M., 1949.
  • 513. Grandma

    All her life she worked hard and now, she is still very industrious and tender-hearted. She is very good at cooking and fond of knitting. A grandma has not travelled a lot in the course of her life, and says that it is a great loss. Also, she told me that she is fully satisfied with her life.

  • 514. Great Britain

    Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It lives by manufacture and trade. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs, the other half of its food has to be imported. Britain is one of the most highly industrialised countries in the world: for every person employed in agriculture, eleven are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining, ship-building, motor vehicle manufacturing, textile, chemistry, electronics, fishing and food processing. The industrial centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Eirmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and others.

  • 515. Great scientist (E.W. Dijkstra)

    In 1956 Dijkstra came up with the "shortest-path algorithm" after he had been assigned the task of showing the power of ARMAC, the computer that the Mathematical Centre had in it's possession. In the early 1960 Dijkstra applied the idea of mutual exclusion to communications between a computer and it's keyboard. The next problem that computer engineers must deal with that Dijkstra recognized was the "dining philosophers problem". In this problem, five philosophers are sitting at a table with a bowl of rice and a chopstick on either side of the bowl. The problem that arises is how the philosophers will be able to eat without coming to a "deadlock", ending up in a "starvation" situation, or a situation with "lack of fairness." He is well known for having designed and coded the first Algol 60 compiler. In 1972 Dijkstra was awarded the Turing Award, often worked as the Nobel Prize for computing. In 2002, the C&C Foundation of Japan recognized Dijkstra "for his pioneering contributions to the establishment of the scientific basis for computer software through creative research in basic software theory, algorithm theory, structured programming, and semaphores".

  • 516. Greco, El

    El Greco excelled also as a portraitist, mainly of ecclesiastics (Felix Paravicino, Boston Museum, 1609) or gentlemen, although one of his most beautiful works is a portrait of a lady (Pollock House, Glasgow, c. 1577-80), traditionally identified as a likeness of Jeronima de las Cuevas, his common-law wife. He also painted two works of Toledo (Met. Museum, New York, and Museo del Greco, Toledo), both late works, and a mythological painting, Laocoцn (National Gallery, Washington, c. 1610), that is unique in his oeuvre. The unusual choice of subjects is perhaps explained by the local tradition that Toledo had been founded by descendants of the Trojans. El Greco also designed complete altar compositions, working as architect and sculptor as well as painter, for instance at the Hospital de la Caridad, Illescas (1603). Pacheco, who visited El Greco in 1611, refers to him as a writer on painting, sculpture, and architecture. He had a proud temperament, conceiving of himself as an artist-philosopher rather that a craftsman, and had a lavish life-style, although he had little success in securing the royal patronage he desired and seems to have had some financial difficulties near the end of his life. His workshop turned out a great many replicas of his paintings, but his work was so personal that his influence was slight, his only followers of note being his son Jorge Manuel Theotocopouli and Luis Tristбn. Interest in his art revived at the end of the 19th century, and with the development of Expressionism in the 20th century he came into his own. The strangeness of his art has inspired various theories, for example that he was mad or suffered from astigmatism, but his rapturous paintings make complete sense as an expression of the religious fervour of his adopted country.

  • 517. Gris, Juan

    Originally named Jose Victoriano Gonzalez, he adopted the pseudonym by which he is known after moving (1906) to Paris, where he lived as Picasso's friend and neighbor. Between 1907 and 1912 he watched closely the development of the cubist style and in 1912 exhibited his Homage to Picasso (collection of Mrs. and Mrs. Leigh Block, Chicago), which established his reputation as a painter of the first rank. He worked closely with Picasso and Braque until the outbreak of World War I, adapting what had been their intuitively generated innovations to his own methodical temperament.

  • 518. Gros, Antoine-Jean

    In 1793 Gros went to Italy, where he met Napoleon and was appointed his official battle painter. He followed Napoleon on his campaigns, and his huge paintings such as The Battle of Eylau (Louvre, Paris, 1808) are among the most stirring images of the Napoleonic era. Compared to the contemporary war scenes of Goya, they are glamorous lies, but they are painted with such dramatic skill and panache that they cannot but be admired on their own terms.

  • 519. Grunewald, Matthias

    The Isenheim Altarpiece was executed for the hospital chapel of Saint Anthony's Monastery in Isenheim in Alsace and is now at the Unterlinden Museum in Colmar, a nearby town. It is a carved shrine with two sets of folding wings and three works. The first, with the wings closed, is a Crucifixion showing a harrowingly detailed, twisted, and bloody figure of Christ on the cross in the center flanked, on the left, by the mourning Madonna being comforted by John the Apostle, and Mary Magdelene kneeling with hands clasped in prayer, and, on the right, by a standing John the Baptist pointing to the dying Savior. At the feet of the Baptist is a lamb holding a cross, symbol of the "Lamb of God" slaughtered for man's sins. The drama of the scene, symbolizing the divine and human natures of Christ, is heightened by the stark contrast between the vibrantly lit foreground and the dark sky and bleak landscape of low mountains in the background. When the outer wings are opened, three scenes of celebration are revealed: the Annunciation, the Angel Concert for Madonna and Child, and the Resurrection. Grьnewald's unsurpassed technique in painting colored light is epitomized in the figure of the rising Christ; his dramatic use of writhing forms in movement is also seen here in the figures of Christ, the arriving angel, and the Madonna.

  • 520. Guillaumin, Jean-Baptiste Armand

    The longest surviving Impressionist, the most loyal, and probably the least known, Guillaumin was born in Paris of a family that had recently moved there from central France, where as a boy he spent much of his time. At the age of 15 he started working in his uncle's shop, whilst studying drawing in the evenings. In 1860 he obtained a job on the Paris-Orleans railway, continuing to paint in his spare time. In 1861 he entered the Acadйmie Suisse and met Cйzanne and Pissarro, with whom he was to remain on close terms for the rest of his life. They spent some time together at Pontoise, and Cйzanne was greatly impressed by a work of the Seine that Guillaumin painted in 1871 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). At this time all three were frequent visitors to Gachet's house at Auvers, and it was there that Cйzanne did a portrait-etching Guillaumin. Cйzanne also copied a painting by him of the Seine at Bercy (1876-78; Kunsthalle, Hamburg).