• 561. The "new class"
  • 562. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Huck admires Colonel Grangerford, the master of the house, and his supposed gentility. He is a warm- hearted man, treated with great courtesy by everyone. He own a very large estate with over a hundred slaves. The family's children, besides Buck, are Bob, the oldest, then Tom, then Charlotte, aged twenty-five, and Sophia, twenty, all of them beautiful. Three sons have been killed. One day, Buck tries to shoot Harney Shepardson, but misses. Huck asks why he wanted to kill him. Buck explains the Grangerfords are in a feud with a neighboring clan of families, the Shepardsons, who are as grand as they are. No one can remember how the feud started, or name a purpose for it, but in the last year two people have been killed, including a fourteen-year-old Grangerford. Buck declares the Shepardson men all brave. The two families attend church together, their ri es between their knees as the minister preaches about brotherly love. After church one day, Sophia has Huck retrieve a bible from the pews. She is delighted to find inside a note with the words "two-thirty." Later, Huck's slave valet leads him deep into the swamp, telling him he wants to show him some water-moccasins. There he finds Jim! Jim had followed Huck to the shore the night they were wrecked, but did not dare call out for fear of being caught. In the last few days he has repaired the raft and bought supplies to replace what was lost. The next day Huck learns that Sophie has run off with a Shepardson boy. In the woods, Huck finds Buck and a nineteen-year-old Grangerford in a gun-fight with the Shepardsons. The two are later killed. Deeply disturbed, Huck heads for Jim and the raft, and the two shove off downstream. Huck notes, "You feel mighty free and easy and comfortable on a raft."

  • 563. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

    Lush, green, beautiful lawns surround almost every house in my suburban neighborhood. Green lawns are part of suburban culture. Few people consider the idea of not having one. The Associated Landscape Contractors of America, a trade group, claims, "A properly installed and maintained lawn gives homeowners a 100 to 200 percent return on their investment and increases overall property values in the neighborhood" (http://www.homestore.com). Conversely, a poorly maintained lawn reduces property values for the neighborhood. Thus it makes sense to believe that people who own lavish, evenly trimmed, green lawns with no weeds or insect pests are good neighbors and responsible citizens.

  • 564. The Catcher in the Rye

    When Holden gets outside, it is getting light out. He walks over to Lexington to take the subway to Grand Central, where he slept that night. He thinks about how Mr. Antolini will explain Holden's departure to his wife. Holden feels some regret that he didn't come back to the Antolini's apartment. Holden starts reading a magazine at Grand Central; when he reads an article about hormones, he begins to worry about hormones, and worries about cancer when he reads about cancer. As Holden walks down Fifth Avenue, he feels that he will not get to the other side of the street each time he comes to the end of a block. He feels that he would just go down. He makes believe that he is with Allie every time he reaches a curb. Holden decides that he will go away, never go home again and never go to another prep school. He thinks he will pretend to be a deaf-mute so that he won't have to deal with stupid conversations. Holden goes to Phoebe's school to find her and say goodbye. At the school he sees "fuck you" written on the wall, and becomes enraged as he tries to scratch it off. He writes her a note asking her to meet him near the Museum of Art so that he can return her money. While waiting for Phoebe at the Museum, Holden chats with two brothers who talk about mummies. He sees another "fuck you" written on the wall, and is convinced that someone will write that below the name on his tombstone. Holden, suffering from diarrhea, goes to the bathroom, and as he exits the bathroom he passes out. When he regains consciousness, he feels better. Phoebe arrives, wearing Holden's hunting hat and dragging Holden's old suitcase. She tells him that she wants to come with him. She begs, but he refuses and causes her to start crying. She throws the red hunting hat back at Holden and starts to walk away. She follows Holden to the zoo, but refuses to talk to him or get near him. He buys Phoebe a ticket for the carousel there, and watches her go around on it as "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes" plays. Afterwards, she takes back the red hunting hat and goes back on the carousel. As it starts to rain, Holden cries while watching Phoebe.

  • 565. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars
  • 566. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
    Иностранные языки
  • 567. The constitution the Kazakhstan and Czech Republic
    Иностранные языки

    Kazakhstan has legislative power like Czech Republic. Parliaments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Czech Republic are the highest representative body of the Republic performing legislative functions. The Parliament shall have two chambers which shall be the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate in Czech Republic and the Senate and the Majilis in Kazakhstan. Also in my country the Senate shall be composed of deputies elected in twos from each oblast, major city and the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan, at a joint session of the deputies of all representative bodies of the respective oblast, major city and the capital of the Republic. Seven deputies of the Senate shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for the term of the Senate. The Majilis shall consist of seventy-seven deputies. Sixty-seven deputies shall be elected in constituencies having one mandate and formed according to the administrative-territorial division of the Republic with an approximately equal number of constituents. Ten deputies shall be elected on the basis of the Party Lists according to the system of proportional representation and in the territory of a unified national constituency. In the Czech Republic the Chamber of Deputies shall have 200 Deputies who shall be elected for a term of four years. The Senate shall have 81 Senators who shall be elected for a term of six years. One third of the Senators shall be elected every two years. Elections in countries shall be carried out on the basis of the universal, equal and direct right under secret ballot. Every citizen of the Republics who has attained the age of eighteen years shall have the right to vote.in this section: in Czech Republic on the day when a Deputy or Senator assumes the office of President of the Republic or on the day when he or she assumes the office of judge or another office incompatible with the office of Deputy or Senator, his or her mandate as Deputy or Senator shall cease. In Kazakhstan half of the elected deputies of the Senate shall be re-elected every three years. In this case, their regular elections shall be held no later than two months before the end of their term in office. The main difference it is age of electors who has reached thirty years of age in Kazakhstan and every citizen of the Czech Republic who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of forty years may be elected to the Senate. A deputy of the Majilis may be a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan who has reached twenty-five years of age and in Czech Republic citizen who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of twenty-one years may be elected to the Chamber of Deputies.

  • 568. The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo Buonarotti
    Культура и искусство

    I n order to achieve these various goals, such as communicating a message, and dazzling the spectators with the marvelous appeal to reality, Michelangelo Buonarotti had to use the basic rules of art: the principles and elements of design. Using the basic principles of design: balance, contrast, proportion, rhythm, emphasis, unity, contrast, harmony, repetition, and combining them with the elements: line, shape, direction, size, texture color and value, an artist can create any kind of work he wants to. The first element that strikes the eye is the composition of this piece. God is pictured in the top right corner, while Adam is in the bottom left. Their linking hand form a diagonal that adds more action to the painting itself, and complements the rather casual poses of the characters. The flaring green ribbon serves a similar function, creating movement and drawing us into the painting, as well as the feet of god and the angels, which are almost touching the right edge of the painting, therefore serving a role of a pathway. The ratio between the negative and the positive space is well balanced: the simplicity of Adams surroundings is evened out by the dynamics created by the angels and the voluminous red cape in the top left corner. Another diagonal that lies within this piece is the green hill which Adam is resting upon. The color of the hill serves a role of unification, as it pairs up with the flaring green scarf and unifies the work by connecting the two sides. Even though God and Adam share a similar position, God is elevated over him. This symbolizes the superiority of the deity over the ordinary man. Another curious thing to notice is the similarity between the red cape filled with angels with a human organ, particularly the brain. This allusion to the human organs explains the choice of the color for the cape and the complex weaving done by the bodies of the angels. Modern scientists have now proved that Michelangelos representation of the brain is anatomically accurate. Each angel under the cape stands for a certain part of the brain. It is fascinating how Michelangelo figured out which part of this complex organ stands for what part of our personality: he placed the sad angel under Gods right arm, at the area which is activated when people are thinking sad thoughts and God in the frontal lobe- the part that is responsible for our personality. If the whole structure with the cape is perceived as the brain, then the feet of the god and angels, along with the scarf now transform into the brainstem and arteries.

  • 569. The Development of the Germanic Script
    Иностранные языки


    • 'Kilroy was here' type inscriptions on cliff walls, large rocks and buildings
    • grave stone inscriptions, often with who carved the runes and who was buried, and also who made sure the stone was raised. (Later grave slabs or stone coffins were sometimes inscribed with Christian texts carved in runes)
    • religious/magic inscriptions: prayers and curses, formulas on charms, etc.
    • inscriptions related to trade and politics: There are many examples of trade communication: stock orders and descriptions, excuses for not having payed on time, trade name tags for bags or cases of produce, etc. The trade inscriptions are often carved on wooden rune sticks. Political inscriptions are to do with matters of the law, historical figures state that they were somewhere hiding from the enemy, secret messages to do with the fighting of wars, etc.
    • personal letters: love letters, greetings between friends, proposals, etc.
    • rude messages, similar to modern graffiti or sms today
    • Art and craft-signatures: Goldsmiths, blacksmiths, wood carvers, church builders, etc., often put their name on what they made. Objects also somtimes had names carved onto them either the name of the object itself, or the name of the person who owned it.
  • 570. The Economy of Great Britain
  • 571. The Grapes of Wrath

    Chapter Twenty: The Joads take Granma to the Bakersfield coroner's office. They can't afford a funeral for her. They go to a camp to stay and ask about work. They ask a bearded man if he owns the camp and whether they can stay, and he replies with the same question to them. A younger man tells them that the crazy old man is called the Mayor. According to the man, the Mayor has likely been pushed by the police around so much that he's been made bull-simple (crazy). The police don't want them to settle down, for then they could draw relief, organize and vote. The younger man tells them about the handbill fraud, and Tom suggests that everybody organize so that they could guarantee higher wages. The man warns Tom about the blacklist. If he is labeled an agitator he will be prevented from getting from anybody. Tom talks to Casy, who has recently been relatively quiet. Casy says that the people unorganized are like an army without a harness. Casy says that he isn't helping out the family and should go off by himself. Tom tries to convince him to stay at least until the next day, and he relents. Connie regrets his decision to come with the Joads. He says that if he had stayed in Oklahoma he could have worked as a tractor driver. When Ma is fixing dinner, groups of small children approach, asking for food. The children tell the Joads about Weedpatch, a government camp that is nearby where no cops can push people around and there is good drinking water. Al goes around looking for girls, and brags about how Tom killed a man. Al meets a man named Floyd Knowles, who tells them that there was no steady work. A woman reprimands Ma Joad for giving her children stew. Al brings Floyd back to the family, where he says that there will be work up north around Santa Clara Valley. He tells them to leave quietly, because everyone else will follow after the work. Al wants to go with Floyd no matter what. A man arrives in a Chevrolet coupe, wearing a business suit. He tells them about work picking fruit around Tulare County. Floyd tells the man to show his license -this is one of the tricks that the contractor uses. Floyd points out some of the dirty tactics that the contractor is using, such as bringing along a cop. The cop forces Floyd into the car and says that the Board of Health might want to shut down their camp. Floyd punched the cop and ran off. As the deputy chased after him, Tom tripped him. The deputy raised his gun to shoot Floyd and fires indiscriminately, shooting a woman in the hand. Suddenly Casy kicked the deputy in the back of the neck, knocking him unconscious. Casy tells Tom to hide, for the contractor saw him trip the deputy. More officers come to the scene, and they take away Casy, who has a faint smile and a look of pride. Rose of Sharon wonders where Connie has gone. She has not seen him recently. Uncle John admits that he had five dollars. He kept it to get drunk. Uncle John gives them the five in exchange for two, which is enough for him. Al tells Rose of Sharon that he saw Connie, who was leaving. Pa claims that Connie was too big for his overalls, but Ma scolds him, telling him to act respectfully, as if Connie were dead. Because the cops are going to burn the camp tonight, they have to leave. Tom goes to find Uncle John, who has gone off to get drunk. Tom finds him by the river, singing morosely. He claims that he wants to die. Tom has to hit him to make him come. Rose of Sharon wants to wait for Connie to return. They leave the camp, heading north toward the government camp.

  • 572. The Great Gatsby

    Chapter Nine: Most of the reports of the murder were grotesque and untrue. Nick finds himself alone on Gatsby's side. Tom and Daisy suddenly left town. Meyer Wolfsheim is difficult to contact, and offers assistance, but cannot become too involved because of current entanglements. Nick tracks down Gatsby's father, Henry C. Gatz, a solemn old man, helpless and dismayed by news of the murder. Gatz says that his son would have "helped build up the country." Klipspringer, the boarder, leaves suddenly and only returns to get his tennis shoes. Nick goes to see Wolfsheim, who claims that he made Gatsby. He tells Nick "let he learn to show our friendship for a man when he is alive and not after he is dead," and politely refuses to attend the funeral. Gatz shows Nick his son's daily schedule, in which he has practically every minute of his day planned. He had a continual interest in self-improvement. At the funeral, one of the few attendees is the Owl-Eyed man from Gatsby's first party. Nick thinks about the differences between the west and the east, and realizes that he, the Buchanans, Gatsby and Jordan are all Westerners who came east, perhaps possessing some deficiency which made them unadaptable to Eastern life. After Gatsby's death the East was haunted and distorted. He meets with Jordan Baker, who recalls their conversation about how bad drivers are dangerous only when two of them meet. She tells Nick that the two of them are both 'bad drivers.' Months later Nick saw Tom Buchanan, and Nick scorns him, knowing that he pointed Wilson toward Gatsby. Nick realizes that all of Tom's actions were, to him, justified. Nick leaves New York to return West.

  • 573. The Hero of Our Time

    In first parts of the novel the author describes Pechorin's actions, showing how indifferent and cruel he is to surrounding people, shown either as victims of his ambitions or cold calculations. You can think that egoism and desire for power rule Pecherin, who says "Why should I - traveling officer- care about happines and woes of people?" But things are not as simple as they might look, the hero is not so uniform. At the same time he is an emotional and deeply suffering man who's afraid of shame. Pechorin understands his psychology: "There are two men inside of me, one literally lives, and the other one analizes and judges him." [page #]Later he states his life credo: " I compare suffering and happiness of others with my own as a food supporting my spirit…" [page #]Based on that Pecherin develops his own theory of happines that in order to be happy one should be the cause of suffering and happines for the others, although he has no rights for that. For him being happy is being proud. But then Pecherin, knowing what causes happines, should be happy since he is restlesly and constantly trying to enjoy his pride of himself. But somehow his happines can't last forever making him even more dissappointed and bored.

  • 574. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

    All the radical, broadly based and rather multi-tendency and heterogenous student and youth movements eventually disintegrated in ways that were often unique to the particular ideological current. The Maoist movement evolved in a particular way. The powerhouse of the Maoist youth movement was the Bakery premises in Prahran. The form of organisation became the Worker Student Alliance, and the WSA became quite a powerful force in the youth movement in both Melbourne and Adelaide. The connections between the Worker Student Alliance and the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist), which had been set up by Ted Hill and the Maoist union officials who had broken away from the old Communist Party of Australia in 1963, were rather tenuous. The Maoist theory of the party concentrated mainly on the conspiratorial and underground side of political activity, and in practice this made the CPA(ML) a very shadowy kind of organisation. Several of the Maoist student leaders commented later that they had been on the CPA-ML Central Committee without even being informed of it! In the late 1980s, Barry York and John Herouvim wrote a fairly detailed account of the political atmosphere and political style of the Maoist youth movement published in Arena and other places, and this material is of considerable interest.

  • 575. The National Parks of Great Britan
    Иностранные языки

    Holwell Castle, at Parracombe, was a Norman motte and bailey castle built to guard the junction of the east-west and north-south trade routes, enabling movement of people and goods and the growth of the population Alternative explanations for its construction suggest it may have been constructed to obtain taxes at the River Heddon bridging place, or to protect and supervise silver mining in the area around Combe Martin. It was 131 feet (40 m) in diameter and 20 feet (6 m) high above the bottom of a rock cut ditch which is 9 feet (3 m) deep. It was built, in the late 11th or early 12th century, of earth with timber palisades for defence and a one or two storey wooden dwelling. It was probably built by either Martin de Tours, the first lord of Parracombe, William de Falaise (who married Martins widow) or Robert FitzMartin, although there are no written records to validate this. The earthworks of the castle are still clearly visible from a nearby footpath, but there is no public access to them. During the Middle Ages, sheep farming for the wool trade came to dominate the economy. The wool was spun into thread on isolated farms and collected by merchants to be woven, fulled, dyed and finished in thriving towns such as Dunster. The land started to be enclosed and from the 17th century onwards larger estates developed, leading to establishment of areas of large regular shaped fields. During the 16th and 17th centuries the commons were overstocked with agisted livestock, from farmers outside the immediate area who were charged for the privilege. This led to disputes about the number of animals allowed and the enclosure of land. During this period a Royal Forest and hunting ground was established, administered by a warden, so that king Charles I could benefit from the fines and rents.

  • 576. The origins of the International Socialists
    Иностранные языки

    Іt wаs іn lаtе 1973 thаt SWАG fіrst аdоptеd а pоsіtіоn оn thе “Russіаn Quеstіоn”. А mееtіng wаs hеld whеrе thіs wаs thе mаіn tоpіc оn thе аgеndа. ОLіncоln аrguеd fоr thе аdоptіоn оf thе ІSUS pоsіtіоn vіz. thаt thе sоcіаlіst cоuntrіеs wеrе nеіthеr sоcіаlіst nоr cаpіtаlіst, but а nеw еxplоіtаtіvе systеm cаllеd burеаucrаtіc cоllеctіvіsm whеrе thе burеаucrаcy wаs а nеw rulіng clаss. Nаdеl hаd dеpаrtеd оn аn оvеrsеаs trіp оf 5 mоnths аnd sо thе grоup dіd nоt hаvе thе plеаsurе оf hіs vіеws іn thе dеbаtе. Thе оnly оppоsіtіоn cаmе frоm Rоss MаcKеnzіе, thе fоrmеr mеmbеr оf ІSGB, whо put thе Brіtіsh pоsіtіоn thаt thе Sоcіаlіst cоuntrіеs wеrе stаtе cаpіtаlіst. ОLіncоln rеcеіvеd suppоrt frоm Stоnе аnd Lее Аck, аnd thе rеst оf thе mеmbеrshіp dіdnt аppеаr tо knоw vеry much аbоut thе іssuе, іncludіng Grіffіths whо wаs аn аctіvіst rаthеr thаn а thеоrеtіcіаn. Thе burеаucrаtіc cоllеctіvіst pоsіtіоn wаs аdоptеd wіth оnly оnе vоtе аgаіnst, but thе 5 оr 6 vоtеs іn fаvоur wеrе еquаlеd by аbоut thе sаmе numbеr оf аbstеntіоns. Thіs hіgh numbеr оf аbstеntіоns rеflеctеd thе lоw lеvеl оf cоnfіdеncе SWАG mеmbеrs hаd іn mаkіng dеcіsіоns оn thе mоrе cоmplіcаtеd thеоrеtіcаl quеstіоns. Іt wаs clеаr frоm thе dеbаtе, hоwеvеr, thаt аll mеmbеrs subscrіbеd tо thе vіеw thаt thе Stаlіnіst cоuntrіеs wеrе sоcіеtіеs еаch wіth а nеw еxplоіtаtіvе mіnоrіty rulіng clаss. Thе аctuаl dеsіgnаtіоn оf whеthеr thе systеm wаs burеаucrаtіc cоllеctіvіst оr stаtе cаpіtаlіst wаs thе mоrе cоmplеx dеcіsіоn whіch mаny mеmbеrs fеlt unаblе tо mаkе. Thе gеnеrаl аgrееmеnt thаt Stаlіnіst burеаucrаcіеs іn pоwеr wеrе mіnоrіty rulіng clаssеs dіd rеflеct thаt thе thеоrеtіcаl bаsіs оf SWАG wаs wіthіn thе ІS cаmp rаthеr thаn thе оrthо-Trоtskyіst оnе whіch аnаlyzеd thеsе rеgіmеs аs dеgеnеrаtеd wоrkеrs stаtеs. Іn еssеncе, thіs mеаnt thаt thе ІS tеndеncy wіthіn SWАG (і.е. thоsе whо hаd mаdе up thе Rеd Іnc fаctіоn) hаd bееn succеssful, thrоugh thеіr іnfluеncе іn thе grоup, іn еstаblіshіng thе lеgіtіmаcy оf ІS іdеаs. Оf cоursе, thе Rаnk аnd Fіlе strаtеgy hаd lоng bееn аccеptеd іn prаctіcе. Аnd nоw thе thеоrеtіcаl bаsіs оf ІS pоlіtіcs wаs аccеptеd, іn gеnеrаl tеrms, аs wеll. Аlthоugh fеw mеmbеrs rеаlіzеd іt еxplіcіtly аt thіs tіmе, SWАG wаs nоw bеcоmіng, іn lаtе 1973-еаrly 1974, аn ІS grоup.

  • 577. The republic referendum in Australia

    There were some striking but significant local idiosyncracies. Often distinctively individual, slightly isolated communities, with a strong local identity and a larger old, established Anglo component, seemed to vote heavily No. Two examples that jumped out at me were Kurnell in Sutherland Shire, which voted almost two thirds No in fairly sharp contrast with the rest of that electorate, where the No vote was lower. Another striking example was Riverstone-Schofields, an old working-class, largely Anglo community, where the meat works was closed some years ago, which showed a No vote approaching 70 per cent, much higher than the No vote in the rest of that electorate, a Labor electorate, where Yes did quite well in the other areas.

  • 578. The Scarlet Letter

    1) «It may serve, let us hope, to symbolize some sweet moral blossom that may be found along the track, or relieve the darkening close of a tale of human frailty and sorrow.» 2) « People say, said another, that the Reverend Master Dimmesdale, her godly pastor, takes it very grievously to his heart that such a scandal has come upon his congregation.» 3) « If thou feelest to be for thy souls peace, and that they earthly punishment will there by be made more effectual to salvation, I charge thee to speak out the name of thy fellow-sinner and fellow-sufferer.» 4) «But she named the infant Pearl, as being of great price- purchased with all she had- her mothers only pleasure.» 5) «After putting her fingers in her mouth, with many ungrateful refusals to answer Mr. Wilsons question, the child finally announced that she had not been made at all, but had been plucked by her mother off the bush of wild roses that grew by the prison door» 6) « He hath done a wild thing ere now, this pious Mr. Dimmesdale, in the hot passion of his heart!» 7) «Such helpfulness was found in her- so much power to do and power to sympathize- that many people refused to interpret the scarlet A by its original signification. They said that it meant Able; so strong was Hester Prynne, with a womens strength.» 8) «That old man!- the physician!- the one whom they call Roger Chillingworth!-he was my husband!» 9) «Pacify her, if thou lovest me!» 10) « Hester Prynne cried he, with a piercing earnestness in the name of Him, so terrible and so merciful, who gives me grace, at this last moment, to do what- for my own heavy sin and miserable agony- I withheld myself from doing seven years ago, come hither now, and twine thy strength about me!»

  • 579. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)
    Иностранные языки
  • 580. The Sound and the Fury

    This section of the book is commonly referred to as "Benjy's section" because it is narrated by the retarded youngest son of the Compson family, Benjamin Compson. At this point in the story, Benjy is 33 years old - in fact, today is his birthday - but the story skips back and forth in time as various events trigger memories. When the reader first plunges into this narrative, the jumps in time are difficult to navigate or understand, although many scenes are marked by recurring images, sounds, or words. In addition, a sort of chronology can be established depending on who is Benjy's caretaker: first Versh when Benjy is a child, then T. P. when he is an adolescent, then Luster when he is an adult. One other fact that may confuse first-time readers is the repetition of names. There are, for example, two Jasons (father and son), two Quentins (Benjy's brother and Caddy's daughter), and two Mauries (Benjy himself before 1900 and Benjy's uncle). Benjy recalls three important events: the evening of his grandmother "Damuddy's" death in 1898, his name change in 1900, and Caddy's sexual promiscuity and wedding in 1910, although these events are punctuated by other memories, including the delivery of a letter to his uncle's mistress in 1902 or 1903, Caddy's wearing perfume in 1906, a sequence of events at the gate of the house in 1910 and 1911 that culminates in his castration, Quentin's death in 1910, his father's death and funeral in 1912, and Roskus's death some time after this. I will summarize each event briefly.