Дипломная работа по предмету Иностранные языки

  • 1. Australian English: main characteristics
    Дипломы Иностранные языки

    Where foodstuffs are concerned, Australian English tends to be more closely related to the British vocabulary, for example the term biscuit is the traditional and common term rather than the American terms cookie and cracker. As had been the case with many terms, cookie is recognized and understood by Australians, and occasionally used, especially among younger generations.Australia the term chips is used for what Americans call French Fries, as with British English. In Australia chips is also used for what are called crisps in the UK, this second usage also being the American English term for crisps. The distinction is sometimes made through the adjective hot. The term French Fries is understood and sometimes used by Australians. US restaurants such as McDonalds continue to use the term French Fries in Australia.a few cases such as zucchini, snow pea and eggplant, Australian English uses the same terms as American English, whereas the British use the equivalent French terms courgette, mangetout and aubergine. This is possibly due to a fashion that emerged in mid - 19th Century Britain of adopting French nouns for foodstuffs, and hence the usage changed in Britain while the original terms were preserved in the (ex-) colonies.are also occasions when Australians use words or terms which are not common in other forms of English. For example, Australia uses the botanical name capsicum for what the Americans would call (red or green) bell peppers and the British (red or green) peppers. Perhaps this is in order to contrast table pepper (berries of genus Piper) from so-called hot peppers" (larger fruits of genus Capsicum).use the term rockmelon where North Americans would use the term cantaloupe, although in Victoria and Tasmania both terms are used.Australian English, dried fruits are given different names according to their variety, and generally raisins (grapes) are largest, sultanas (grapes) are intermediate, while currants are smallest.Australian English tomato sauce (often known simply as sauce) is the name given to what is known as ketchup in other dialects. However, ketchup with its slightly sweeter taste, is still sold in many grocery stores and is common in fast food outlets such as McDonalds. Other sauces made from tomatoes are generally referred to by names related to their uses, such as barbecue and pasta sauce.coffee beverages are given unique descriptive names such as flat white, for an espresso with milk. Other terms include short black, (espresso) and long black, (espresso diluted with water, similar to an Americano in the U. S.). Since the mid-1980s other varieties of coffee have also become popular, although these have generally been known by names used in North America and/or Europe.in British English, the colourless, slightly lemon-flavoured, carbonated drink known in North America and elsewhere under brand names such as Sprite and 7 Up is called lemonade, while the more strongly-flavoured drink known as lemonade in North America that is typically made of lemon juice and sugar is sometimes referred to as lemon squash, or sometimes traditional lemonade or club lemon, particularly in carbonated form.carbonated drink commonly called sarsaparilla in Australia is a type of root beer, named after the sarsarparilla root from which root beer is made. However, the taste is quite different, to the point that they may be considered two completely different products. This may be due to a difference in the production process.

  • 2. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions
    Дипломы Иностранные языки
  • 3. British types of English
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    ?The dialect word haway or howay means come on. In Newcastle it is often spelled and pronounced howay, while in Sunderland it is almost always haway (or ha'way; the latter spelling is prominent inSunderland A.F.C.'s slogan, "Ha'way The Lads"). The local newspapers in each region use these spellings) Pitmatic(originally "pitmatical"), also colloquially known as "yakka", is a dialect of English used in the counties of Northumberland and Durham in England. It developed as a separate dialect fromNorthumbrian and Geordie partly due to the specialised terms used by mineworkers in the local coal pits. For example, in Northumberland and Tyne and Wear the word Cuddy is an abbreviation of the name Cuthbert but in Durham Pitmatic cuddy denotes a horse, specifically a pit pony. In Lowland Scots, cuddie usually refers to a donkey or ass but may also denote a short, thick, strong horse., pitmatic, together with some rural Northumbrian communities including Rothbury, used a guttural R. This is now less frequently heard; since the closure of the area's deep mines, many younger people speak in local ways that do not usually include this characteristic. The guttural r sound can, however, still sometimes be detected, especially amongst elderly populations in more rural areas.in theory pitmatic was spoken throughout the Great Northern Coalfield, from Ashington in Northumberland to Fishburn in County Durham, early references apply specifically to its use by miners especially from the Durham district (1873) and to its use in County Durham (1930)."pitmatic" is an uncommon term in popular usage. In recent times, all three dialects have converged, acquiring features from more Standard English varieties. English as spoken in County Durham has been described as "half-Geordie, half-Teesside" (see the article about Mackem).Bragg presented a programme on BBC Radio 4 about pitmatic as part of a series on regional dialects) Multicultural London EnglishLondon English (abbreviated MLE), colloquially called Jafaican, is a dialect (and/or sociolect) of English that emerged in the late 20th century. It is spoken mainly in inner London, with the exception of areas such as Brent, Newham, Haringey and Enfield. According to research conducted at Queen Mary, University of London, Multicultural London English is gaining territory fromCockney.is said to contain many elements from the languages of the Caribbean (Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago), South Asia (Indian subcontinent), and West Africa, as well as remnants of traditional Cockney. Although the street name, "Jafaican", implies that it is "fake" Jamaican, researchers indicate that it is not the language of white kids trying to "play cool" but rather that "[it is] more likely that young people have been growing up in London exposed to a mixture of second-language English and local London English and that this new variety has emerged from that mix".is used mainly by young, urban working-class people.past tense of the verb "to be" is regularised, with "was" becoming universal for all conjugations, and "weren't" likewise for negative conjugations. This leaves "I was, you was, he was" etc., and "I weren't, you weren't, he weren't" etc.questions are limited to "isn't it", realised as "innit", and the corresponding "is it?".

  • 4. Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works
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    Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [1,89 ] Thus, when the noun sign shifts to the verb sign(ed) without any change in the word form we can say this is a case of conversion. However, it does not mean that this process takes place in all the cases of homophones [3, 68]. Sometimes, the connection has to do with coincidences or old etymological ties that have been lost. For example, mind and matter are cases of this grammatical sameness without connection by conversion-the verbs have nothing to do today with their respective noun forms in terms of semantics.is particularly common in English because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It is usually impossible in languages with grammatical genders, declensions or conjugations. [11, 43]status of conversion is a bit unclear. It must be undoubtedly placed within the phenomena of word-formation; nevertheless, there are some doubts about whether it must be considered a branch of derivation or a separate process by itself (with the same status as derivation or compounding). [5, 88]this undetermined position in grammar, some scholars assert that conversion will become even more active in the future because it is a very easy way to create new words in English. There is no way to know the number of conversions appearing every day in the spoken language, although we know this number must be high. As it is a quite recent phenomenon, the written evidence is not a fully reliable source. We will have to wait a little longer to understand its whole impact, which will surely increase in importance in the next decades.is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system. It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. Saying that, however, is saying very little because there are other types of word building in which new words are also formed without affixes (most compounds, contracted words, sound-imitation words, etc.). [3,150] the notion of conversion is to re-classification of secondary word classes within one part of speech, a phenomenon also called transposition.consists in making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. The new word has a meaning, which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it. It has also a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech. The term «conversion» first appeared in the book by Henry Sweet «New English Grammar» in 1891. Conversion is treated differently by different scientists, e.g. prof. A.I. Smirntitsky treats conversion as a morphological way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech by changing its paradigm, e.g. to form the verb «to dial» from the noun «dial» we change the paradigm of the noun (a dial,dials) for the paradigm of a regular verb (I dial, he dials, dialed, dialing). A. Marchand in his book The Categories and Types of Present-day English treats conversion as a morphological-syntactical word-building because we have not only the change of the paradigm, but also the change of the syntactic function, e.g. I need some good paper for my room. (The noun «paper» is an object in the sentence). I paper my room every year. (The verb «paper» is the predicate in the sentence) [1, 90]from the perhaps more obvious possibility to derive words with the help of affixes, there are a number of other ways to create new words on the basis of already existing ones. We have already illustrated these in the first chapter of this book, when we briefly introduced the notions of conversion, truncations, clippings, blends, and abbreviations. In this chapter we will have a closer look at these non-concatenative processes. We will begin with conversion. Conversion can be defined as the derivation of a new word without any overt marking. In order to find cases of conversion we have to look for pairs of words that are derivationally related and are completely identical in their phonetic realization.can be seen from the organization of the data, different types of conversion can be distinguished, in particular noun to verb, verb to noun, adjective to verb and adjective to noun. Other types can also be found, but seem to be more marginal (e.g. the use of prepositions as verbs, as in to down the can). Conversion raises three major theoretical problems that we will discuss in the following: the problem of directionality, the problem of zero-morphs and the problem of the morphology-syntax boundary. [11, 92]question of conversion has, for a long time, been a controversial one in several aspects. The essence of this process has been treated by a number of scholars (e. g. H. Sweet), not as a word-building act, but as a mere functional change. From this point of work the word hand in Hand me that book is not a verb, but a noun used in a verbal syntactical function, that is, hand (me) and hands (in She has small hands) are not two different words but one. Hence, the саsе cannot be treated as one of word-formation for no new word appears. [15,128]to this functional approach, conversion may be regarded as a specific feature of the English categories of parts of speech, which are supposed to be able to break through the rigid borderlines dividing one category from another thus enriching the process of communication not by the creation of new words but through the sheer flexibility of the syntactic structures.this theory finds increasingly fewer supporters, and conversion is universally accepted as one of the major ways of enriching English vocabulary with new words. One of the major arguments for this approach to conversion is the semantic change that regularly accompanies each instance of conversion. Normally, a word changes its syntactic function without any shift in lexical meaning. E. g. both in yellow leaves and in the leaves were turning yellow the adjective denotes color. Yet, in the leaves yellowed the converted unit no longer denotes color, but the process of changing color, so that there is an essential change in meaning. The change of meaning is even more obvious in such pairs as hand - to hand, face - to face, to go - a go, to make -»a make, etc. [15,180]two categories of parts of speech especially affected by conversion are nouns and verbs. Verbs made from nouns are the most numerous amongst the words produced by conversion: e. g. to hand, to back, to face, to eye, to mouth, to nose, to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to can, to coal, to stage, to screen, to room, to floor, to blackmail, to blacklist, to honeymoon, and very many others.are frequently made from verbs: do (e. g. This is the queerest do I've ever come across. Do - event, incident), go (e. g. He has still plenty of go at his age. Go - energy), make, run, find, catch, cut, walk, worry, show, move, etc.can also be made from adjectives: to pale, to yellow, to cool, to grey, to rough (e. g. We decided to rough it in the tents as the weather was warm), etc.can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings because of that, e.g.) Verbs have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting parts of a human body e.g. to eye, to finger, to elbow, to shoulder etc. They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.g. to hammer, to machine-gun, to rifle, to nail,) Verbs can denote an action characteristic of the living being denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to crowd, to wolf, to ape,) Verbs can denote acquisition, addition or deprivation if they are formed from nouns denoting an object, e.g. to fish, to dust, to peel, to paper,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the place denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to park, to garage, to bottle, to corner, to pocket,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the time denoted by the noun from which they have been converted e.g. to winter, to week-end. [11, 94]can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e.g. to tame (to become or make tame), to clean, to slim etc. Nouns can also be formed by means of conversion from verbs.nouns can denote:) instant of an action e.g. a jump, a move,) process or state e.g. sleep, walk,) agent of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a help, a flirt, a scold,) object or result of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a burn, a find, a purchase,) place of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a drive, a stop, a walk. Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentaneous actions. In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as: to have, to get, to take etc., e.g. to have a try, to give a push, to take a swim. [10, 95]frequent but also quite possible is conversion from form words to nouns. e. g. He liked to know the ins and outs. Shant go into the whys and wherefores. He was familiar with ups and downs of life. Use is even made of affixes. Thus, ism is a separate word nowadays meaning a set of ideas or principles, e. g. Freudism, existentialism and all the other -isms.all the above examples the change of paradigm is present and helpful for classifying the newly coined words as cases of conversion. But it is not absolutely necessary, because conversion is not limited to such parts of speech which possess a paradigm. That, for example, may be converted into an adverb in informal speech: I was that hungry I could have eaten a horse. [3,189]speaker realizes the immense potentiality of making a word into another part of speech when the need arises. One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e. g. love, n. - to love, v.; work, n. - to work, v.; drink, n. - to drink, v., etc.) which did, not occur due to conversion but coincided as a result of certain historical processes (dropping of endings, simplification of stems) when before that they had different forms. On the other hand, it is quite true that the first cases of conversion (which were registered n the 14th c.) imitated such pairs of words as love, n. - to love, v. for they were numerous in the vocabulary and were subconsciously accepted by native speakers as one of the typical language patterns [6, 167]

  • 5. Continental legal system
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    M. N in his work defines the general sources of the right for the legal systems, which are entered into Romano-German a legal family:legal acts led by the law.Romano-German countries of a legal family, it is considered that for the lawyer the best way of an establishment of the fair decision corresponding to the right is the reference to the law.in judgements the importance of the law in the romano-German legal system becomes obvious that to the judge in decision-making the supporting role is taken away. Actions of the judge here is better are defined by the term "submission to the law, i.e. his tusk is reduced to search and application of that rule of law which in the best way describes a disputable situation. all countries of the romano-German legal family there are hand-written constitutions behind which norms the higher legal authority expressed and admits in establishment of judicial control over constitutionality .to V.Knappa, some countries have refused judicial control over constitutionality of laws, for example the Netherlands, France where it was promoted by the reasons historical matters.estimate the practical importance of judicial control over constitutionality of laws, it is necessary to consider various factors. So, scales of this control it is, less, if the constitution concerns the category nonrigid, rather easily changed. These scales will be less and in those countries where the right to suspend the constitution is given executive power. Told concerns many countries of Africa and America. the majority of the continental countries are accepted and operate civil (either civil or trading), criminal, grazhdansko-remedial, criminally-remedial and some other codes. concept of norms accepted in a legislative order recognizes that in this system of norms containing the norms not only in certificates, accepted by a legislature, but also in the certificates proceeding from executive - administrative and administrative bodies. various countries of the Romano-German right character and the name of certificates far aren't identical. For example into France except laws in system of is standard - legal certificates enter the certificates published according to item 37 of the Constitution of France, on questions, not entering into legislation sphere. Besides to a kind of sources of the right concern ordonances- certificates Constitutions of France accepted according to item 38 the government (Ministerial council), Constitutions of the states of the European Union. According to item 76 of the Constitution of Italy legislative decreets concern system of regulatory legal acts. Also the decreets of the president which are valid the law, and regulations concern system of regulatory legal acts in Italy.- the rule of the behavior which has developed on the basis of constant and uniform repetition of given actual relationscustom rare enough in the Romano-German right, in own way the unique phenomenon which not only isn't welcomed understandably, but, on the contrary, is in every possible way limited, and in some national systems legislatively it is forbidden. a whole position of custom in Romano-German system it is right rather originally.can operate not only in addition to the law, but also except the law. Situations when the custom occupies position against the law (for example, in the navigating right of Italy where the sea custom prevails over norm of the Civil code) are possible. the custom has lost character of an independent source of the right on right Romano-German modern development.practice, judicial precedentsis such legally significant behavior of the power which took place at least one only time, but can be an example for the subsequent behavior of this power. Differently, legal precedent is a decision юрисдикционных and administrative bodies on concrete business which is accepted subsequently to the general obligatory rule at the permission of similar affairs. judgement based, for example, on analogy of the law or on the general principles, can be perceived by other courts after decision passage through cassation instance as actual precedent.researchers give particular attention to the granted kind of a source of the right.is caused, on the one hand, by the practical importance of precedent as source of the continental right, and with another - discrepancy, is more exact - uncertainty of its position, a place and a role of system of other sources of the roman-German right. same Marchenko M. N allocates three groups. The first group includes the countries which completely support precedent. In other legal systems precedent isn't perceived at all. And in the third group - Romano-German to system precedent takes rather uncertain place in right sources.precedent as one of right sources first of all it is necessary to pay attention, on historically developed in Romano's countries - the German right rather inconsistent traditions and customs. international contractsdevelopment of international communications the great value for systems of the right of the separate countries gets international law. In some states the big validity, than to internal laws is given to the international contracts. The constitution of Germany (1949) For example, establishes that the general norms of international law have advantage before laws and directly generate the rights and duties for inhabitants of federal territory (item 25). to interpretation of norms international the contract that it can be carried to the competence of supranational jurisdictions. In these cases at serious doubts in how such contract should be interpreted, national court it is necessary to refuse its interpretation. The state of affairs with Roman and Parisian contracts by which in 1951 and 1957 different European communities have been created is that. doctrineRomano - the German right the term the doctrine is used widely enough. In Marchenko's work as the doctrine understands the following: as the doctrine, the filosofsko-legal theory; as opinions of scientists-lawyers on those or other questions, concerning essence and the maintenance of various legal certificates, on questions of lawcreation and lawunderstanding; as proceedings of the most authoritative researchers in the field of the state and the right; in the form of comments of the various codes, separate laws, the annotated versions» (models) of various regulatory legal acts.doctrine develops receptions and methods of an establishment, interpretation and right realization. Besides creators be right can't be free from influence of legal doctrines: more or it is less realized, but it should take the part this or that legal concept, to perceive its offers and V.K.Babayev's recommendation. the countries of the romano-German legal family as it is possible to allocate the simple administrative circulars, specifying as the administration understands the rule of law and as she intends to apply it. Administrative officials frequently know the right only under office instructions which they receive in the form of circulars; and more often they prefer to be limited to these instructions not to have troubles from the higher heads.

  • 6. Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services
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    The structure of workers of the innovative enterprises is not homogeneous. So, along with science officers in these organisations engineers, and also technicians and laboratorians work. Besides, and work of scientists is not homogeneous for the maintenance. It can include original and typical works, and also the works of organizational character connected with the coordination and the control over activity of experts. Certainly, as the work schedule cannot be universal for all categories of workers of scientific division and even for experts of one category. At introduction of new types of operating schedules it is necessary to pay attention not only to a kind of work of experts, but also on economic gains (expenses on heating, illumination, rent of premises, a food of workers, payment of parking places etc.) and technical possibilities (presence of phones, faxes, personal computers etc.) . Besides, new types of operating schedules can be considered and as original not monetary methods of stimulation of productivity. So, for example, according to German researchers, about 20 % of workers a flexible operating schedule consider as a primary factor of positive motivation. As a whole the work schedule is characterised by stability. Usually people work 5 days in a week, 40 hours per week, from 9 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock in the evening, have standard lunch time. Along with obvious advantages, such mode has also lacks: traffic jams, turns at lifts are created. Besides, people often have stresses because are late for work, they have conflicts to the chief. As new types of an operating schedule usually name: the flexible hours, the compressed working week (the summarised working day), a partial employment. The flexible operating schedule is understood as the work schedule at which the worker can choose time of arrival-leaving in certain limits which are established by a management. The compressed working week represents the work schedule in which there is an exchange between quantity of the hours fulfilled daily, and quantity of the working days within a week. So, the usual number of hours can be fulfilled not for five days, and for four (for ten hours daily) or for three days (for twelve hours daily). The Partial employment (partial hiring)? It is work with performance of the same duties, but during smaller time. The greatest distribution to the scientific organisations the flexible hours (have got flexible time, flexible working hours). It is under construction in the different ways: and #61485; the Daily choice of time of the beginning and the work termination; and #61485; Variable duration of the working day; and #61485; Allocation of the general (присутственного) time (i.e. Time established by the head when all employees should be on work). Depending on flexibility degree, it is possible to allocate various types of schedules. We will consider them in a direction from least to the most flexible. All of them are used in practice. The flexible cycle demands from workers of a choice of certain time of the beginning and the work termination, and also work under this schedule during the certain period (for example, weeks). The sliding schedule allows to change time of the beginning and the work termination, but thus it is necessary to work a full time? 8 hours. Variable day allows to change duration of the working day (for example to work one day of 10 hours, and another? 6 hours but so that as a result in a weekend it has turned out only 40 hours or for a month of 160 hours). The sliding schedule and variable day are most effective in a branch science. Abroad analogue it are laboratories of industrial firms and a private small-scale business. Very much the flexible hours demand presence of workers during the general time (for example, from 10 o'clock in the morning to 2 o'clock in the afternoon, but only on Monday and Friday). Flexible placing allows to change not only hours, but also a work arrangement? It is possible to work at home, in branches, etc. The flexible hours cannot be used in the event that the work period depends on work of any equipment, for example, for the workers performing skilled and experimental works. The great value, along with a choice of an optimum operating mode for the scientist has time effective utilisation. It is possible to allocate three reasons aggravating congestion: and #61485; Small degree of delegation of responsibility; and #61485; incorrectly selected priorities; and #61485; too big absorption in daily efforts. For optimisation of use of time principles of Pareto and Eisenhower have great value. In 1897 The Italian economist Pareto has invented the formula showing that all blessings are distributed non-uniformly. In most cases the greatest share of incomes or the blessings belongs to a small number of people. M.S.Lorentz (the American economist) has illustrated this theory with the diagramme. The doctor D. M.Dzhuran has applied the diagramme to classification of problems of quality on not numerous essentially important and numerous insignificant and named this method the analysis of Pareto. Application of a principle of Pareto is expedient and at working hours planning. In this case means that concentration of attention on the vital activity most of all influences achievement of desirable results. The rule 20/80 from here follows: concentration of 20 % of time on the most important problems can lead to reception of 80 % of results. The others of 80 % of time provide only remained 20 % of results. Eisenhower's principle is important for definition of the importance of problems. Eisenhower subdivided problems on their importance and promptness into problems And, In and С "A-problems": very important and urgent? To carry out immediately. "In? Problems": important, not urgent? To define, in their what terms it is necessary to carry out." S-problems ": less important, but urgent? To delegate. Affairs which are not neither important, nor urgent should not distract attention of the head. In connection with the aforesaid, the great value gets definition of optimum parities between workers of various qualification. Optimum it is possible to consider such parity at which science officers do not carry out functions unusual for them. There are recommendations according to which optimum parity between technicians and engineers should make 0,3 / 1 at performance of researches and 1,7 / 1 at performance of developmental works. On the average this parity should make 1 / 2. Questions of formation of target groups in scientific personnel In a general work understand as group of two and more persons who co-operate with each other in such a manner that each person influences others and simultaneously is under the influence of other persons. It is noticed that association of workers in groups allows to solve a number of problems: As much as possible to use creative potential; to involve workers in managerial process. Target groups (time creative collectives), created of engineers and science officers have the features in comparison with quality mugs as before groups more difficult purposes are put. Practice of formation of target groups of the scientists working in various research divisions of firm is extended. Creation of such groups for working out of any one important problem gives the chance to be beyond existing departments and laboratories that is the important factor of increase of an efficiency of scientific research. Target groups of experts (time creative collectives) differ from circles of quality that operate on the basis of in advance formulated problem and always carry a temporality. They can be created for different terms: from 2-3 and more years. It defines also selection of participants of groups. Groups are created as for study of separate organizational or technical questions, and for the decision of difficult cardinal problems. The overall performance of groups is influenced by following factors: the size, structure, group norms, unity, a conflictness, the status and a functional role of its members. Before formation of target group (time creative collective) it is necessary to carry out the morphological analysis which leads to splitting of the general problem into a number of subtasks and reveals possible alternatives of their decision. Each subtask breaks into stages. To generate collective of executors, it is necessary to have the list of all subtasks which should be solved in the course of work performance; characteristics of each subtask with definition of requirements to their potential executors. Besides it is necessary to have a databank on all possible executors of work. At division of a task in work into subtasks each executor should know the concept of designing of all object. The new tendency is allocation of personnel services for needs of the time organizational structures which are engaged in process of innovations. Such personnel services also carry a temporality and move on divisions according to stages of realisation of the project. The actual organizer of work on attraction and personnel development is the head of the innovative enterprise who embodies the idea and is financially interested in innovation introduction. The head of division defines quantity of executors of each subtask, recognising that one executor performs from two to three stages of work. Selection of executors is carried out proceeding from complexity of performed work. Thus the potential of executors should be a little above, than demanded. At a stage of working out and realisation of the ideas which have been put forward by target groups, sometimes there are the so-called design groups, different in the big scales of carried out works and большей number of executors. In any target group select the most prepared experts. But even at the most careful selection almost always there is a distinction between them on readiness degree to performance of a problem assigned to them. In this connection training of less skilled executors at more qualified should be provided. Short-term employment on which each expert has an opportunity better will sometimes be organised to imagine sense of a collective problem and the basic approaches to its decision. Still большее value gets preliminary training at creation of the design groups which work has more long-term and complex character. In these cases for experts special seminars can be held. The seminar program should cover acquaintance of its participants with features of the organisation of works in design group, with specificity of planning, with establishment principles приоритетности in performance of works, methods of search of optimum decisions on the basis of the analysis of real situations. The attention is given also to working off of practical skills of teamwork in group. At a seminar there is an acquaintance of experts to the future project head which should spend some employment. It allows it to come into contact and to prepare participants of design group for forthcoming activity. Upon termination of a seminar to its participants the special certificate on the right to work over the project can stand out. In the USA creation of interfirm target and design groups is observed also. Usually in their structure experts from the external research organisations are involved. As a result of such cooperation from firm innovative structures in which are occupied both members of groups, and scientific shots can separate. In this case it is possible to define the innovative enterprise as target group which is created for industrial development and adjustment of sale of production based on the new technical concept.

  • 7. Economic crisis
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    Radically change the conditions of the last two or three decades, accompanied by a significant expansion of information resources, increased knowledge on the organization of social and economic processes together with the deepening of regional specialization imposes requirements for the evaluation of comprehensive development of the region and requires proper evaluation of the transition region as a complex set of zobmezhenoyu phenomena, essential for learning or research of the complex, qualitative evaluation of its individual components to complete its comprehensive general characteristics that meet the objectives of sustainable development. According to the evaluation criteria of comprehensive regional development along with economic, social, environmental and criteria should be balance, proportionality, stability, controllability. Real reflection of institutional contradictions and problems is incomplete and secondary employment, poor flow of labor reallocation between sectors of economic activity, the practice of granting administrative leave due to low capacity utilization, territorial uncontrolled circulation of labor. In regions of Ukraine growth in total labor turnover and labor mobility observed uAvtonomniy Republic of Crimea, Kyiv, Sevastopol and in Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Kharkiv regions. From half-day (week) occupied much of the staff of leading regional industries of transport and communications, industry, construction, high labor turnover has been generated in the field of hotels and restaurants, trade, repair services.

  • 8. Economic sanctions
    Дипломы Иностранные языки

    Support âîîðóæ ё ííûõ of groups and groups on ё ìíèêîâ for intrusion on territory of other state. At last, among kinds of illegal application âîîðóæ ё ííîé of force the support âîîðóæ ё ííûõ of gangs and groups on ё ìíèêîâ for intrusion on territory of other state should be mentioned with the purpose of interference in his(its) internal businesses, in particular(personally) with the purpose of suppression occurring in í ё ì íàöèîíàëüíî-îñâîáîäèòåëüíîãî of movement(traffic). Åù ё in the agreements about íåíàïàäåíèè, çàêëþ÷ ё ííûõ the Soviet Union with other states in 20-th and 30-th years, provided the obligations of each party to not admit and to interfere with organization and activity on the territory âîîðóæ ё ííûõ of groups putting by the purpose struggle on territory of other party against å ё of government, for an overthrow state building, against integrity å ё of territory or appropriating(giving) to themselves a role of government by all or part å ё of territory. In the London conventions on definition(determination) of aggression of a 1933 of the party consider as one of kinds âîîðóæ ё ííîé of aggression support by the state, « rendered âîîðóæ ё ííûì to gangs, which being are formed(educated) on his(its) territory, have intruded on territory of other state, or failure(refusal), despite of requests of the state which has undergone to intrusion to accept on own territory all measures, dependent on him,(it,) for deprivation of named gangs of the help or protection » (item 5 of an item. II). In the project of the code of crimes against the world and safety of mankind accepted the Commission of the international law a UN on å ё of 6-th session in a 1954, as one of such crimes specified « organization by authorities of any state or encouragement by them of organization âîîðóæ ё ííûõ øàåê within the limits of his(its) territory for intrusion territory of other state, or assumption of use by such âîîðóæ ё ííûìè øàéêàìè of his(its) territory as operative base or basic point for intrusion on territory of other state, no less than direct sharing(participation) in such intrusion or support those » 1.

  • 9. English football lexis and its influence on Russian
    Дипломы Иностранные языки

    The most frequent goal scoring phrases with net consists of the (recurring strings of words that may or may not have linguistic integrity) the back/ roof/ corner of the net .These occurred mostly in the constructions hit/find the back of the net and [Verb] the ball/cross (etc.) into the roof/corner of the net. While the former is usually used simply as a synonym to score a goal, as in an example below, the later construction is a neat way of describing how and by whom a goal was scored, and where the ball went in.or later we had to start hitting the back of the net.verb slot for the back of the net is mostly filled by the verbs hit and find, whereas the roof/corner of the net occurs with a wide variety of transitive and intransitive verbs. Curl (закрутить в ворота), hammer (заколотить в ворота), poke (затолкать в ворота) and sidefoot only constitute a handful of the more than 50 types found. Some of these verbs, like hammer, are metaphorical, while others like sidefoot can be argued to be metonymic.Scunthorpe withstood the pressure and scored in injury time with the very last kick of the match, Jan Helliwell curling a free kick into the corner of the net. [13, 147]roof/corner of the net construction is similar to empty net and own net below in that there is a core in the constructions, which is hard to specify, with slots allowing almost limitless variation. For the roof/corner of the net there is a real-world limitation to the number of specifiable places where a ball can hit the net, while no such limitations appear to apply to the number of ways a ball can be conveyed into it.next phrase, (the ball) in the net, occurs with a restricted set of verbs, normally only have, put and get. Like the metonymic constructions above, the ball reaching the net is highlighted as a salient feature of scoring. Two distinct meanings are expressed with this phrase, the first of which refers to the superficially simple task of scoring the goals (usually with put or get).told me he needs somebody to put the ball in the net.second meaning (usually with the verb have) relates to cases where the goal is disallowed.had the ball in the net after 65 minutes but the effort was disallowed.Snarrocks men had the ball in the net in injury time but only after Alex Mathie had bundled Leighton over the time., it is mentioned explicitly that the goal did not count, with phrases like was ruled offside or was disallowed but sometimes more implicit means are used, where readers have to infer that that a free-kick was awarded to the defending side.Snarrocks men had the ball in the net in injury time but only after Alex Mathie had bundled Leighton over the time.phrases are motivated by metonymy, their meanings are not always predictable. Similarity, some knowledge of the conversations of football reporting for readers to be able to interpret phrases such as the ball in the net expressing meanings particular to the field. [13, 148]goal-scoring phrase with net is based on empty net (пустые ворота). An/the empty net is the metonymic expression used when there are no defending players obstructing the passage to the goal. The net is empty net does not, as in the previously discussed phrases, refer to the meshed fabric at the back of the goal, but rather to the goalmouth.Voyley sealed Stokes fate when he rounded keeper Runnie Sinclair to stroke the ball into an empty net with a minute to go.phrase is another illustration of both the fixedness and variability of language. In the material similar to the back/roof/corner of the net above, it can be argued that there is a SPACE, but it presupposes familiarity of the length of a football match.the dying/closing minutes/на последних минутах and in the opening minutes/на первых минутах, referring to, respectively, to the final and the initial minutes of the match, are similar to the nth minutes in their origin in the conceptual metaphor TIME IS SPACE. The dying minutes also involves personification, since a sporting event is conceptualized as a living entity.put the ball in the net in the dying minutes but the goal was disallowed for offside.phrases in the dying/closing/opening minutes are virtually limited to sports, and to football in particular. These phrases could conceivably be used outside sport relating to events with fixed beginnings or ends, and where time is measured in minutes, but there were only few instances of this (referring to e.g. concerts)preposition from occurs in phrases expressing the number of minutes remaining in a game, as in minute(s) from time and minute(s) from the end.Nevin scored the third five minutes from time.

  • 10. Features of syntactic structures in sports journalism (on the basis of the newspapers "Sport-express" and "Izvestia")
    Дипломы Иностранные языки

    order to identify examples of syntactic constructions in the sports press, we have analyzed the issues of the newspaper Izvestia and the newspaper "Sport Express" for the period from February 1 to April 25, 2011. Socio-political newspaper "Izvestia" published 5 times a week (except Saturday and Sunday) with a volume of 12 to 48 pages, format - A2. Circulation in Russia is about 150 thousand copies. Circulation in Moscow, has about 50 thousand copies. The thematic range of newspapers included coverage of events in Russia and abroad, analysis and commentary, rework of business and economics, cultural events and sports life.newspaper "Sport-Express" is published 6 times a week (except Sunday) in 32 cities around the world. Daily circulation is about 1.2 million copies, in Moscow and St. Petersburg is about 200 thousand, format - A2. The main themes - coverage of football and hockey events. The next priority themes are biathlon, volleyball, basketball, tennis, boxing.on the quantitative analysis provided in the table, it is clear that in the newspaper "Sport Express" more types of syntactic structures are presented. While in the newspaper "Izvestia" ellipse, polisindeton, nominative representation are not represented.the newspaper Izvestia the most frequent syntactic structures are insertions (40%) and rhetorical questions (19%). Further, it should be noted question-answer structures (6%), parceling (6%), syntactic parallelism (5%), the connecting constructions (5%) and incomplete sentences (4%). constructions with homogeneous members of the proposals (3%) and rhetorical exclamations, a series of rhetorical questions, graduations, nominative sentences, structures with spoken modal particles (2%), as well as constructions with interjection "well" and the introductory word "mole" (1%) are used less often.the newspaper "Sport Express" insertions (24%), rhetorical questions (13%), and parcelling (13%) and rhetorical ejaculations (11%) are often used. Then follow series of rhetorical questions (6%), question-answer constructions (5%), constructions with syntactic parallelism (5%), constructions with homogeneous members of the proposals (4%). At the same time, there are almost no constructions with spoken modal particles (3%), connecting constructions, ellipsis, polisindeton, nominative constructions representation, constructions with interjection "well" and the introductory word "mole" (2%), graduation and nominative sentences (1%).

  • 11. Foreign words in E. Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea: semantics, functions, frequency
    Дипломы Иностранные языки
  • 12. Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words
    Дипломы Иностранные языки

    words are characterized by their ambiguous lexical meaning and by their capacity to organize grammatical relationships between words within a sentence. There are a relatively small and fixed number of function words (as opposed to verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, which are limited but expandable sets). Prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs are all considered function words. Most of these words are uninflected although a few are inflected and may take affixes.Verbs are verbs whose function is to characterize the main verbs they accompany with shades of meaning pertaining to tense and/or modality. Regarding tense, the core meaning of the verb can be modified to express perfect, progressive, or passive voices. Regarding modality, the main verb is altered to denote judgment or opinion in terms of ability, advice, expectation, intention/willingness, likelihood, necessity, permission/prohibition, or degrees of politeness. verbs are necessary to form questions and negatives in English. If auxiliary verbs are used only to serve these functions, they are referred to as dummy auxiliaries. Additionally, the auxiliaries 'do', 'does', and 'did' can be inserted preceding the main verb for emphasis. Modal verbs are distinguished from other auxiliary verbs by their inability to function as main verbs and their lack of complete conjugations (infinitive for example). are uninflected function words that serve to conjoin words, clauses, phrases, or sentences. There are three basic forms: single word (however), compound (as long as), and correlative (so... that). In terms of function, conjunctions can be grouped into additive (so, thus), adversative (but, instead), causative (so, because), and temporal (after, then). are not structural elements in a clause. Rather, they are external elements that establish grammatical relations (coordination, correlation, subordination) between clauses. Certain adverbial and prepositional phrases can also act as conjunctions (subsequently, in addition to that). are inflected function words employed as noun modifiers and that serve to alter the referents of noun phrases in terms of amount, location, possession, and general versus specific. In terms of form, determiners are simple (two, their, the) or compound (a number of, one half, a little). Also, possessive and demonstrative adjectives are considered determiners. determiner class is often divided into articles (a, an, the), determiners (both, neither, whichever), and quantifiers (much, various, little). are uninflected function words that combine with nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases to form prepositional phrases that can have, in turn, adverbial or adjectival relationships with other words. Prepositions can be simple (as, of) or compound (next to, in work of) forms. In terms of function, at least the following types of preposition can be distinguished: time (until, circa), location (along, amid), logical (since, given), possession (including, pertaining to), and movement (toward, to). can also occur in post position with: nouns (interest in, need for), adjectives (familiar with, sure of), participles (married to, made of), and verbs (give up, look forward). In this situation, the composite can be thought of as a unit. are inflected function words employed in place of nouns or noun phrases. In terms of form, pronouns are simple (nothing, herself) and compound (each other, one another). Also, some pronoun composites are used in relative clauses (all of whom, several of which). are classified into the following classes: subject personal (I, he, we), object personal (me, him, us), possessive (mine, his, ours), reflexive (myself, himself, ourselves), demonstrative (this, these, such), relative (who, all, that), indefinite (each, anybody, none), reciprocal (each other, one another), and interrogative (how, who, why). Additionally, reflexives also operate as so-called intensive pronouns when they are employed to emphasize an antecedent noun or pronoun (as in, "The boss himself prepared the coffee" or "I myself could not believe it").

  • 13. IRC как жанр виртуального дискурса
    Дипломы Иностранные языки


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  • 14. Iменниковi деривати чоловiчого роду в "Матерiалах до словника..." Е. Тимченка
    Дипломы Иностранные языки


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  • 15. Learner observation tasks as a learning tool for pre-service teachers
    Дипломы Иностранные языки


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  • 16. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies
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  • 17. Marketing analysis and strategy company Indes
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    next step after identifying possible markets is to decide which of these to target.find a suitable and profitable segment we need to go along the step-wise segment selection process (adapted from Freytag and Clarke, 2001, Brennan et al. 2011). The first step is to evaluate the relative attractiveness with criteria like segment size, growth rate and customer needs. Then we need to look at the resource demands (finances, HR, technology etc.). Management demands are the next thing to evaluate and last are the organizational demands. If all this are acceptable we consider the segment as suitable for targeting. Since this is all part of a big research project and also considered in the last part, we just chose for some criteria to evaluate the segments discussed above. In the following table we compare the ideas in 5 different criteria: realistic, costs, demand, implementation based on geographical factors and safety. When considering a new product costs should be always evaluated and if the project is realistic, meaning that the firm has the capabilities in resources to produce and successfully sell the new product. We considered demand to think about because a firm always needs to see whether there are potential customers in the market that would buy the product. Geographical factors was considered important by us because Indes is a small Dutch company so it does not have that much reach and resources to operate abroad. Safety was an important issue for us since the e-kit speeds up the devices chosen so in some cases there need to be some arrangements to ensure the safety of the user.considering all points like costs, demand etc. We came to the conclusion to choose for targeting the ambulance bike and the wheelbarrows, which will be discussed in more detail in the following. ambulance bikeambulance bike, with an e-kit on board, would be a substitute for the already existing ambulance bike without any kind of electrical help. In third world countries, ambulance bikes are the transportation tool to transport people living at the country side to a nearby hospital. Since these trips normally take hours, a bike with an e-kit can reduce the travel time and might save lives. ambulance bikes belong to a sub industry of Manufacture of other Transport Equipment, namely Manufacture of bicycles and invalid carriages. Since the concept is quite rare, theres no real market for this product. Therefore we deal with a niche market which we think could be quite profitable. world countries are in desperately need of such products as ambulance bikes. To be able to transport people which need medical care in a proper way, third world countries are almost obliged to think of products as the ambulance bike to offer medical care and to increase demographic health care numbers. However, we dont think governments will invest in ambulance bikes since theres no money. To be able to sell the ambulance bike with e-kit on board, Indes should collaborate with a few organizations (charities) that stimulate health care in third world countries, like the United Nations. produce such a product as an ambulance bike with electric endorsement, Indes is operating on the periphery of all its current markets. Indes should think of a save bike design with the opportunity for patients to lay down while driving to the hospital. Basis equipment for medical care should be implemented in the ambulance bike as well and Indes should think of an electric kit with a very long battery capacity, since there are not many electric points to recharge the energy kit in third world countries. We think collaborating with a firm experienced in making ambulance bikes (without e-kit) would be a wise decision. In this way, Indes could use their experience on the design and the medical equipment that has to be on board and combine this with its own knowledge on electric kits and the implementation of this. Indes can profit from such a project, not only because of the financial revenues, but it also can boost Indes reputation and brand awareness. The project is very ethical and sustainable responsible and this will positively influence Indes image. are a few drawbacks to this plan. At first, Indes has to find investors that are willing to buy these ambulance bikes for third world countries, since its likely that local governments cannot invest in such innovative ways of medical transportation. Besides the fact to find investors, Indes should think of a company to collaborate on this project. It might be that Indes is too small to work on this project by itself. At third, the costs of an electronic ambulance bike are higher than of a normal ambulance bike of course. To make sure that Indes can sell the project, it has to think of its profit margin. Since these ambulance bikes are sold to charities and not for profit organizations, Indes should keep costs as low as possible. Last, the transportation costs of the ambulance bikes are going to be very high, this will increase the product price as well.

  • 18. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
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    Research has contributed some important data on factors that can influence the learning and teaching of pronunciation skills.

    Age. The debate over the impact of age on language acquisition and specifically pronunciation is varied. Some researchers argue that, after puberty, lateralization (the assigning of linguistic functions to the different brain hemispheres) is completed, and adults' ability to distinguish and produce native-like sounds is more limited. Others refer to the existence of sensitive periods when various aspects of language acquisition occur, or to adults' need to re-adjust existing neural networks to accommodate new sounds. Most researchers, however, agree that adults find pronunciation more difficult than children do and that they probably will not achieve native-like pronunciation. Yet experiences with language learning and the ability to self-monitor, which come with age, can offset these limitations to some degree.

    Amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction. Prior experiences with pronunciation instruction may influence learners' success with current efforts. Learners at higher language proficiency levels may have developed habitual, systematic pronunciation errors that must be identified and addressed.

    Aptitude. Individual capacity for learning languages has been debated. Some researchers believe all learners have the same capacity to learn a second language because they have learned a first language. Others assert that the ability to recognize and internalize foreign sounds may be unequally developed in different learners.

    Learner attitude and motivation. Nonlinguistic factors related to an individual's personality and learning goals can influence achievement in pronunciation. Attitude toward the target language, culture, and native speakers; degree of acculturation (including exposure to and use of the target language); personal identity issues; and motivation for learning can all support or impede pronunciation skills development.

    Native language. Most researchers agree that the learner's first language influences the pronunciation of the target language and is a significant factor in accounting for foreign accents. So-called interference or negative transfer from the first language is likely to cause errors in aspiration, intonation, and rhythm in the target language.

    The pronunciation of any one learner might be affected by a combination of these factors. The key is to be aware of their existence so that they may be considered in creating realistic and effective pronunciation goals and development plans for the learners. For example, native-like pronunciation is not likely to be a realistic goal for older learners; a learner who is a native speaker of a tonal language, such as Vietnamese, will need assistance with different pronunciation features than will a native Spanish speaker; and a twenty-three year old engineer who knows he will be more respected and possibly promoted if his pronunciation improves is likely to be responsive to direct pronunciation instruction.

  • 19. Mаrxіsm іn wоrld hіstоry
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    Australian tribes … know the habits, markings, breeding grounds and seasonal fluctuations of all the edible animals, fish and birds of their hunting grounds. They know the external and some of the less obvious properties of rocks, stones, waxes, gums, plants, fibres and barks; they know how to make fire; they know how to apply heat to relieve pain, stop bleeding and delay the putrefaction of fresh food; and they also use fire and heat to harden some woods and soften others … They know something at least of the phases of the moon, the movement of the tides, the planetary cycles, and the sequence and duration of the seasons; they have correlated together such climactic fluctuations as wind systems, annual patterns of humidity and temperature and fluxes in the growth and presence of natural species … In addition they make intelligent and economical use of the by-products of animals killed for food; the flesh of the kangaroo is eaten; the leg bones are used as fabricators for stone tools and as pins; the sinews become spear bindings; the claws are set into necklaces with wax and fibre; the fat is combined with red ochre as a cosmetic, and blood is mixed with charcoal as paint... They have some knowledge of simple mechanical principles and will trim a boomerang again and again to give it the correct curve...

  • 20. Neologism in modern English
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    Where there is an accepted collocation in the SL, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the TL, if it exists. A collocation consists basically of two or three lexical (sometimes called full, descriptive, substantial) words, usually linked by grammatical (empty, functional, relational) words, e.g. a mental illness. The collocates within a collocation define and delimit each other by eliminating at least some of their other possible meanings; the defining may be mutual and equally balanced, but more often it is closer for one collocate than for the other. Thus to pay attention, since it reduces the number of senses in which pay can be used to one. The word attention is not so radically affected, but it excludes attention in the sense of care, solicitude. To buy a hat is not a collocation, since it does not appreciably delimit the sense of buy or hat. However, collocations shade off into other grammatically linked word-groups without a sharp division.collocation is the element of system in the lexis of a language. It may be syntagmatic or horizontal, therefore consisting of a common structure; or paradigmatic or vertical, consisting of words belonging to the same semantic field which may substitute for each other or be semantic opposites. These become collocations only when they are arranged syntagmatically.collocations can be divided into seven main groups:) Verb plus verbal noun. Examples: pay attention, suffer a defeat, run a meeting, make a speech. The verb is the collocate for which the translator must find the appropriate equivalent. The verbs in these collocations merely have an operative function (they mean do) and no particularized meaning since the action is expressed in the noun. Some verbal nouns have a small range of collocates; others, like discourse, Lob, Dients, have one obvious collocate (pronouncer, spenden, leisten).) Determiner plus adjective plus noun. The appropriate adjective has to be found for the noun. There is a much wider range of choices than in (a), and the force of this category of collocation is usually only established by contrast with another language. Thus a large apple but une grosse pomme; a tall man but un home grand; un grand home but a great man; un beau garcon but a good looking man; a pretty girl but not (usually) a pretty boy. Some nouns have one particularly suitable adjective in an extensive variety of areas, particularly for physical qualities (e.g. woman: dark, slim, middle-aged, short, young) which, for other objects, would require different adjectives, whilst other nouns (e.g. criticism) have a narrow sheaf of adjectives for each segment of a variety of areas (approfondi/grundlich; anodine/nichtssagend).) Adverb plus adjective. The most suitable adverb must be looked for. These collocations tend to clichй (e.g. immensely important). The collocation is much rarer in Romance languages, where its equivalent transposition is adjective plus adjectival noun, e.g. dune immense importance. Note however: vachement dur, damn hard or bloody hard. This collocation, which is more restricted and less frequent (therefore far less important) than (a) and (b) is much at the mercy of fashion.) Verb plus adverb or adjective. This is much smaller category: the adverb or adjective must be looked for. Examples: work hard, feel well, shine brightly, and smell sweet.) Subject plus verb. There are two groups: first, the noun and verb may mutually attract each other: the dog barks, the cat purrs, the bell rings, and teeth chatter. In some cases, particularly when referring to animals, the verb usually has no other subject. In the second group, there is merely a fairly high expectation that a particular verb will follow the subject: the door creaks, le clocher pointe, les champs se deroulent, and here the right verb must be looked for. In French, some of these verbs are often found as past participles or in adjectival clauses qualifying their subjects (used as etoffement with low semantic content), and then they require no translation in English: la maison qui se drese sur la colline, the house on the hill.) Count noun plus of plus mass noun. This restricted collocation consists of a term denoting a unit of quantity and the word for the substance it quantifies. The appropriate unit must be looked for in the TL, e.g. a loaf of bread, a cake of soap, a pinch of salt, a particle of dust, etc, if it exists.) Collective noun plus count noun. The collective noun has to be discovered: e.g. a bunch of keys, a flock of geese or sheep, a pack of cards or hounds.and less easily categorized collocations include nominalizations (in particular, nouns premodified by one or more nouns), introducing the name of an object (or unit of quantity) by a term for its size, composition, purpose, origin, destination, etc., which is now rapidly superseding the noun plus of plus noun collocation; the whole range of phrasal verbs, and various items of a sequence including activity/agent/instrument/object/attribute/source/place, etc.: e.g. bake/baker/oven/bread/fresh,new,stale,musty/flour,yeast/bakery.and semantically, clichйs are a subgroup of collocations in that one of their collocates has diminished in value or is almost redundant, as often in grinding to a halt, filthy lucre, etc., and the translator may be entitled to replace a clichй with a less common collocation, if it clarified the content without distorting it.collocations may be based on well-established hierarchies such as kinship (fathers and sons), colours (emerald is a bright green), scientific taxonomies and institutional hierarchies where the elements of the culture for each language often have their own distinct linguistic likeness (Abbild), although the extralinguistic object may be the same. Alternatively they may consist of the various synonyms and antonyms that permeate all languages.may be classified under three heads:)Objects which complement each other to form a set (land, sea, air), or a graded series (ratings, petty officers, officers).)Qualities (adjectives or adjectival nouns) which are contrary, which may have middle term (e.g. interested/disinterested/uninterested), or are contradictory. Contradictory polar terms are shown formally, i.e. through affixes: perfect/imperfect, loyal/disloyal. (Suffixes have much stronger force than prefixes: cf. faithless/unfaithful). Contrary polar terms are usually shown lexically: hot/cold, young/old, faithful/treacherous. In a text, such collocations usually appear as alternatives, e.g. hard or soft; clear, obscure or vague.)Actions (verbs or verbal nouns). In two-term collocations, the second term is converse or reciprocal: attack/defend; action/reaction. In three-term collocations, the second and third terms represent positive and negative responses respectively: offer/accept/refuse, besiege/hold out/surrender/. Actions may also complement each other as in (a); walk/run, sleep/wake.are two types of synonym collocation. The main type is the inclusive collocation which include (a) the hierarchies of genus/species/subspecies, etc., and may indicate the degree of generality (or particularity) of any lexical item, and with in the appropriate category (Oberbegriffe or super ordinates): e.g. the brass in the orchestra; pump or grease-gun; equity on the market. Fleche is a generic term for spire, and a specific term for fleche (slender spire perforated with windows); (b) synecdoche, where part and whole are sometimes used indiscriminately with the same reference (e.g. chariot/prote-outil, strings/violins); (c) metonymy, where Bonn and the West German government, the City and British bankers may again be interchanged. The second type of synonym collocation is usually an old idiom such as with might and main and by hook or by crook - which is likely to have a Germanic (auf Biegen oder Brechen) but not a Romance (coute que coute) one-to-one equivalent.are the lexical (not grammatical) tramlines of language. Where a translator finds current and equally common corresponding collocation in source and TL texts, it is mandatory to use them; they are among the invariant components of translation. They may be factual or extralinguistic, denoting institutional terms (e.g. le President Republique) as well as linguistic. A translator must be conversant with them not only to follow them but also to know when to break them (going off the tramlines) when they are broken in the SL text.collocations (noun compounds or adjective plus noun) are particularly common in the social sciences and in computer language. Thus, lead time, sexual harassment, claw back, cold-calling, Walkman (brand name for personal stereo), acid rain, norm reference testing, rate-capping, jetlag, lateral thinking, narrow money, graceful degradation, hash total.above represents varying problems. The computer terms are given their recognised translation - if they do not exist, you have to transfer them (if they appear important) and then add a functional-descriptive term - you have not the authority to devise your own neologism.