Дипломная работа

  • 141. Text analysis of the short story Piano by William Saroyan

    The main narrative code employed is the documentary one, which reproduces a true-to life situation, involving the reader in a vital issue. Thus, by reading the story, one is a spectator of Ben and Emmas walk and conversations, the young mans short performance in a shop, and their genuine regret of the fact that he cannot buy a piano, despite his natural talent of playing. The simplicity of the plot centers the readers attention to the main themes explored by the author, like talent, poverty and hope. These seem to stand for the three stages of the short story, which present the process of discovering the young mans personality through the eyes of Emma. Therefore, at the very beginning, she becomes aware of his gift of playing the piano, then she realizes his inability of accomplishing his dream and buy a piano, and finally, she expresses her optimism stating that one day he will be able to purchase the object of his passion.story follows a straight-line narrative, in which the elements of the plot uncover the events arranged in a chronological order, and significant elements of flashback. In order to grasp the readers attention, the author begins with an unconventional exposition consisting of a dialogue. The two characters involved pass by a store. Ben is attracted by a piano and he asks for Emmas accord to get in and try a small piano in the corner. From the very beginning, his passion for music becomes obvious: I get excited every time I see a piano. This indirect way of expressing the idea denotes the fact that this sort of feeling is inexplicable to the protagonist himself and his further reply confirms it: I dont know. The small piano in the corner is a symbol of Bens modesty, and the hidden, mysterious aspect of his talent is marked by the place-in the corner. Emma was unaware of this likeness, so she becomes puzzled, facing an inner conflict: Shed go along for a while thinking she knew him and then all of a sudden shed know she didnt. The repetition of the question Can you play? emphasizes the girls interest in understanding the young man. Ben replies negatively, but his actions contradict his statement, as shown in the simile his hands go quietly to the white and black keys, like a real pianists. The adjective quietly, in this context, is meant to point out his fear of being seen using the piano, an idea reinforced by the epithet quiet chords.girl is amazed by the playing, and she expresses her feelings with the first chance: I think its wonderful, while Ben disregards his own participation, referring only to the instrument: It sounds good, followed by an explanation it has a fine tone, especially for a small piano. A new character, a clerk, comes into the picture, making a short speech about the product. The young mans first question about the price alludes to his desire of buying it. The price of 249, 50 is evaluated as high even by the clerk himself, as he immediately adds You can have terms, of course. The interlocutors way of changing the subject hints at the fact that he doesnt afford such a luxury, setting thus the conflict of the short story, followed by the development of the action.s strong desire of playing some more becomes more intensified, as it is visible even to the seller, who allows him to try it some more. At this stage, he is still skeptical of the fact that his activity is actually called playing, but he is reassured by the clerk: sounded good to me, go ahead, Id like to hear you play some more. This comment is meant to diminish the self-criticism emphasizing the idea of a great inborn talent.sentence he fooled around fifteen or twenty seconds and then found something like a melody and stayed with it two minutes is highly significant. First and foremost, by mentioning the seconds, the author underlines the value of every moment in front of the piano. The expression he fooled around classifies Bens activity as entertaining and spontaneous. Further on, something like a melody highlights his status as an amateur rather than a professional, one who trusts his instincts. A repeated mentioning of the immediate time: 2 minutes is just another way of saying that the time spent in front of the piano flies too fast for him. The young mans passion increases substantially, and his sadness at his approaching depart is felt in the music, which suggests the fact that he plays from the depth of his heart, rendering his feelings through the music: before he was through the music became quiet and sorrowful and Ben himself became more and more please with the piano.and Emma then go to a little restaurant and order sandwiches and coffee. These details and the previously mentioned financial situation make the reader think that both persons belong to an average social class of people, the sort of people who have to consider making enough money for a living and postponing the realization of their dreams. Ben explains, by means of flashback, the origins of his passion and its evolution. He touches upon the theme of money. The simile he smiled the way he did when e stood over the piano looking down at the keyboard shows that he likes Emma, that she is another of his passions and this makes her happy: Emma felt flattered. This fact points out the reciprocity of their relationship. This latter idea is reinforced some time later by she smiled back at him the way he was smiling at her. One may consider that the displaying of these feelings constitutes the climax, the point when they seem to see a sort of connection between themselves, when the emotion near a piano finally equalizes with the emotional next to a dare person.text has an open text structure, only suggesting a possible outcome: somehow or other she knew hed get a piano some day, and everything else, too. But the character cannot be considered trustworthy due to her emotional implication in the entire affair. In such a way, her desire may generate the prediction and not the facts.may be considered a dynamic character, as he changes his concept about his musical activity, becoming aware of the fact that what he produces really is music. He is sensitive, polite in addressing the clerk, and acts like a real gentleman with Emma (asks her before entering the shop, talks about his great passion, sees her off to The Emporium). The girl, on the other hand, is also a dynamic character, as she changes her perception of Ben, she has new ideas, and the two become closer due to the sharing of personal information and mutual support.title of the text has an orientative, providing a general idea on the content. It is a noun which encodes a hobby: playing the piano. The definite article is avoided in order to make the term more general, as the protagonist doesnt possess a piano of himself and the specific instrument used in the text is only one among many others that he had tried.short story created a sad atmosphere which is intended to resonate with the readers. They are expected to feel compassion and appreciation towards the protagonist, becoming aware of the fact that talented people are, sooner or later appreciated. The main idea is rendered directly by Ben himself, who states a general truth: Never having money keeps a man away from lots of things he figures he ought to have by rights. This philosophical approach to his own situation illustrates the characters mature attitude and his partial resignation, as he accepts his destiny humbly, without complain. However, Emmas last words induce a positive expectation, arousing the readers hope for a happy end, for the triumph of justice over fatality: Somehow or other she knew hed get the piano some day, and anything else, too.it is to regard the text from the perspective of music being an outer exposition of the inner state, denoting the musicians feelings, the text bears a remarkable resemblance to an extract of the novel Ragtime by E.L. Doctorow. The passage when Coalhouse Walker Jr. plays the piano to render his true feelings towards Sarah, the regret of losing her and the hope for reconciliation. Likewise, Bens music also expresses the regret and the hardly perceptible hope: the disappointment of not having a piano and the hope of ever getting one. The two works have a similar style too, as the dialogical markers are completely missing, simplifying the form to the advantage of the meaning. To sum it up, the two works are indeed works of art, exploring literature in a musical way. Therefore, a form of art which expresses the beauty of another is bound to rejoice success.

  • 142. The Experience of transnational corporations’ development in the conditions of world financial crisis
    Иностранные языки

    the debates on the influence of transnationalization, savants and experts concluded long ago that this phenomenon is not purely economic, which is limited only to the reorganization of production activities and movement of capital flows. Globalization is a process of large-scale that produces effects in several areas such as politics, finances, trade, defense system, demography, ecology. Academics consider that the world has now become "a global city.", in compared aspect, still can be worked as migration process. Putting capital in other regions of the world, necessarily involves staff migration. Transnational corporations favors the meeting of the labor force with capital, making the movement of labor towards capital or transferring capital to areas with labor force surplus., foreign direct investment is placed in the long term and requires interaction with various groups of econo0mic agents, starting with suppliers and ending with officials. Investors need to know the consumer, labor force and raw materials markets, regulations and laws governing their activities. Informational and contractual problems can often be very hard, so legal rules remain to be the most important determinant of FDI flows in one state.history of labor migration knows more than 100 years. Since the mid-nineteenth century were observed in many migration flows from European countries to the U.S., especially during economic conjuncture overseas. The second wave of migration into the U.S. from different countries was in the years '20-50, XX century, and then followed the migration from Mexico, the Caribbean etc.consider that the first attractive center for foreign labor force has been South Africa, which since the '50s drew cheap labor force from neighboring countries. In the period 1950-1970 takes place the accelerated development of peripheral global regions industrialization, which later achieved positive results in industrial development, becoming leaders in chapter - exports. They relate to Latin America, South African, Middle East and Southeast Asia. Obtaining independence of many African countries boost this process. Active penetration of international corporations in South Africa from Europe and the U.S. in the '70s, led to increased migration of labor force in this area. During this time it began to form the international center of attracting labor force from another continent, in South America, in the composition of some of the more developed countries like Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Simultaneously, in these countries annually comes a large workforce from some of the least developed countries and from African and Asian countries. The interest of the Middle East for the labor force is related to the development of the oil industry from the '70s. In the late '70s, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, UAE, worked over 3 million foreign workers and specialists from neighboring Arab countries, India, Pakistan and South Korea.the last decade has been formed a new regional center of attraction of labor force - South-East Asia. Starting with the '70, here takes place a process of accelerating the country's industrial development and internationalization of economic life in this giant region, influenced by massive foreign investment. An important role in these processes went to different transnational corporations from different national origin: American, Japanese, Australian, South Korean, etc.main feedback of the process of migration is the migrants remittances. They represent their financial sources, delivered in the origin countries. In 2002, migrant remittances constituted about 79 billion dollars. This amount is more than the sum of all development aid provided by the states of the world and about 40% of total FDI in developing countries.use of foreign labor force, in present, becomes an important part of normal and efficient operation of the world economy mechanism. Transnational corporations (TNCs), being the main driver of globalization, acts in a global economy that relates to global production, global capital, global market.are the best bet people can work and earn money. Leaders are cooperating in an effort to bring about real reform in a way that was unthinkable a few years ago. They deserve the worlds energetic support. Therefore, lots of host countries as can as possible try to attract in order to allocate affiliates of large transnational corporations in their countries, because of huge vacancy for the unemployment by TNCs. main reason leading companies to internationalize their assets are: achieving higher profits with low costs and of enhanced profitability. This can be achieved by exploiting opportunities offered by other countries with cheaper raw materials and human resources, by the penetration of more advantageous markets for export. Not at least, among the positive effects of capital and technology exports are repatriating their earnings as profit in the origin countries of TNCs., many scientists try to show the dependence between migration and trade. They say that determining the volume of trade without taking into account migration, it is not objective. Testing in some small economies shows that there is dependency between export and migration.practice of international labor migration has emerged as a spontaneous phenomenon but, with the development and intensification of the process, began to be regulated by the state. However, currently are not liquidated all features of this process.last decade of the XX century is characterized by the fact that importing countries and exporting countries of labor force introduce radical correction in their migration policy. As world practice shows, workers migration provides indisputable advantages to the countries: for those providing employment as for those who receive it.the control of migration processes, states have begun to introduce so-called migration rates. Labor force - importing states, taking into account the real needs and labor market situation, determine the number of labor resources to be imported.goal of migration policy of the exporting countries is that labor force migration should increase the reduction of unemployment, receipt of foreign funds from immigrant workers, i.e. remittances, which is used for balancing imports - export operations. But sometimes, there may appear acute economic and social problems. Positive consequences of labor force migration:

    • settling the problem of unemployment;
    • the emergence of additional sources of income from migrants for exporting countries;
    • obtaining the knowledge and experience by the immigrants;
    • investment income of immigrants in small business, favoring the opening of new jobs.
    • Negative consequences of immigration workers:
    • the trend of increase in consumption funds obtained abroad.
    • the tendency to hide income;
    • "brainwashing".
    • decrease the qualification of unemployed immigrants.
    • However, both for countries of origin as for TNCs host countries, in addition to the earnings of the process of globalization, there are also losses. The transfer to other countries of a part of the assets of TNCs contributes to job losses and rising unemployment in countries of origin. Moreover, labor productivity growth through technology transfer, information, innovation in firms purchased by foreign investors, brings with it an increase in unemployment in the host countries, in particular for unskilled or low skilled labor force. Host countries are frustrated that research and development operations are in countries of origin of TNCs, and technological innovations arent implemented simultaneously in the host countries.
    • Workforce in developing countries means, for industrial countries, providing some branches and infrastructure with needed workers, without which it is impossible a normal industrial process, and sometimes normal everyday life. For example, in France, migrants make up 1/2 of total employment in construction, 1/3 - in the car industry, in Belgium - half of the miners, in Switzerland - 2/5 of the construction workers.
    • As mentioned above, one of the key features of the process of globalization is the movement or free flow of capital. In addition, current global trade regime under WTO auspices provides unique possibilities for movement and reallocation off funds. Transnationalization of the world takes place differently in each country. Some countries have more foreign capital, others less. The trend that it is observed today is that where foreign capital is moving there will focus large flows of people.
    • Even if corporations come in underdeveloped countries, they dont offer great benefits to employees; on the contrary, they came just as attracted by low wages and slave pyramid style of local systems. Citizens of third world are seeking to reach the West, believing that they perform the same work more and will gain more money. Their surprise occurs when, once arrived in Europe, all companies have their production moved to countries where they originally came, now they must re-orientate or accept jobs below their qualifications.
    • Although the products are cheaper because they are performed in countries where production costs are minimal, this migration of labor force generates unemployment in developed countries and, therefore, the remaining unemployed have no money to buy products even so not cheap. Forbes magazine has published a study showing that Detroit will disappear in the next 20 years, this outsourcing and refurbishment made that unemployment in this city to be enormous, and now crime is at unimaginable odds. From a towering American city - king of the automobile production, with millions of habitants - now have left only 900 thousand people.
    • 3.1 Modern tendency of TNCs development during the crisis
    • Today there are about 82,000 TNCs worldwide, with 810,000 foreign affiliates in the world. These companies play a major and growing role in the world economy. For instance, exports by foreign affiliates of TNCs are estimated to account for about one third of total world exports of goods and services. And the number of people employed by them worldwide, which has increased about fourfold since 1982, amounted to about 77 million in 2009 - more than double the total labor force of a country like Germany.
    • The largest TNCs contribute to a significant proportion of total international production by all TNCs, both in developed and developing economies. Over the three-year period 2007-2009, on average, the 100 largest non-financial TNCs accounted for 9%, 16% and 11%, respectively, of the estimated foreign assets, sales and employment of all TNCs in the world. They also accounted for about 4% of world GDP, a share which has remained relatively stable since 2000. This section analyses the major trends and recent developments with respect to the largest TNCs, and examines the impacts of the ongoing financial and economic crisis on these firms and their international activities.
    • Over the past 15 years, the largest TNCs have undergone a steady process of internationalization. Also there has been a progressive increase in the proportion of companies operating in the services sector, and of firms based in developing countries. These largest TNCs are presently being strongly affected by the ongoing economic and financial crisis, both at company and industry levels, as evidenced by declining profits, divestments and layoffs, restructurings and some bankruptcies. According to preliminary estimates, the increase in their overall degree of internationalization seems to have slowed down markedly in 2008. However, an UNCTAD survey shows that, despite a temporary setback in their investment plans in the short term, large TNCs expect to continue to internationalize and increase their FDI expenditures in the medium term, with a growing focus on emerging markets.
    • 3.1-picture can show how the change is being expected corporations investment plans for 2009-2011 because of crisis. It can be seen that investment plans are altering.
  • 143. The Hilton Hotels Corp. Its success and marketing solutions for it

    The company should be able to develop new products. It also should be able to operate them in the time of varying tastes, technology and competition. All companies of the industry of tourism should watch closely the tendencies of market development and be ready to enter on the market the new products.of ways of development of a new product is its purchase from the side, i.e. purchase of the whole company, the patent or the license for manufacture of a product of any other company. For this purpose it is simply enough to look at the growth of some new chain: at its clientele, volumes of selling of each branch and is it simple or difficult to open new branches. If the large company is convinced that the new chain succeeds and corresponds to the general strategy of their organization, they buy it. This method of development appreciably reduces the risks of the large companies which have means for purchase and further development of the chain. Using this way Ladbrokes Group bought Hilton International. And about it I will now speak.Hilton was the first in hotel business who understood that the rich client with pleasure would save some money for the hotel room and with the same pleasure would throw out much more money in casino at the same hotel. Active integration of hotel business in the gambling industry was the most unexpected innovation of Hilton which has caused a lot of disputes. But it did not stopped him.alliance started at the end of the 60-th years when in the gambling capital of America, Las Vegas, two unusual hotels - Las Vegas Hilton and Flamingo Hilton - were constructed. In contrast to all others constructed earlier, their singularity consisted in that they were gambling institutions at the same time. Before this hotels and casinos in Las Vegas were built separately to each other. And only Konrad Hilton decided to unite living in the city-roulette with the main local pastime - gambling. It assumed additional system of service and various bonuses for clients like free-of-charge gambling chips to each new consumer for the certain sum and also an availability of restaurants and bars directly in gambling halls.innovation became so successful that in 1987 as a result of a series of bargains and complex reorganization the company Hilton International became a part of just formed British industrial group Ladbroke Group (after changed its name on Hilton Group), whose basic direction of activity were various casinos, bookmakers firms, lotteries and totes.unification of Hilton International with Ladbroke caused anxiety because of the fear of the conflict of interests as a result of which the perspectives of gambling superprofits could remove Hiltons attention to development of hotel services on the second and third plan.these fears did not prove to be true. And in the end of forming Hilton Group in its present kind its direction in last years of the left century not only returned to the Hiltons international hotel business its historical name, but also reunited divided by Atlantic ocean and enterprise separatism of the post-Konrad period British (Hilton International) and North American (Hilton Hotels Corporation) parts of empire. The questions of owning, management and service development of hotels, clubs, resorts, entertaining and business centers were saved at the level of key aspects of the activity. The powerful illustration of adherence to principles of this strategic course became an expansion operation of Hilton International in the world market during 1.5 - 2 years as a results of which the famous chains of the companies Stakis Rlc and Scandic Hotels AB became the parts of the Hiltons hotel chain. At the same time Ladbrokes Worldwide extended due to the purchase of the firm Vernon with about more than 70-years experience of realization of bookmakers operations, became one of the largest structures of the gambling industry and stayed on the position equal in rights but not the main division of Hilton Group., Ladbrokes helped Hilton during the deepest global economic crisis in the beginning of XXI century. The first crisis wave the group of Hilton overcame practically without damage to itself, but since the IV quarter 2001 and almost up to the end of 2003 international incidents affected really badly on the hotel alliance. A threat of acts of terrorism and mass epidemics forced many people to refuse from any travels, seriously reduced the quantity of business and entertaining trips therefore essential losses were incurred not only by transport companies engaged in transportation of citizens from place to place, but also the owners of hotels in which these citizens stop for work and rest. For Hilton Hotels Corporation and Hilton International 2002 year for turned back with the strongly financial difficulties the first time for a long time and the following year brought losses: the profitableness of Hilton hotels for 12 months decreased on 65.6 million pounds sterling. But on the human passion all these political, economic and natural cataclysms did not influence negatively, even on the contrary: in extremely complicated economic conditions the aspiration of the population to earn money with the help of Fate appreciably increased, due to what not living in misery gaming became more profitable. And Betting Division appeared on the first positions in this rise - gambling-bookmakers department of Hilton Group in the structure of Ladbrokes and Vernon with their wide chain of the totes, lotteries and virtual casinos. The effect from the activity of Ladbrokes Worldwide was so great, that allowed an alliance not only to cover losses of the hotel complex but also to increase total profit in comparison with 2002 in one million pounds, and total amount of sales to grow on unknown before height - 14,173 billion (+39%).on the territory of the Great Britain, Ireland, the Benelux countries, and almost all Western Europe it is difficult to find large settlement in which office of Ladbrokes would not settle down. In last summer the company opened new office for taking stakes in the centre of London - near the Trafalgar square, equipped it with all possible interactive means and also plasma screens for watching the translations from hippodromes and sports arenas. People from Hilton Group say that already earned lot of money only on sale of coffee to inhabitants of the British capital and tourists visiting this gambling institution. And in the near future Hilton International and Ladbrokes are going to organize 40 cyber-cafes under cover of Cafe Cino where drinking coffee it will be possible to play on the totalozator or in an electronic casino.the area of electronization of its business the firm Ladbrokes today is considered the most developed in Europe and one of the most developed in the world. Three years back the company started to use the unique system Total Betting Service allowing its clients to operate by various gambling manipulations, to gamble and to receive prizes through the centralized personal accounts from any point of access to united network Ladbrokes Worldwide usung the specialized terminals, Internet, telephone lines, interactive TV etc. With the growth of popularity of computer gamblings the user audience of the system eGaming (which besides totalizators and lotteries, offers fans of the on-line sensations participation in network gamblings and a web-roulette) continuously extends. Three largest gambling portals of the company - Ladbrokes.com, Ladbrokescasino.com and Ladbrokespoker.com - serve on the present moment for about 600 thousand registered clients from 160 countries, providing realization of operations in 13 languages and with 17 various currencies.

  • 144. The lofty elevated lexicon and poetic style in the works of Samuel Johnson
    Иностранные языки

    we may see from the previous parts of the term paper the lofty\elevated lexicon and poetic style are aspects of belles-lettres style dealing with poetry, emotive prose and drama. According to results of researches we may see that belles-lettres style performs the esthetic function of influence, producing an impression on the readers. It is the functional style of speech which is used in poetry. A text written in this style influences on imagination and feelings of the reader, transfers thoughts and feelings of the author, using all the wealth of the lexicon. Analyzing Johnson`s poetry we may mark out the measures used by author to achieve this effect. The lofty\elevated lexicon provided at phonetic and lexical levels of speech. Each of this levels has own stylistic devices distinguishing it from another level. Such stylistic devices, providing lofty\elevated lexicon in the poetry, as onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, rhyming and repetition are used in phonetic level. Phonetic level is the form of representation wherein expressions, or sentences, are assigned a phonetic representation, which is then pronounced by the speaker. So using sound or syllables combination, as for example in alliteration or rhyming, author will pass his senses enclosed in verse. Personification, simile and metaphor are used in lexical level. Using this devices, we can understand one thing in terms of another. They construct an analogy between two things or ideas, the analogy is conveyed by the use of a metaphorical word in place of some other word. A stylistic device is the use of any of a variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling to the literal or written. Not less important role is played by poetic words and archaisms peculiar only for belles-lettres style. Such poetic word, as for example, «Alas» used only in poetic lexicon. In technical text it will be useful and even unnecessary, because it has no definite definition, but in poetry this word would be appropriate, expressing the strong filling of disappointment. So as we can see the stylistic devices, used in the verse in the right place, may express the author`s thoughts, feelings, emotions, despair or happiness and moreover, to hand them to listeners or readers and to make them feel the same. They allow to convey the sense of a poem most brightly and emotionally allowing the reader to endure all emotions enclosed in poetry.

  • 145. The main character Clyde Griffiths in Theodore Dreiser’s novel «An American Tragedy
    Иностранные языки

    was attracted to women since he was at the age of 16. He was at once girl - hungry and girl - shy. And he always thought that if he wants to get the prettiest girls, he has to look handsome and rich.first love was a pretty girl named Hortense Briggs, who works in a Kansas City store. When he meets her for the first time, he already notices that «…she was not a little coarse and vulgar - a very long way removed from the type of girl he had been imagining in his dreams that he would like to have». When he asks her out, she pretends to have dates with other fellows. Nevertheless, she agrees to see him on occasion, accepting little gifts from him even though she does not care about him.for Hortense, she doesnt really care about Clyde. However, she tolerates him for the gifts he gives her and the compliments he bestows on her.really wanted to give her as much as he can, and he starts to neglect his familys needs, particularly his faithful mother and sister Esta, the latter having been seduced, impregnated and left by a faithless lover. Hortense's manipulative, materialistic behaviour is partly perceived by Clyde, despite all his attempts at denial, and it causes him considerable pain throughout the relationship, which in the end is never consummated.after his friends and he had killed a girl by driving a car, he ran away from Kansas City and moved to Lycurgus, New York. He had already forgotten about Hortense, and had started to work in his uncles factory. In Lycurgus the name Griffiths gave Clyde a certain cachet, but his patrons regarded him as poor relation, a poor embarrassment, and virtually ignored him. But he got new friend and got known with two girls who had been from his background. They were as poor as he was. Clyde communicated with them only because no one else did it. So he met Zella and Rita. Clyde was interested in the fact that the girls were pretty and out of clear sky and in the face of his loneliness. But after some period of time he thought that those girls were too available if not exactly dangerous and so far as his future was concerned. Even in spite of the way he liked Rita, he put an end to his relations with her and any relations with all current friends, because his uncle noticed him and invited him to his house for dinner with his family.the dinner he meets Sondra Finchley «…as smart and vain and sweet a girl as Clyde had ever laid his eyes upon - so different to any he had ever known and so superior. To Clydes eyes she was the most adorable feminine thing he had seen in all his days».the days following dinner, Clyde yearns to become part of the world of the Griffiths. Clyde is to take charge of the stamping department, where about 25 young women prepare directions for how collars are to be finished. Clyde is ecstatic.Miss Finchley out of reach-at least temporarily-he begins seeing another attractive woman, Roberta Alden, a farmer's daughter who works in his department at the factory. Clyde's factory girlfriend believes in life and love. Like Clyde, she desires a better life and better marriage prospects, but she has no grand illusions about marrying into wealth and luxury. She believes in the efficacy of her efforts and in the value of continuing her education. Morality is important to her, but the passion overwhelms her. Gilbert Griffiths had forbidden Clyde to mingle socially with any of the factory girls, but Clyde and Roberta meet secretly and eventually become intimate. All goes well, and Clyde - in answer to her prodding - vows never to leave her.he encounters Sondra Finchley again. It is evening, and he is out walking when a limousine pulls up with her in the back seat. She has mistaken Clyde for Gilbert and offers him a ride. After realizing her mistake, she does not mind at all, for she finds Clyde more likable than Gilbert. Clyde sees Sondra Finchley, lying to Roberta that he is called upon by his uncle to do some work. He doesnt want to see Roberta; Clyde is too fascinated by Sondra. «So much for the effect of the wealth, beauty, the peculiar social state to which he most aspired, on a temperament that was as fluid and unstable as water» After inviting him to various social events, she is quite taken with him and falls in love with him - and he with her and her social status., of course, forgets all about Roberta - almost. Rather than breaking off with her all at once, he goes out with her occasionally in order to cut his ties with her gradually. But a twist of fate takes him by surprise: She is pregnant. The news devastates Clyde, for he and Sondra had become very close.persuading Roberta to abort the child, Clyde travels to Schenectady, N.Y., where know no one knows him, and buys a box of pills from an unscrupulous clerk. Somewhat relieved, he returns and gives them to Roberta.he checks on Roberta in the following days, she tells him the pills are not working. He takes Roberta to Gloversville, where a certain physician is said to administer abortions. However, despite Roberta's pleadings, he refuses to abort the child. Roberta is now set on having the baby and makes Clyde promise to marry her. It appears he has no way out - until he sees a newspaper headline which tells about accidental double tragedy at Pass Lake.thought of committing murder horrifies him at first. But the more he thinks about killing Roberta, the more he convinces himself that he has no alternative. If she has the baby, he is disgraced, ruined. Marrying Sondra would be out of the question. One day, he goes off with her to a resort area in upper New York State. Roberta thinks they are eloping. After they arrive, he takes her out in a boat, on Lake Bittern, to do the deed. It won't be difficult, for Roberta cannot swim.they set off from shore, he takes along his camera under the pretence that he plans to snap pictures of her. He is unable to act, unable to go through with his plan. As he sits there, it is if he is in a trance. Concerned, Roberta asks why he looks so strange, and then leans over to him to take his hand. Angry with himself for his failure to proceed, angry with Roberta for her power over him, he reacts to her movement toward him, throwing out at her with the camera in his hand. He does not mean to harm her; he wants only to prevent her from holding his hand. But the camera strikes her in the face, throwing her back. The boat rocks and she falls in. Clyde lets her drown.did not even feel reproach of his conscience he was only afraid that he could be arrested. He fled the scene of Robertas death, but circumstantial evidence, including letter to Clyde from Roberta and Sondra, led to his arrest for first - degree murder. Sondra left town, and her identity was never publicly revealed.had lost both girls whom he had loved.'s women - Hortense, Sondra, Roberta, Rita, and many others - are nothing more than pleasure seekers.

  • 146. The Overdrive

    do information work, people in the company have to be able to find information easily. Until recently though, we've been told that «the numbers» should be reserved for the most senior executives. Sometimes there are good reasons for secrecy, but usually information has been reserved simply because it took time, money, and effort to move information around, so you had to be senior to order the work. On today's computer networks you can find and present data easily and cheaply. You can dive into the data to the lowest level of detail and look at it from different angles. You can exchange information and ideas with other people. You can bring together the ideas and work of many people for a better result.need to stop thinking that getting information and moving information around is difficult and expensive. It's just basic common sense to make all of your company's data easily available to every person who can use it.of a company's employees, not just its high-level executives, need to see business data. It's important for me as a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to understand how the company is doing across regions or product lines or different types of customer, and I take pride in staying informed. However, it's the middle managers in every company who need to understand where their profits and losses come from, what marketing programs are working or not, and what expenses are under control or too high. They're the people who need accurate, useful data because they're the ones who need to act. They shouldn't have to wait for upper management to bring information to them. Companies should spend less time protecting financial data from employees and more time teaching them to analyze and act on it.many companies the middle managers can drown in day-to-day problems and not have the information they need to fix them. A sign of a good digital nervous system is that middle managers are made more effective by the flow of accurate, useful information. The systems should tell them about unusual events-for example, if an expense item is too high. Then the managers don't need to look at normal expense activity. Some companies work like this, but I'm constantly surprised by how few companies use information technology to keep their middle managers well-informed and avoid routine rework.'m amazed by the twisted path that important information often takes through many Fortune 500 companies. At McDonald's, until recently, sales data had to be «touched» by hand several times before it made its way to the people who needed it. Today McDonald's is installing a new information system that processes sales at all of its restaurants in real time. As soon as you order two Happy Meals, a McDonald's marketing manager will know. So that manager will have hard facts to analyze sales, not unreliable data.we'll see in the description of Microsoft's reaction to the Internet, another sign of a good digital nervous system is the number of good ideas coming from your middle managers and knowledge workers. When they can analyze real data, people get detailed ideas about how to do things better-and they get excited, too. People like knowing that something they're doing is working and they like being able to show managers that it's working. They enjoy using technology that encourages them to test different theories about what's happening in their markets. People really appreciate information.final sign of a good digital nervous system is how effective your face-to-face meetings are. Good meetings are the result of good preparation. Meetings shouldn't be used mainly to present information. It's more efficient to use e-mail* so that people can analyze data before the meeting. Then they will be prepared to make suggestions and debate the issues at the meeting itself.that are struggling with too many unproductive meetings don't lack energy and brains. The data they need exists somewhere in the company in some form. Digital tools would enable them to get the data immediately, from many sources, and to analyze it from many angles.'s Alfred Sloan said that without facts it's impossible to put an effective plan into action. I believe that if you have good facts, you can put an effective plan into action. Sloan did, many times over. At the speed business moves today, we need more than ever to manage with the force of facts.I'm describing here is a new level of information analysis that enables knowledge workers to turn raw data into active information-what Michael Dertouzos calls knowledge-as-a-verb. A digital nervous system enables a company to do information work with more efficiency, depth, and creativity.

  • 147. The peculiarities in texts of business documents
    Иностранные языки

    One of the most striking features of Business English is a wide use of verbals. There is common knowledge that verbals are widely used in social English, but they are often used in business and commercial correspondence as well. The usage of verbals, however, is very specific and presents certain difficulties.of the most frequently used verbals in business letters is the infinitive. It may use as an adjunct to verbs, nouns and adjectives. Accordingly, infinitive constructions are subdivided into infinitives as verb adjuncts, infinitives as noun adjuncts and infinitives as adjective adjuncts. The most interesting and important for the research is the first group, so we have focused on it.are six types of patterns in which the infinitive is to be regarded as a verb adjunct:

    • an adjunct to an active verb;
    • an adjunct to a passive verb;
    • a complex adjunct to an active verb;
    • a prepositional complex adjunct to an active verb;
    • a wh - infinitive adjunct;
    • an adjunct to a verb in a sentence with a function of the subject.
    • The groups of the infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb, the infinitive as an adjunct to a passive verb and the infinitive as a complex adjunct to an active verb are used in commercial correspondence and in contracts in particular situations. The last three types of the infinitive are rarely used in business correspondence or might be used just occasionally.
    • The infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb always follows a head-verb. In business correspondence it is lexically dependent and commonly found after the following verbs: to agree, to appear, to arrange, to continue, to decide, to expect, to fail, to hesitate, to hope, to intend, to like, to manage, to need, to offer, to omit, to plan, to prefer, to prepare, to propose, to regret, to secure, to try, to want, to wish.
    • e.g. They have arranged to produce the equipment.
    • We won't fail to provide full particulars as soon as possible.
    • In the case the suppliers want to have any additional information you should contact us immediately.
    • Generally in contracts and agreements the infinitive adjunct to an active verb is a simple infinitive. Sometimes, however, it may be followed by the perfect infinitive, indicating an action which precedes that one of the predicate verb. As for the continuous infinitive in this function the analysis of contracts has proved that it is hardly ever used.
    • It should also be noted that in commercial correspondence the subject of the infinitive adjunct is a person (e.g. we, they) or a thing denoted by the subject of the sentence (e.g. our firm).
    • e.g. We look forward to your early reply.
    • The Suppliers inform the Buyers that there had been a fire.
    • The infinitive in business correspondence may also serve as an adjunct to a passive verb. In this case it always follows its head-verb and is lexically restricted. The infinitive in this function follows the following verbs: to consider, to expect, to instruct, to prepare, to repute, to require.
    • e.g. The goods are considered to be in conformity with the certificate.
    • The delivery date is understood to be the date on which the Suppliers apply to the Buyers' Shipping Agents.
    • The use of the infinitive adjunct to a passive verb is stylistically restricted. It frequently occurs in newspapers, scientific prose and business correspondence, but it is not characteristic of literary style, and in social English it is not common at all.
    • The infinitive may serve as an adjunct to an active verb followed by a noun or a pronoun which stands to the infinitive in the relation of a subject. The combination is lexically restricted, because in business correspondence it may be found only after the definite verbs from the following list: to advise, to allow, to ask, to enable, to expert, to help, to prefer, to urge, to want, to wish.
    • e.g. We would advise you to take an all-rich insurance policy.
    • If the period of guarantee has not expired we will ask you to replace the machine by another one.
    • We agree to accept this shipment on condition that you…
    • The complex infinitive adjunct to an active verb is not restricted stylistically and is in extensive use in scientific and fiction literature and also in commercial and business correspondence.
    • The Indefinite Infinitive occurs in contracts in the function of the predicate, expressing obligation and a future action.
    • e.g. Delivery to commence in six to eight months and to be completed in twelve to sixteen months (to commence - will commence).
    • Date of shipment to be determined by date of Bill of Lading (to be determined = will be determined).
    • It is allowed only in texts of contracts and other business documents.
    • Each contract also has constructions with participles.
    • e.g. The letter of credit is to be valid for 90 days, all bank charges being at the expense of the Buyers.
    • Here is a construction with Participle I where it refers to the noun in the General Case, which goes before the participle. It is not common in speech, but it occurs in contracts.
    • Constructions with the Perfect Participle, however, are rare in contracts and show an action prior to another one expressed by the predicate.
    • e.g. We have included in our claim only the cost of material and labor, all other expenses connected with the repair not having been taken into consideration.
    • Some participles which have no explanatory words in contracts can either precede or follow a noun. Mostly they are constructions with Participle II:
    • e.g. the required specification vs. specification required; the enclosed letter vs. the letter enclosed.
    • The Past Participle Passive always follows a noun if it has explanatory words.
    • e.g. a telegram received from London;
    • the cheque attached to the letter.
    • If a participle shows only an action which is made upon the subject, it follows a noun.
    • e.g. The sellers are to inform us of the quantity of the goods loaded.
    • Buyers are to accept or pay for the quantity shipped.
    • The participle showing the quality, if there is one, precedes the noun:
    • e.g. within six weeks of the stipulated time of shipment;
    • illustrated catalogue; damaged goods.
    • 2.3 Lexical peculiarities of contract
    • From the lexicological point of work business papers are of great interest. Their lexicon is rather stable. As a rule, words have their only exact meaning. There are no words which are emotionally coloured. As a result of it, we can point out the words, which are present practically in every contract. For example,
    • «whereas» expresses every man's idea of how a contract begins. Whereas means that the parties have been engaged in a series of transactions resulting in a dispute over accounting between them.
    • e.g. The surplus is to be paid for by the Buyers, whereas short weight is to be refunded by the Sellers.
    • One more compound word with the adverb where is whereby, which means by which and refers to the present contract.
    • e.g. We have concluded the present contract whereby it is agreed as follows…
    • The usage of compound words with adverbs here / there and prepositions is also typical of written formal style of English. Their meaning is made up from meaning of their components. There is no principal difference, though, between meanings of here- / there - compounds.
    • e.g. If shipment of the whole or part is thereby rendered impossible… (thereby = by it; by that means; in that connection)
    • We are sending you herewith statement of your account (herewith - with it / that)
    • All expenses connected therewith being born by… (therewith - with it)
    • The examination of the goods and objection thereto… (thereto = to it)
    • Subject to General Conditions on Sale endorsed hereon… (hereon = on this document)
    • The goods to be shipped as soon thereafter as suitable tonnage obtainable. (thereafter = from that time)
    • The Sellers shall not be responsible for any damage resulting to the Buyers therefrom, (therefrom = from it / them)
    • Hereinafter is a very useful word, doing the job of the six, referred to later in a document. Hereinafter frequently sets up abbreviated names for the contracting parties.
    • e.g. D & R Electrical, Ltd. hereinafter the Buyer.
    • The aforesaid is a cliche which is more preferable in texts of contracts instead of its less formal equivalents: the above-mentioned, the above-written, as was written / said before, and the like.
    • e.g. The aforesaid documents should contain references…
    • It is understood and agreed. On one hand it usually adds nothing, because every clause in the contract is figurally understood and agreed. On the other hand, it adds an implication that the other clauses are not backed up by this phrase. By including one you exclude the other.
    • e.g. The prices in this contract are understood and agreed upon.
    • Including without limitation. Usually people want to specify things underscored in contracts, and this phrase indulges the prediction.
    • e.g. You may assign any and all your rights including without limitation your exclusive British and Commonwealth Rights.
    • To tell the truth, it is a useful phrase because people are always forgetting or neglecting to mention that a great many interests may be involved in what appears to be a simple dialogue. A is controlled by investors, and В - by a foreign parent company. That's why it will be useful to say in such a situation as between us…
    • e.g. We confirm the exchange of telexes as between us follows…
    • Solely on condition that - it's one of a few phrases that can be considered better than its short counterparts. One might ask: «Why not use just if instead of the phrase?» If - by itself, opens a possibility to open contingencies.
    • e.g. If Smith delivers 2000 barrels I will buy them.
    • But it is unclear if you will buy them only from Smith. Therefore, we can use only if as a synonym. Sometimes it works out, but not always. In this case more than an elaborated phrase is justified.
    • e.g. I will buy 2000 barrels solely on condition that Smith delivers them.
    • The phrase makes the conditions of the deal clear.
    • e.g. We can accept the goods solely on condition that you grant us allowance of…per…
    • In contracts there are other prepositional phrases made up from words. They are complex, and one must be attentive using them. The prepositions also provided are the following: on conditions that; on the understanding, etc.
    • e.g. We agree to this only on the understanding that the rate of freight does not exceed.
    • e.g. Claims against the quality of vehicles may be submitted on conditions that the defects are found within 40 days.
    • Such prepositional phrases are practically equal in meaning.
    • Subject to - a few contracts do without this phrase. Many promises can be made good only if certain things occur. The right procedure is to spell out these plausible impediments to the degree that you can reasonably foresee them.
    • e.g. Our agreement is subject to the laws of Connecticut.
    • e.g. The wood goods hereinafter specified subject to a variation in Sellers' option of 20 percent…
    • But there is another meaning of the prepositional phrase. It may express some condition.
    • e.g. We offer you, subject to your acceptance by cable, 1000 tons of ore.
    • Exclusive - it's important in contracts. English is vast and its usage creates difficulties in many cases. Exclusivity as a term means that somebody is bored from dealing with another one in a specified area.
    • In the lexicon of contracts there are many foreign words, first of all, Latin ones, such as pro rata and pari passu. Pro rata proves helpful when payments are to be in proportion refuting prior formulas in a contract.
    • e.g. Demurrage is to be paid per day and pro rata for any part of the running day.
    • Pari passu is used when several people are paid at the same level or time out of a common fund.
    • e.g. Fractions to be considered pari passu.
    • Still there are such words as inferior / superior, they are often used to describe the quality of goods.
    • e.g. The quality of Model B-50 is superior to that of Model B-45.
    • Complaints and claims may arise in connection with inferior quality of the goods, late delivery or non-delivery of goods.
    • A Latin word is not often used in contracts nowadays. Now it means an arbitrary court for a concrete trial. Such Latin words as ultima, proxima are now archaic and rarely used.
    • e.g. If the excess is discovered only on arrival of the goods at their ultima destination in the U.K.
    • On the contrary, such a Latin adjective as extra, which means additional, keeps being widely used in official English, and is quite common for the colloquial style.
    • e.g. In order to obtain delivery we have had to incur extra expenses for which we hold you responsible.
    • e.g. No extra payment is to be effected for any excess weight.
    • The most widespread French words are force majeure, which is an essential clause of almost any contract and serves to describe some unpredictable events that may happen to goods while being delivered or other reasons, and amicably, which means friendly.
    • e.g. Very often the parties amicably agree upon a settlement of the claim in question.
    • e.g. The Sellers and the Buyers shall take all measures to settle amicably any disputes.
    • So, in contracts a person can come across a definite number of words and word combinations which make up lexical peculiarities of the texts. They all are rather bookish and belong to formal style of written English, not being used in informal English and rarely used in spoken formal English.
    • In Chapter 2 the stylistic, grammatical, lexical peculiarities of contract and business correspondence have been analyzed. On the basis of our analysis we can conclude that language of contracts and business correspondence is not always easy to obtain due to their complicated syntactic constructions, specific terms and abbreviations. Linguistic peculiarities of business correspondence and contracts are similar because both of them belong to the formal style of English which is characterized by the conventionality of expressions, combining several ideas within one sentence, the encoded character of the language, absence of emotiveness. All that revealed in texts of contracts and business correspondence through their vocabulary, grammar and style.
    • 3. The translation of official documents
    • 3.1 Problems of adequate translation of official business papers
    • Equivalence is almost full and identical preservation of source text information including the stylistic peculiarities. Equivalent translation is rather relative notion. Its level and specific character change depending on the way of translation and genre of target text. Equivalence of requirements to the translation of scientific, business and, for example, literal texts can also be different. Types of texts determine approach to the translation, choice of translational method and equivalence degrees of target text. Aims and tasks of translator vary when he / she translates poem or novel, scientific article or newspaper information, document or technical instruction.
    • The great number of state, politic, commercial, legal and other documents belongs to official business texts. Their main function is message. They are fully directed on rendering information. Their form in most of cases is typical: addressing, beginning of the text, succession of exposition, finalizing of document, and amount of cliches, in all languages obey strict rules of rhetoric. In target language the structure of source text remains, but cliches may vary at inner form coinciding with content. In European languages culture the standardization of documents is very high. Thus, while translating official business texts into Ukrainian it is not always possible to find equivalent of rhetorical stamps that is why word-for-word translation is sometimes used. This translation is used in diplomatic documents where each word is of great importance. Inappropriate word can cause misinterpretation and even diplomatic conflict.
    • The most widespread language of international business communication is English. But even between English and Americans could appear some linguistic misunderstandings. Such divergences had been accumulated for centuries during the process of English language development in two different historical and cultural surroundings. Thus, the same terms can have different semantic meaning and v.v. different terms can have the same meaning. There were cases when contracting parties were having conversation (with a help of interpreter) and did not suspect that they spoke about different things. It can be explained by low qualification of interpreter or by polysemantic terminology which seems at first identical. For example, term 'industry' in English and French has different meaning: in English it includes agriculture but not in French. Among the most typical examples of polysemy of identical terminology or identity of terms different in meaning is legal terminology. For example, to name the institution in Great Britain and USA different terms can be used. British people use term 'company' while Americans use term 'corporation' though they mean the same thing. Linguistic barrier is also called ethno-linguistic because it is rather ethnic than linguistic. It is based on the difference of cultures, national psychology, other ethnic peculiarities, etc. While drawing up international contracts ethno-linguistic barrier gets new characteristics - of legal context. That is why reaching and confirmation of the agreement between parties depend on their understanding of contract's articles formulated by specific terminology which was developed by the influence of culture and law. Translator has to brake this ethno-linguistic barrier. The main function of the translator is to provide bilingual communication, which has almost the same possibilities as monolingual communication. It can be reached due to right technology of translation used by translator.
    • Any translation has to maintain content, functions, stylistic and communicative value of the source text. While translating official business papers it is not enough just to make right translation in a whole. Translation is to render the information including all details and even the meaning of separate words. It also must be authentic to source text.
    • The problem of translation equivalence is closely connected with the stylistic aspect of translation - one cannot reach the required level of equivalence if the stylistic peculiarities of the source text are neglected. Full translation adequacy includes as an obligatory component the adequacy of style, i. e. the right choice of stylistic means and devices of the target language to substitute for those observed in the source text. This means that in translation one is to find proper stylistic variations of the original meaning rather than only meaning itself.
    • The expression of stylistic peculiarities of the source text in translation is necessary to fully convey the communication intent of the source text. Stylistic peculiarities are rendered in translation by proper choice of the target language translation equivalents with required stylistic coloring. This choice will depend both on the functional style of the source text and the individual style of the source text author.
    • While translating the text a translator first of all must distinguish neutral, bookish and colloquial words and word combinations, translating them by relevant units of the target language. It is sometimes hard to determine the correct stylistic variety of a translation equivalent, then - as in almost all instances of translation - final decision is taken on the basis of context, situation and background information.
    • Style is expressed in proper combination of words rather than only in stylistic coloring of the individual words. Thus, any good translation should be fulfilled with due regard of the stylistic peculiarities of the source text and this applies to all text types rather than only to fiction.
    • It is well known that adequacy and accuracy of international contract translation, its legal terminology help to avoid disputes. In comparison with other documents translation of contract is at the same time easiest and hardest one. This translation is one of the easiest because texts of contract are well structurized, they have strictly formulated standard articles. However, it is one of the hardest because origin and realization of legal systems are revealed in it. Quality of translation is characterized by adequacy. There are some cases when translation seems to be adequate from the linguistic point of work but it is inadequate according to professional language of translation. One should take into account contextual variety of lexeme meanings, which must be translated because in certain case it can have special meaning.
    • Text of contract includes great number of special legal, economical, commercial terminology. One should avoid verbiage, repetition, archaic language, long sentences, inaccuracy of formulation, disparity (between articles of contract), usage of subjunctive mood. Translation of documents is rather complicated process. There are no subjective standards as for the quality of legal translation, but its main criterion is absence of problems and negative consequences caused by translation. Why is it so difficult to translate text of document? First of all each word has not only initial meaning but also some peculiarities which were formed as the result of its development in certain context.
    • Polysemantic words of one language and also words similar by their form are spread in other languages. Secondly, legal language is considered to be separate even inside one language. Words and phrases of this language can have special meaning which has been formulated for centuries. Thirdly, every language has a lot of words of same origin (for example Latin) that are interpreted by legal lexicon of different languages. For example word 'contract': thing that is called contract in French law is not contract in American law. Fourthly, there are different variants of one language. English encloses legal languages of Great Britain, USA, Australia, Canada and other countries. They all can vary syntactically, lexically and semantically. Fifthly, every language has its grammar peculiarities. That is why translator has to interpret text of document. But the question is whether text of contract should be translated or interpreted. Practice shows that legal texts should be translated. According to general rule, texts of polylingual contracts must be identical in content and form as though drawn up in one language. It is to be reached by the translation of source text into target language in that way to correspond to source text.
    • While comparing original texts and their translations three main principles of quality of this effect are distinguished: structure, content and potential of influence. Source and translated texts must be equal in their ability to evoke same reactions of their addressees.
    • Doing translation it is necessary to maintain structure of source text of contract. While rendering structure and syntax of one language into structure and syntax of another language one should decide whether to keep textual form strictly and have a risk of inadequate linguistic standard of translation or to use more free translation which might undermine legal accuracy. To solve this problem it is necessary to analyze legal terms to avoid word-for-word translation that not always explains the meaning of term. It should be noted that trying to choose words identical in form with terms in other language you are making mistake because terms can have different legal meaning. It is also recommended not to make free interpretation of text and to use moderate level of transformation. Identical and adequate translation is the main task and characteristics of ethno-linguistic barrier overcoming. Difficulty of this task while drawing up contract is that parties think and speak different languages, they also use special language, i.e. technical, economical, legal terminology semantic meaning of which can diverge in different languages. Thus, in structure of ethno-linguistic barrier there is special level - conceptual barrier. In texts of international contracts it concerns first of all legal terminology. Very often in legal system of one language there are no institutions, concepts and corresponding terms which would transmit corresponding terminology of another party's legal system adequately. If there is no identical term in one language which explains meaning of foreign term it is recommended to use one of three ways to cope with this situation: 1. Borrowing; 2. Explanation; 3. New term formation.
    • Nowadays this method becomes more and more popular in Ukrainian contracting practice, where English terms are widely used, e.g. default, transaction. But it should be mentioned that one must be careful with foreign words usage in business communication and writing. If foreign words can be replaced by corresponding Ukrainian, then their usage is not appropriate. However, if foreign terms passed into active vocabulary of international communication they can be used in certain business papers. These are financial lexics and legal terminology.
    • The explanation used with translation of terms is inexpedient. For example, terms which name doctrines expressed in idioms 'clean hands' - чисті рук; чесність, бездоганність поведінки; 'rules against perpetuties' - правила проти вічних розпоряджень; доктрина недійсності угод, які встановлюють речові права з терміном виникнення більш ніж через 21 рік після смерті особи чи осіб названих в /, and so on. Term can be explained directly in text instead of original term, as a notice to corresponding part of text where term is used, or separately in that part of text where other terms are explained. There are cases when foreign term can be transliterated or explained, or both transliterated and explained. Sometimes foreign terms, though transliterated and due to it acquire original conception of term, have Ukrainian correspondence. It depends on context what method to choose. For example, term 'abandonment' can have meaning відмова, at the same time in insurance sphere it is transliterated - авансування. Such situation concerns a lot of foreign terms, e.g. 'accept' - 1. прийняття, 2. акцепт, 3. акцептування; 'endorsement' - 1. схвалення, підтвердження, 2. індосамент; 'freight' - 1. вантаж; 2. фрахт.
    • New term formation is rarely used, only when contracting parties agreed on the meaning of certain terms and there is a need in new terms.
    • 3.2 Application of Cross-Cultural Communicative Theory to business translation
    • Before signing a contract or any other important document, business partners begin communication which can be written or oral. If we are talking about forms of written communication first of all we mean business letters which can be considered as the initial part of business relationships. Oral communication includes telephone calls and of course negotiations. Nowadays almost all negotiations with foreign business partners are performed in English and the signing or non signing of contract depend on it. That is why business correspondence and negotiations should be carried out in appropriate and correct language. We have already described the most important peculiarities of business English, but we also would like to raise very important and interesting problem of business doing - the cultural aspect.
    • Those involved in business translation, testify that their linguistic challenges are: special terminology, cliched lexics and its formal register. Still certain linguistic dexterity may not prove efficient under field conditions when besides
    • language problems the translator in business faces quite newly appreciated challenge - cultural or psychological one.
    • The necessity to keep certain 'appearances' and observe conventionalities in international business communication has been acknowledged since the times when success of a company's extension started to be judged by the number of its foreign affiliations or partners.
    • Intensification of international contacts yielded, besides obviously positive results, multiple failures at negotiations, absence of foreign trainees' motivation, and even open conflicts among partners, especially between those belonging to different cultures (Asian and Western, Western and Slavic). Minute feedback analysis of the situations suggests that whereas business matters were handled perfectly, national, ethnic, psychological or cultural factors were completely neglected.
    • This was an impetus for methodologists and linguists to start developing a separate branch of the communication theory - Cross-Cultural Communication Studies. That encompasses ethnic culture and psychology, sociology, and a lot of other adjacent spheres. According to W. Gudykunst, W.G. Stephan, B. Blake and many other researchers of cultural diversity in business context, communication cannot be successful unless ethno-psychological identity of its participants is recognized.
    • W. Gudykunst identified the cultures according to the following criteria: 1) individualism-collectivism, 2) low-high context communication, 3) uncertainty avoidance, 4) power distance. These features greatly influence linguistic and extra-linguistic manner of the translators.
    • In individualistic cultures people are supposed to look after themselves and their immediate family only, while in collectivistic cultures, people belong to in-groups of collectivities which are supposed to look after them on exchange for loyalty. The example of the first culture is presented by United States, whereas Japan is an illustration of the second. This factor is to be taken into consideration in negotiations planning, since a Japanese will never be able to take a decision which may lie beyond the interests of his corporation, and will never speak on his own behalf, whereas the individual achievements of an American may stipulate his risky decisions and possibility to take it independently. At linguistic level it stipulates the use of particular grammar structures - Active versus Passive, I / we pronouns, etc.
    • Communication that predominates in the cultures makes the second important criterion of cultural diversity. A high-context communication, inherent in most Asian cultures, is one in which the most information is implemented either in extra-linguistic situation of communication or is shared by the communicants, while very little is coded. A low-context communication takes place in terms of explicit code, like in Germany or the United States. This may cause the necessity to make certain aspects in business communication, e.g. price negotiations, more explicit for the Americans and less direct for the Japanese or the Chinese through the use / avoidance of certain direct grammar constructions and vocabulary.
    • Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance have a lower tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity, which expresses itself in higher levels of anxiety and energy release, greater need for formal rules and absolute truth, and less tolerance for people in groups with deviant ideas or behavior. It was empirically confirmed that in organizations, workers in high uncertainty avoidance cultures prefer a specialist career and clear instructions, avoid conflict, and disapprove of competition between employees more than workers in low uncertainty avoidance cultures, e.g. Denmark versus Japan. It does not only stipulate the pattern of behavior with businessmen representing these cultures but also the linguistic strategy in translation, e.g. presence or absence of mitigation markers.
    • Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power as distributed unequally. Individuals from high power distance cultures accept power as part of the society. Superiors there consider their subordinates to be different from themselves (Arab cultures). Low power distance cultures believe that power should be used only when it is legitimate and prefer expert or legitimate power (Western cultures). This stands for observation of subordination in the groups of businessmen, which is, for example, strict in Philippines and optional in the Netherlands. This directly influences the use of the certain vocabulary register depending on the level of communication (horizontal, with peers, or vertical, with subordinates or superiors) and the tone (type of modality, from orders to mild advice or suggestion).
    • The application of Cross-Cultural Communicative Theory to the business translation looks rather significant since it crucially changes the very concept of the translator's role in business communication. Supplied by the cultural knowledge, translator does not simply find equivalents of the ideas in different languages. His strategy is to maintain rapport between cultures by finding the forms of mutually accepted manner of communication, which raises his role to the global level.
    • The development of business correspondence in Ukrainian, need of official documents translation from English into Ukrainian and vice versa after proclaiming Ukrainian language to be state on the territory of Ukraine, give special significance to the language of business communication and especially to English as it is language of international communication. Business correspondence obeys certain rules of exposition and arranging of the information. Business letters have common and national specific characteristics. In all language cultures formation of official style was presupposed by the development of State system, government apparatus and by the need to confirm legal relationships of juridical and private persons by documents. The world practice shows that despite all the peculiarities of national systems of business correspondence the main requirements to the structure, fullness of content and arrangement are stable because they had been forming historically and were determined by the peculiarities of business communication.
    • National specific character in business letters is performed at communicative level because peculiarities of historical development in this sphere in every nation caused the formation of specific communicational phrases and stylistic constructions. That is why while comparing standards of official style of Ukrainian and of business correspondence in particular with the existing standards of English business correspondence one can distinguish ethno-linguistic characteristics of Ukrainian and English business correspondence which should be taken into account in translation. Ukrainian business correspondence is characterized by the functionality (the so-called 'telegraph style'), restraint and rationality, absence of emotional coloring, estrangement of exposition that expressed through rationality and strictness of linguistic forms and patterns. In comparison with Ukrainian style, style of English business letters is characterized by more independent choice of words and syntactic constructions, by the intention of author to show his personal interest and willingness for close partnership with addressee, by hierarchy of polite addresses depending on the level of formal relationships between communicants.
    • 3.3 Grammatical aspect of translation of official documents
    • The way of translation of official business documents is opposite of literary translation where concerns the freedom of translator's actions and choices. Literary translation is more art than craft which is accounted by the nature of literary texts. Translation of a literary text is unique and cannot be standardized and obeys almost no rules.
    • The task of an interpreter translating official documents is to find target language equivalents of the source text frames and use them in translation as standard substitutes, filling the slots with frame fillers in compliance with the document content.
    • Translation of legal, economic, diplomatic and official business papers requires not only sufficient knowledge of terms, phrases and expressions, but also depends on the clear comprehension of the structure of a sentence, some specific grammar and syntactical patterns, which characterize the style.
    • Here are some English constructions which can cause special difficulties while translating.
    • Depending on the function the Infinitive plays in the sentence it can be translated in the following ways:
    • 1. As an adverbial modifier of purpose the Infinitive can express an independent idea that adds some new information about its subject; the adverb «only» is omitted in translation, e.g. The president announced his resignation after the failure of his drive to push through the merger of the two countries last summer.
    • Президент повідомив про свою відставку після того, як влітку минулого року його кампанія за об'єднання двох країн зазнала невдачі.
    • 2.After adjectives «the last, the only» and ordinal numerals the Infinitive is translated as the predicate of an attributive subordinate clause, its tense form is determined by the context.
    • e.g. He was the first high official to be admitted to the inner council of government, to the cabinet.
    • Він був першим високопоставленим службовцем, якого було допущено до закритих нарад з питань державного управління і навіть до засідань кабінету.
    • «if + noun + be + infinitive» can be translated as «для того щоб».
    • e.g. In any event, members of the association should be prepared to put aside partisan interests if consensus on the abovementioned principles is to be achieved.
    • У будь-якому випадку, щоб дійти згоди щодо зазначених принципів, члени асоціації повинні облишити свої партійні інтереси.
    • 3.The Complex Object with the Infinitive is translated as an object subordinate clause,
    • e.g. Both experiments revealed the rated dimensions to be highly interrelated.
    • Обидва експерименти показали, що розрахункові параметри дуже тісно пов'язані між собою.
    • 4.The Complex Subject with passive forms of the verbs «think, expect, show, see, find, argue, know, mean, consider, regard, report, believe, hold, suppose, note, claim, admit, interpret, etc.» is translated as a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause.
    • e.g. Still they can hardly be said to have come to the agreement.
    • І все ж навряд чи можна стверджувати, що вони дійшли згоди.
    • 5.The Complex Subject with active forms of the verbs «happen, appear, see, prove, turn out, be likely, be certain, etc.» is translated in two possible ways:
    • - the English finite form is transformed into a Ukrainian parenthesis and the English Infinitive into a Ukrainian predicate.
    • e.g. So, there appear to be two choices. Отже, виявляється, вибір існує;
    • - the English finite form transformed into Ukrainian main clause («малоймовірно», « мені здається», etc.) and the English Infinitive into Ukrainian predicate in an object subordinate clause.
    • e.g. Neither proposal is likely to work.
    • Малоймовірно, щоб якась з цих пропозицій виявилась слушною. If the English predicate has an object «by somebody» such predicate-object clusters are translated as a parenthesis «на думку» «за даними».
    • Depending on the function of the Gerund in the sentence it can be translated as:
    • - A noun.
    • e.g. Banking on a loss of nerve within the board of trustees may turn out to be misguided.
    • Розрахунок на те, що члени ради опікунів втратять витримку, може виявитися невірним.
    • - An infinitive.
    • e.g. Under the pressure of national campaign, he showed a positive gift for saying the wrong things in the wrong words at the wrong time.
    • В умовах напруженої кампанії, що проводиться в країні, він виявляв безумовний дар говорити не те, що треба, не так, як треба, і не тоді, коли треба.
    • - A participle.
    • e.g. In Washington there is quite satisfaction that the French by joining the float have indirectly acknowledged that the U.S. was right all along.
    • У Вашингтоні висловлюють задоволення з приводу того, що Франція, приєднавшись до країн з плаваючим курсом валюти, хоча і непрямо, але ж визнала, що США були повністю праві.
    • The Perfect Gerund denotes an action which is prior to the action expressed by finite form of the verb.
    • e.g. After having been colonies for a long time, many Asian and African countries have now become independent states.
    • Багато країн Азії та Африки, що протягом тривалого часу були колоніями, перетворилися па незалежні.
    • Very often constructions with participles are used in official documents. Participle I can be translated as:
    • an attributive clause;
    • an adverbial clause;
    • a separate sentence.
  • 148. The Profile of Effective Manager
    Иностранные языки

    We should ask our self the question: Are there people who have more managerial skills than others, because they are able to learn from their experience what they need to know to manage effectively. Livingstone S (1971) found three characteristics of men who learned to manage effectively.

    • Need to manage: to be able to manage effectively, you should have a strong desire and satisfaction to influence the performance of others. Many of those who aspires high- level positions are driven by the expectations of high salaries or high status, but are not motivated to get effective results through others. Those managers dont learn how to develop an effective managerial career, because there is a lack of willingness to manage. They are not able to devote enough time and energy to find a suitable way to manage. So the need to manage is a crucial factor in determining whether a person will learn and apply in practice what is necessary to get effective results on the job. For example, managers who are outstanding individual performers, but with a lack to motivate others or to delegate tasks to subordinates, rarely advance far up the organizational hierarchy because they will be blocked by low performances of a large number of subordinates.
    • Need for power: Since managers are primarily concerned with directing and influencing subordinates, they should be characterized by a high need for power. We could refer to the above chapter about leadership and power.
    • Capacity for empathy: The capacity for empathy is ”the ability to cope with the emotional reactions that inevitably occur when people work together in an organization” (Livingstone S. 1971). Managers who are perfectly capable to learn from their job experience, or who are able to apply management techniques successfully, often fail because their affinity with others is entirely intellectual or cognitive. They are emotionally blind. They are not capable to deal with the emotional reactions that are crucial in gaining the willing cooperation of subordinates. It is very difficult to teach people how to cope with human emotions.
  • 149. The socialist workers party 1951-1979
    Иностранные языки

    ІS hаd by nоw cеаsеd tо bе а prоpаgаndа grоup. But thіs dіd nоt mеаn thаt prоpаgаndа hаd cеаsеd tо bе іmpоrtаnt. Оn thе cоntrаry, іt wаs thе cоntіnuаl flоw оf prоpаgаndа mаtеrіаl thаt wаs cеntrаl tо іts grоwіng іnfluеncе. Fundаmеntаl tо thіs wаs thе buіldіng оf Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr. Thе pаpеr hаd chаngеd іts nаmе frоm Lаbоur Wоrkеr tо cоnfіrm thе brеаk wіth еntry wоrk іn thе Lаbоur Pаrty. Іn Sеptеmbеr 1968 thе pаpеr wаs lаunchеd аs а wееkly. Іt hаd fоur pаgеs, cоst twо (оld) pеncе, аnd lооkеd sоmеwhаt scruffy. Іt wаs sоld mаіnly by studеnts оutsіdе thе gаtеs оf fаctоrіеs аnd оn cоuncіl еstаtеs. Slоwly thе pаpеr wаs іmprоvеd; іt grеw tо sіx pаgеs іn 1969, еіght іn 1970, twеlvе іn 1971 аnd sіxtееn іn 1972. Thе cіrculаtіоn rоsе frоm undеr tеn thоusаnd іn і 1968 tо оvеr thіrty thоusаnd sоmе fіvе yеаrs lаtеr. But іt wаs nоt sіmply thе sаlе оf thе pаpеr оr іts jоurnаlіstіc quаlіty thаt mаttеrеd; іt wаs іts pоlіtіcаl rоlе. Іt wаs Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr whіch gаvе thе pоlіtіcаl cоhеrеncе tо аn оrgаnіsаtіоn whоsе mеmbеrs wеrе іnvоlvеd іn strugglеs thаt dіffеrеd wіdеly frоm оnе frоm аnоthеr. Іt wаs Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr thаt prоvіdеd thе mаіn lіnе оf cоmmunіcаtіоn bеtwееn thе cеntrе аnd thе mеmbеrshіp аnd pеrіphеry. Іt wаs Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr thаt prоvіdеd thе pоlіtіcаl bаsіs fоr thе mеmbеrshіp, thе pоlіtіcаl lіnе thаt еvеry mеmbеr hаd tо dеfеnd tо thоsе hе sоld tо.

  • 150. The use of communicative approaches in teaching English in elementary school
    Иностранные языки

    language activities stir a class. In a positive sense stir means that activities wake them up, stimulate them. In a negative sense, it may be that the activity over-excite them or allow them to become unconstructively restless. There are other activities, which have the opposite effect. They seem to settle the children. To put it positively, that means they will calm a class down. The negative side of this is to say that some activities will bore the class into inertia.we know the effect of activities like this, we can plan lesson, which neither stay stuck in dullness nor get out of hand in excitement. So it is useful to make your own list from experience of your particular class or classes. For example, most teachers find copying quietens children like magic. So does colouring. Competitions, on the other hand make children excited and noisy.way of looking at it is in terms of the different effects of different language skills. Oral work always seems to stir. Listening usually settles. You can equally well apply the same stir/settle distinction to any typical and regular teaching. For example, you perhaps have a routine oral exchange of several sentences with which you regularly begin a lesson. Ask yourself whether it basically stir or settles. There may be occasions when it is not an appropriate start.will help to think of any classroom event in this way. What happens when you hand out books? If the answer in your experience is stir then there will be occasions when you quite deliberately choose to delay the event until you have settled the classroom down. In order to have the freedom to adapt, we need to know the effect of what we do. So you count make up a chart, which reflects your experience.

  • 151. The use of the linguacultural texts in teaching undergraduate degrees
    Иностранные языки

    What a text is? What do we mean by text? We can define text, in the simplest way perhaps, by saying that it is language that is functional. By functional, we simply mean language that is doing some job in some context, as opposed to isolated words or sentences that I might put on the blackboard. (These might also be functional, of course, if I was using them as linguistic examples.) So any instance of living language that is playing some part in a context of situation, we shall call a text. It may be either spoken or written, or indeed in any other medium of expression that we like to think of.important thing about the nature of a text is that, although when we write it down it looks as though it is made of words and sentences, it is really made of meanings. Of course, the meanings have to be expressed, or coded, in words and structures, just as these in turn have to be expressed over again - recoded, if you like - in sounds or in written symbols. It has to be coded in something in order to be communicated; but as a thing in itself, a text is essentially a semantic unit. It is not something that can be defined as being just another kind of sentence, only bigger., we cannot simply treat a theory of text as an extension of grammatical theory, and set up formal systems for deciding what a text is. It is by no means easy to move from the formal definition of a sentence to the interpretation of particular sentences of living language; and this problem is considerably greater in the case of the text. Because of its nature as a semantic entity, a text, more than other linguistic units, has to be considered from two perspectives at once, both as a product and as a process. We need to see the text as product and the text as process and to keep both these aspects in focus. The text is a product in the sense that it is an output, something that can be recorded and studied, having a certain construction that can be represented in systematic terms. It is a process in the sense of a continuous process of semantic choice, a movement through the network of meaning potential, with each set of choices constituting the environment for a further set.of culture. Much of the work of learning a foreign language consists in learning to make the right predictions. If the student coming into school with a first language other than English finds difficulty in using English to learn with, this is likely to be in part because he has not yet learnt to expect in English - to use the context in this predictive way. Tcontext of situation, however, is only the immediate environment. There is also a broader background against which the text has to be interpreted: its CONTEXT OF CULTURE. Any actual context of situation, the particular configuration of field, tenor, and mode that has brought a text into being, is not just a random jumble of features but a totality - a package, so to speak, of things that typically go together in the culture. People do these things on these occasions and attach these meanings and values to them; this is what a culture is.school itself provides a good example of what in modern jargon could be called an interface between the context of situation and the context of culture. For any text in school - teacher talk in the classroom, pupils notes or essay, passage from a textbook - there is always a context of situation: the lesson, with its concept of what is to be achieved; the relationship of teacher to pupil, or textbook writer to reader; the mode of question-and-answer, expository writing, and so on. But these in turn are instances of, and derive their meaning from, the school as an institution in the culture: the concept of education, and of educational knowledge as distinct from commonsense knowledge; the notion of the curriculum and of school subjects; the complex role structures of teaching staff, school principals, consultants, inspectorate, departments of education, and the like; and the unspoken assumptions about learning and the place of language within it.these factors constitute the context of culture, and they determine, collectively, the way the text is interpreted in its context of situation. It is as well to know what we are assuming, as teachers, when we stand up in front of a class and talk, or when we set pupils a task like writing a report or an essay, or when we evaluate their performance in that task.have not offered, here, a separate linguistic model of the context of culture; no such thing yet exists, although there are useful ideas around. But in describing the context of situation, it is helpful to build in some indication of the cultural background, and the assumptions that have to be made if the text is to be interpreted - or produced - in the way the teacher (or the system) intends.lesson in culture. This paper argues for a new interpretation of culture which potentially challenges traditional works of culture common in discussions of foreign and second language learning. It also proposes ways to restructure curriculum around this new interpretation. Three different perspectives on culture are developed: first, culture creates differences and tension, both of which propel learning; second, culture is not a fact but a process of learning; third, culture can be used in a monolingual/monocultural and multilingual/multicultural setting. The theoretical perspective explained here is grounded on the premise that knowledge, or meaning generation, is constructed as the result of a transaction between an individuals conception of the world (individual culture) and the world outside the individual (social culture). From this standpoint, culture resides in, rather than being separate from, each individual. This progressive theory of culture allows us to restructure the curriculum in ways that highlight learner participation, the importance of social transaction, and the role of tension in promoting learning. After an explanation of this alternative interpretation of culture, suggestions for creating a classroom environment consistent with that interpretation are explored.paper potentially challenges the ways in which traditionally existing perspectives work culture and its relationship to language learning. In what follows, the traditional works on the role of culture in foreign or second language learning and teaching will be discussed, and contrasted to a new interpretation of culture. Finally, the creation of an environment that supports learning, and which involves the introduction of classroom activities, will be suggested.is often neglected in EFL and ESL teaching/learning, or introduced as no more than a supplementary diversion to language instruction. Yet changes in linguistic and learning theory suggest that culture should be highlighted as an important element in language classrooms. Efforts linking culture and language learning are impelled by ideas originating in sociolinguistic theory and schema learning theory. Sociolinguistic theory focuses on the social and cultural aspects of language. From a sociolinguistic perspective, competence in language use determined not only by the ability to use language with grammatical accuracy, but also to use language appropriate to particular contexts. Thus, successful language learning requires language users to know the culture that underlies language.to both EFL and reading instruction is the premise that deficiencies in cultural background knowledge create learning difficulties. It follows that understanding the culture of the text is essential to successful language learning; without the appropriate cultural schema to aid understanding, what is learnt must necessarily be incomplete.new interpretation of culture. A new interpretation of culture, which focuses on culture as a process of learning rather than an external knowledge to be acquired incidental to the facts of language, reconceptualizes our work toward culture in EFL. This reconceptualization helps us to reposition the role of culture in learning. Sociolinguistics, schema learning, and cultivation theories all focus on cultural knowledge as an essential component for gaining competence in learning second and foreign language., that triggers learning is not culture but the process of meaning generation, and the differences and tensions that come from encountering various cultures. As valuable as sociolinguistics, schema, and cultivation theories are for pushing us into more effective ways of conceiving language learning, if we examine Peircian semiotics (1992), then these theories present several problems.(1868) wrote that no cognition not determined by a previous cognition , then, can be known. In other words, we must use our inner, pre-existing cognition to make sense of the outer world, to detect and expand meaning. That inner text is formed through our multiple experiences with the world. As a result, each individual has his or her own uniqueness, and carries his or her own culture. Second, any meaning-making is a transaction between our own inner world and the external world (environment). Meaning is generated as a result of transactions between our conception of the world and our confrontation with that world. In other words, all knowledge is a dynamic construction orchestrated by language users. As an example, think of the differing concepts held by Americans of the words Michael Jordan, conceptions developed from previous experiences as consumers of news, television, or other entertainment media. When an American sees the words Michael Jordan on a bulletin board, one may recall a Chicago Bulls basketball game that he or she has watched, that brings to mind the grace in movement of a particular play, while another may recall some sporting shoes they purchased and which may be needing repair. Yet the bulletin board may refer to a wholly different context, such as an attack on the athlete for endorsing Nike shoes. In this way, any meaning we construct is a transaction between our own perspectives - developed from our past experiences in the world - and the reality of that present world.can infer from this meaning-making process an interpretation of culture. Every new perspective on culture is the transaction between each individuals culture (developed from a personal history of the world) and social culture (composed of the histories of others). An individual culture (IC) refers to each individuals conception, which becomes a culture in itself. The world outside the individual - other people and their environments - becomes the social culture. (SC). When we apply these terms to the language classroom, SC will include not only people in the immediate society of the language learners, but also those who live in the target language culture (TC) - the culture of the second or foreign language being learned. Any knowledge or meaning that we generate is the result of transactions between IC and SC. As a consequence of the interaction between them, a new perspective on culture is developed through a process that is always incomplete, and continuously evolving. The triad relationship among these terms, which draws on Peirces theory, is illustrated in Figure 2.

  • 152. The use of Total Physical Response techniques in teaching English language school

    4.How English teaching and learning differs, working with 2-3 grade pupils and 4 grade pupils, integrating TPR method into lessons?1. All activities, working with 2-3 grade pupils are based on games and other active tasks because children learn through experience. However the older children should be allowed to be self-sufficient, think of their own, be independent, get more creative tasks, learn more words and take the lead. All five respondents agree that young learners, children 7-11 years old are very active and need activities where they can pour the energy out. The best resort is games. However activities differ a little bit according to experience of children cognitive process. Older children are more mature. Some activities might be too childish for them. They need less activities and get more thinking tasks. 2-3 grade pupils are still little children. They need more activities involving games, songs, role plays, dances. For this reason teacher needs to be prepared very well and consider the complexity of materials and tasks working with different age gropes.2. Teaching children depends on the children's cognitive process. Tasks for 2-3 classes must be easier than for classes 4. Teacher also needs to consider complexity and amount of words giving tasks to children. However all pupils needs to be active and get as many visual material as possible to make learning effective3. Little children are very susceptible in learning if the lessons are interesting through different games. Older ones, who are 10-11years old think that some activities might be too childish. So teacher must be very creative and prepared for the lessons very well. Little ones should have more task than the older children, because 2-3 grade pupils can concentrate on one thing not longer than 10 minutes therefore bigger children get less tasks as they are more mature.4.Children love playing games and moving around instead of sitting in their desks not depending of their age. So teachers role doe not differ considering the fact that everybody, even adults love to do everything what is fun5.Children cognitive development from the age of 7 and up to 11 does not really differ, so all of them need more creative and tasks and games where they could gush the energy and learn at the same time. 2-3 grade pupils learn through games, songs and other active activities. Older children are little more serious and get tasks for thinking and creating things, ex. dialogues, role-play. 6. How TPR method stimulates childrens motivation and interest to learn English language? 1.Interesting and memorableThe results showed that this method motivates to learn English because it is interesting, creative, memorable and fun, without lots of thinking and much writing2.Creative and memorable 3.Pupils learn through senses and experience. It is always interesting when you can participate and experience things on your own 4.Children like and need to be active instead of sitting in their desks.5.Interesting fun activities which do not require logical thinking, writing and learning by heart. 7.What is your opinion about the statement " second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic process; listening should develop before speaking; children respond physically to spoken language, once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it; delaying speech reduces stress; teachers should be very tolerant towards pupils mistakes and do not force them to speak until they are ready second language " Do you go by these principles and why?1.I agree with a statement and adopt the principles partially. I think children must be forced to respond and speak. Four respondents partially agree with a statement. However they do not go by these principles. Most of the teachers have strong opinion that children must be forced to speak and respond. They also say that correction of mistakes is necessary. Only 1 teacher totally agrees with a statement and goes by its principles.2. I agree with a statement but do not go by these principles because of lack of the time.3.I agree with a statement and go by these principles. In my opinion, the good teaching results will not be reached if we do it forcibly.4.I agree with a statement. However mistakes should be tolerantly corrected and children should be encouraged to speak.5.I agree with a statement but do not go by it. Correction of the mistakes is a must. Children must be encouraged to talk. 8.Will teaching English language through TPR will be effective if: 1. spoken language will be emphasized over written language; 2.language will be taught in chunks; 3.children will not be forced to memorize;1.Children should equally learn writing, speaking, reading and listening and it should be taught in chunks. However nowadays we should force children to learn. Teachers thoroughly agree with these teaching principles. However the most of them think that nowadays children must be forced to memorize the material they learn.1 respondent think that spoken language should not be emphasized over written language. She states that reading, speaking, writing and listening must be taught equally. 2. I agree with these principles but I think children need to be forced to memorize.3.I agree with all principles4. I agree with these principles but I think children need to be forced to memorize.5. I agree with these principles but I think children need to be encouraged or forced to memorize.9. What is yours and your pupils roles integrating TPR method into the lesson?1.I am not the leader in the class. Children must participate. I give the instructions until children get involved in activities.More or less the results show that the teacher is the leader in the classroom, who presents new material, shows an example and involves children in activities. Firstly all children do activity chorally with a teacher then they are groped or work as a whole class. Only 1 teacher told that she is involved in all the process playing together with children and not only giving directions.2.My job is to be well prepared so the lesson would flow smoothly and children would willingly perform all the tasks. After presenting new words, we repeat chorally, and work as a whole class or in small gropes creating dialogues, role-pays and playing games. 3. After presenting new material we repeat it chorally then I show an example and then I call a volunteer to demonstrate how the task should be done. I do it in order so the other students would be encouraged to participate. I do all tasks with my students participating together in all activities. 4.I show the example, how the task should be done and call volunteer one by one or in gropes to demonstrate, play or act. I try to speak less encouraging pupils to speak on their own. I observe them, correct their mistakes and try to encourage them all the time. 5.I creatively prepare the tasks for the lesson, show the example for the pupils. We do the first task together as a whole class and when we feel confident we play games. 11.What materials do you usually use teaching children through TPR? 1. Objects in the classroom, mimes, body movements. Materials, which teachers use in classroom activities are usually objects in the classroom, body movements and all visual and sound materials like video, pictures, drawings.2.Visual and sound materials which could be used for games, role-plays, songs dialogues and dances. 3. Objects in the classroom, mimes, body movements.4.Objects in the classroom, drawings, pictures. 5.All visual and sound materials which allow children to move. 12.What are disadvantage of TPR?1. It is hard working with big classes. 4th grade pupils reluctantly do acting. The disadvantages teachers exclude are very different: · requires lots of preparation · may be childish for older children · not appropriate for big classes · is very limited as only vocabulary, some nouns and verbs can be learnt.2.This method requires lots of preparation and hard work. 3.I is very limited because through this method only some verbs and nouns can be taught.4.This method is not appropriate for older children. 5.TPR teaches only vocabulary.

  • 153. Tragic heroes in modern English literature
    Иностранные языки


    1. Auwera J. van der. Pragmatic presupposition: Shared beliefs in a theory of irrefutable meaning // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 11: Presupposition. N.Y., 2003. P. 249-264.
    2. Bower G.H., Black J.B., Turner T.J. Scripts in memory for texts // Cognitive Psychology, 2002. Vol. 11. P. 177-220.
    3. Barker L., Barker D. Communication. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs, 2003. 480 p.
    4. Bell D. The End of Ideology. USA: Free Press, 2000. 260 p.
    5. Berlin В., Kay P. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Berkeley: The Univ. of California Press, 2002. 178 р.
    6. Beugrande R.A. de, Dressler W.U. Introduction to Text Linguistics. L., N.Y.: Longman, 2006. 270 р.
    7. Culture Shock. A Reader in Modern Cultural Anthropology. Ed. by P.K. Bock. N.Y., 1970. 320 p.
    8. Clark H.H., Marshall C.R. Definite Reference and Mutual Knowledge // Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge University Press, 2001. P. 10-63.
    9. Clark H.H. Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 436 p.
    10. Delia J.D., Grossberg L. Interpretation and Evidence // Western Journal of Speech Communication. 1977. Vol. 41. P. 32-42.
    11. Fine G.A. Rumours and Gossiping // Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Volume 3. Discourse and Dialogue. Ed. T.A. van Dijk. London: Academic Press, 2005. P. 223-237.
    12. Flick U. Social Representations and the Social Construction of Everyday Knowledge: Theoretical and methodological Queries // Social Science Information, 1994. Vol. 33. P. 179-197.
    13. Francis G., Hunston S. Analysing everyday conversation // Advances in Spoken Discourse Analysis. London, 1992. P. 123-161.
    14. Hirsсh E. D., Jr. Cultural Literacy. What Every American Needs To Know. N.Y.: Random House, Inc., 2004. 254 p.
    15. Kotthoff H. The Social Semiotics of Georgian Toast Performances: Oral Genre As Cultural Activity // Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 24. № 4. P. 353-380.
    16. Levy D.M. Communicative goals and strategies: Between discourse and syntax // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 12: Discourse and Syntax. New York, 2002. P. 183-210.
    17. Lewis D.K. Convention: A philosophical study. Cambridge, Massachusets: Harvard University Press, 2002. 214 p.
    18. Schiffer S.R. Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. 170 p.
    19. Sinclair J. Priorities in discourse analysis // Advances in Spoken Discourse Analysis. London; N.Y., 2002. P. 1-34.
    20. Smith M. Social situation, social behavior, social group // Psychological Rework, 2004. Vol. 52. P. 224-229.
    21. Tannen D. Talking Voices. Repetition, Dialogue and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 240 p.
    22. Weinreich P. The Operationalisation of Identity Theory in Racial and Ethnic Relations // Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations, Cambridge University Press, 2006. P. 299-321.
    23. Widdowson H.G. Teaching language as communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 168 p.
    24. Wierzbicka A. Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor: Karoma, 2005. 327 p.
    25. Wierzbicka A. A Semantic Metalanguage for the Description and Comparison of Illocutionary Meanings // Journal of Pragmatics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 2006. Vol. 10. P. 67-107.
    26. Wodak R. Disorders of discourse. London and New York: Longman, 1996. 200p.
    27. Wodak R. The Power of Political Jargon // Language, Power and Ideology: Studies in Political Discourse / Ed. R. Wodak. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ. Co., 2005. P. 137164.
    28. Wunderlich D. Methodological remarks on speech act theory // Speech act theory and Pragmatics. Dordrecht: D. Reidel publ.co., 2004. P.291-312.
    29. Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy Sets // Information and Control. Vol. 8. 2006. P. 338-353.
    30. Ziff P. Semantic analysis. N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003. 155 p.
  • 154. Translatioin of Political Literature

    Idioms and fixed expressions which contain culture-specific items are not necessarily untranslatable. It is not the specific items an expression contains but rather the meaning it conveys and its association with culture-specific contexts which can make it untranslatable or difficult to translate. For example, the English expression to carry coals to Newcastle, though culture-specific in the sense that it contains a reference to Newcastle coal and uses it as a measure of abundance, is nevertheless closely paralleled in Russian by в Тулу со своим самоваром. Both expressions convey the same meaning, namely: to supply something to someone who already has plenty of it.

    1. An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable. To sing a different tune is an English idiom which means to say or do something that signals a change in opinion because it contradicts what one has said or done before. To go to the dogs ('to lose one's good qualities') has a similar counterpart in German, but whereas the English idiom can be used in connection with a person or a place, its German counterpart can only be used in connection with a person and often means to die or perish.
    2. An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.
    3. An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable. An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.
  • 155. Triple-wave ensembles in a thin cylindrical shell
    Математика и статистика

    The experiments described in the paper [7] arise from an effort to uncover wave systems in solids which exhibit soliton behavior. The thin open-ended nickel cylindrical shell, having the dimensions cm, cm and cm, was made by an electroplating process. An acoustic beam generated by a horn driver was aimed at the shell. The elastic waves generated were flexural waves which propagated in the axial, , and circumferential, , direction. Let and , respectively, be the eigen numbers of the mode. The modes in which is always one and ranges from 6 to 32 were investigated. The only modes which we failed to excite (for unknown reasons) were = 9,10,19. A flexural wave pulse was generated by blasting the shell with an acoustic wave train typically 15 waves long. At any given frequency the displacement would be given by a standing wave component and a traveling wave component. If the pickup transducer is placed at a node in the standing wave its response will be limited to the traveling wave whose amplitude is constant as it propagates.

  • 156. Tupolev 154M noise asesment (Анализ шумовых характеристик самолёта Ту-154М)
    Авиация, Астрономия, Космонавтика
  • 157. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

    We will commence our discussion with direct testing that according to Hughes (1989:14) means the involvement of a skill that is supposed to be tested. The following work means that when applying the direct testing the teacher will be interested in testing a particular skill, e.g. if the aim of the test is to check listening comprehension, the students will be given a test that will check their listening skills, such as listening to the tape and doing the accompanying tasks. Such type of test will not engage testing of other skills. Hughes (ibid.) emphasises the importance of using authentic materials. Though, we stipulate that the teacher is free to decide him/herself what kind of material the students should be provided with. It the teachers aim is to teach the students to comprehend the real, native speech, s/he will apply the authentic material in teaching and later, logically, in tests. Developing the idea we can cite Bynom (2001:8) who assumes that direct testing introduces real-life language through authentic tasks. Consequently, it will lead to the usage of role-plays, summarising the general idea, providing the missing information, etc. Moving further and analysing the statements made by the linguists (Bynom, 2001; Hughes,1989) we can posit the idea that direct testing will be task-oriented, effective and easy to manage if it tests such skills as writing or speaking. It could be explained by the fact that the tasks intended to check the skills mentioned above give us precise information about the learners abilities. Moreover, we can maintain that when testing writing the teacher demands the students to write a certain task, such as an essay, a composition or reproduction, and it will be precisely the point the teacher will be intended to check. There will be certain demands imposed on writing test; the teacher might be just interested in the students ability to produce the right layout of an essay without taking grammar into account, or, on the contrary, will be more concerned with grammatical and syntactical structures. What concerns testing speaking skills, here the author of the paper does not support the idea promoted by Bynom that it could be treated as direct testing. Definitely, you will have a certain task to involve your speaking skills; however, speaking is not possible without employment of listening skills. This in turn will generate the idea that apart from speaking skills the teacher will test the students ability to understand the speech s/he hears, thus involving speaking skills.

  • 158. U.S. - Soviet relations

    Such suffering provided the backdrop for a bitter controversy over whether the United States and Britain were doing enough to assume their own just share of the fight. Roosevelt understood that Russia's battle was America's. "The Russian armies are killing more Axis personnel and destroying more Axis materiel," he wrote General Douglas MacArthur in 1942, "than all the other twenty-five United Nations put together." As soon as the Germans invaded Russia, the president ordered that lend-lease material be made immediately available to the Soviet Union, instructing his personal aide to get $22 million worth of supplies on their way by July 25one month after the German invasion. Roosevelt knew that, unless the Soviets were helped quickly, they would be forced out of the war, leaving the United States in an untenable position. "If [only] the Russians could hold the Germans until October 1," the president said. At a Cabinet meeting early in August, Roosevelt declared himself "sick and tired of hearing . . . what was on order"; he wanted to hear only "what was on the water." Roosevelt's commitment to lend-lease reflected his deep conviction that aid to the Soviets was both the most effective way of combating German aggression and the strongest means of building a basis of trust with Stalin in order to facilitate postwar cooperation. "I do not want to be in the same position as the English," Roosevelt told his Secretary of the Treasury in 1942. "The English promised the Russians two divisions. They failed. They promised them to help in the Caucasus. They failed. Every promise the English have made to the Russians, they have fallen down on. . . . The only reason we stand so well ... is that up to date we have kept our promises." Over and over again Roosevelt intervened directly and personally to expedite the shipment of supplies. "Please get out the list and please, with my full authority, use a heavy hand," he told one assistant. "Act as a burr under the saddle and get things moving!"

  • 159. WEB-интерфейс управления пользователями прокси-сервера
    Компьютеры, программирование
  • 160. Web-портал управления домашней бухгалтерией
    Компьютеры, программирование