Дипломная работа

  • 41. Aerospace industry in the Russian province
    Авиация, Астрономия, Космонавтика

    Region has significant scientific, technical and technological potential, which is largely due to the presence of a diversified economy, a large concentration of the engineering profile (mainly automotive and aerospace) as well as close cooperation Samara scientists with research centers in Moscow and the Volga region. One of the main directions of development of the region is to support the defense industry to solve the problem by increasing gross domestic product (GDP).of the DIC is part of the aerospace cluster. Samara region - one of the first regions in Russia began to consistently implement the cluster approach to economic development: it is the basis of socio-economic development of the province until 2020. This is the most suitable option for the industrial region with a significant industrial and technological and scientific potential, a complex, diversified structure of economic activity. Considerable potential for the formation of clusters laid in the most competitive industries - are the automotive, petrochemical, aerospace clusters that make up the backbone of the economy of the Samara region.Samara region in Russia are the leading company in development, production and launch of rockets and spacecraft, among which are the following. State Research and Production Space Rocket Center TsSKB-Progress ", on the basis of which formed aerospace cluster - the world leader in the development of launch vehicles of the middle class. Launch vehicle "Soyuz" - the most reliable in the world of missile. The company occupies a leading position in Russia, a spacecraft remote sensing and spacecraft for medico-biological experiments. Worldwide known booster of the "Soyuz" spacecraft "Resurs DK", "Bion-M" and "Photon-M. OAO SNTK them. ND Kuznetsov has been working on a new engine NK-93, which took flight tests. Beginning in 2005, is R & D work on creating an engine running on compressed natural gas for the main railway locomotive power of 8.3 MW. OAO Motorostroitel along with the implementation of increasing orders for rocket engines for SRP Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Design Bureau Progress" continues to develop the production of gas turbine-based aircraft engine on the orders of Gazprom and subsidiaries of RAO UES. Among the priority activities in 2007-2010. was the implementation of the state defense order for the repair and modernization of aircraft engines for the Strategic Air Command. OAO Aviakor-Samara Aviation Plant. The main products of the plant - passenger aircraft TU - (New and renovated) and the assembly of a new regional aircraft AN - 140 together with Ukrainian companies. For businesses aerospace industry includes enterprises aggregate direction of "Aviaagregat, OAO Gidroavtomatika", OJSC "unit", OJSC "Salute", and OAO "Metalist-Samara, specializing in the manufacture of components of aircraft and rocket engines.development of the aerospace cluster, the Samara region is carried out in several interrelated ways.a priority use of the building industry for the transition to innovative development, production of new products and attracting for these purposes by private investors.advantages of the cluster based on its strong scientific-technological and engineering base.scientific activity of the aerospace cluster in the Samara region is TsSKB-Progress SNTK them. N. Kuznetsov, Samara State Aerospace University, and other organizations. Technologies developed and tested in organizations, in design offices, universities hold significant promise for use in various sectors of the economy: medicine, instrument and machine-tool industry, meteorology, cartography, mineral deposits. In this sector, a number of fundamentally new technologies that have no analogues.cluster on the basis of the largest innovative university Samara State Aerospace University, a powerful innovation infrastructure - technology park, technology transfer center, media center, business incubator.infrastructure to eventually become one of the supporting elements of the national innovation system and serve as the basis for the formation of regional zones of innovative development.use of these competitive advantages will effectively implement the Samara region and Russia major breakthrough technology industry. It is also important active interaction with the structures that make decisions on state support for industry.this direction, priorities are the following approaches: - The listing of cluster created at the federal level, the integrated structure (in particular, involves pooling the research, design and production of the once-common industrial complexes); - Increase the flow of federal funds; - The participation of organizations in a variety of federal target programs; - Encouraging diversification of production, incorporation into the value chain civilian direction of various economic sectors - automotive, agricultural machinery, rail transport, fuel and energy complex; - Long-term systemic interaction with major national companies, OAO Gazprom, OAO Russian Railways ";

  • 42. Audacity как свободное программное обеспечение для обработки и редактирования звука в операционной системе Linux
    Компьютеры, программирование
  • 43. Australian English: main characteristics
    Иностранные языки

    Where foodstuffs are concerned, Australian English tends to be more closely related to the British vocabulary, for example the term biscuit is the traditional and common term rather than the American terms cookie and cracker. As had been the case with many terms, cookie is recognized and understood by Australians, and occasionally used, especially among younger generations.Australia the term chips is used for what Americans call French Fries, as with British English. In Australia chips is also used for what are called crisps in the UK, this second usage also being the American English term for crisps. The distinction is sometimes made through the adjective hot. The term French Fries is understood and sometimes used by Australians. US restaurants such as McDonalds continue to use the term French Fries in Australia.a few cases such as zucchini, snow pea and eggplant, Australian English uses the same terms as American English, whereas the British use the equivalent French terms courgette, mangetout and aubergine. This is possibly due to a fashion that emerged in mid - 19th Century Britain of adopting French nouns for foodstuffs, and hence the usage changed in Britain while the original terms were preserved in the (ex-) colonies.are also occasions when Australians use words or terms which are not common in other forms of English. For example, Australia uses the botanical name capsicum for what the Americans would call (red or green) bell peppers and the British (red or green) peppers. Perhaps this is in order to contrast table pepper (berries of genus Piper) from so-called hot peppers" (larger fruits of genus Capsicum).use the term rockmelon where North Americans would use the term cantaloupe, although in Victoria and Tasmania both terms are used.Australian English, dried fruits are given different names according to their variety, and generally raisins (grapes) are largest, sultanas (grapes) are intermediate, while currants are smallest.Australian English tomato sauce (often known simply as sauce) is the name given to what is known as ketchup in other dialects. However, ketchup with its slightly sweeter taste, is still sold in many grocery stores and is common in fast food outlets such as McDonalds. Other sauces made from tomatoes are generally referred to by names related to their uses, such as barbecue and pasta sauce.coffee beverages are given unique descriptive names such as flat white, for an espresso with milk. Other terms include short black, (espresso) and long black, (espresso diluted with water, similar to an Americano in the U. S.). Since the mid-1980s other varieties of coffee have also become popular, although these have generally been known by names used in North America and/or Europe.in British English, the colourless, slightly lemon-flavoured, carbonated drink known in North America and elsewhere under brand names such as Sprite and 7 Up is called lemonade, while the more strongly-flavoured drink known as lemonade in North America that is typically made of lemon juice and sugar is sometimes referred to as lemon squash, or sometimes traditional lemonade or club lemon, particularly in carbonated form.carbonated drink commonly called sarsaparilla in Australia is a type of root beer, named after the sarsarparilla root from which root beer is made. However, the taste is quite different, to the point that they may be considered two completely different products. This may be due to a difference in the production process.

  • 44. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions
    Иностранные языки
  • 45. British Monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

    Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage of the arts (his mother, Eleanor of Provence, encouraged Henry III to spend money on the arts, which included the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and a still-extant magnificent shrine to house the body of Edward the Confessor), and Edward received a disciplined education - reading and writing in Latin and French, with training in the arts, sciences and music. In 1254, Edward travelled to Spain for an arranged marriage at the age of 15 to 9-year-old Eleanor of Castile. Just before Edward's marriage, Henry III gave him the duchy of Gascony, one of the few remnants of the once vast French possessions of the English Angevin kings. Gascony was part of a package which included parts of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the King's lands in Wales to provide an income for Edward. Edward then spent a year in Gascony, studying its administration. Edward spent his young adulthood learning harsh lessons from Henry III's failures as a king, culminating in a civil war in which he fought to defend his father. Henry's ill-judged and expensive intervention in Sicilian affairs (lured by the Pope's offer of the Sicilian crown to Henry's younger son) failed, and aroused the anger of powerful barons including Henry's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort. Bankrupt and threatened with excommunication, Henry was forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, under which his debts were paid in exchange for substantial reforms; a Great Council of 24, partly nominated by the barons, assumed the functions of the King's Council. Henry repudiated the Provisions in 1261 and sought the help of the French king Louis IX (later known as St Louis for his piety and other qualities). This was the only time Edward was tempted to side with his charismatic and politically ruthless godfather Simon de Montfort - he supported holding a Parliament in his father's absence. However, by the time Louis IX decided to side with Henry in the dispute and civil war broke out in England in 1263, Edward had returned to his father's side and became de Montfort's greatest enemy. After winning the battle of Lewes in 1264 (after which Edward became a hostage to ensure his father abided by the terms of the peace), de Montfort summoned the Great Parliament in 1265 - this was the first time cities and burghs sent representatives to the parliament. (Historians differ as to whether de Montfort was an enlightened liberal reformer or an unscrupulous opportunist using any means to advance himself.) In May 1265, Edward escaped from tight supervision whilst hunting. On 4 August, Edward and his allies outmanoeuvred de Montfort in a savage battle at Evesham; de Montfort predicted his own defeat and death 'let us commend our souls to God, because our bodies are theirs ... they are approaching wisely, they learned this from me.' With the ending of the civil war, Edward worked hard at social and political reconciliation between his father and the rebels, and by 1267 the realm had been pacified. In April 1270 Parliament agreed an unprecedented levy of one-twentieth of every citizen's goods and possessions to finance Edward's Crusade to the Holy Lands. Edward left England in August 1270 to join the highly respected French king Louis IX on Crusade. At a time when popes were using the crusading ideal to further their own political ends in Italy and elsewhere, Edward and King Louis were the last crusaders in the medieval tradition of aiming to recover the Holy Lands. Louis died of the plague in Tunis before Edward's arrival, and the French forces were bought off from pursuing their campaign. Edward decided to continue regardless: 'by the blood of God, though all my fellow soldiers and countrymen desert me, I will enter Acre ... and I will keep my word and my oath to the death'. Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271 with 1,000 knights; his crusade was to prove an anticlimax. Edward's small force limited him to the relief of Acre and a handful of raids, and divisions amongst the international force of Christian Crusaders led to Edward's compromise truce with the Baibars. In June 1272, Edward survived a murder attempt by an Assassin (an order of Shi'ite Muslims) and left for Sicily later in the year. He was never to return on crusade. Meanwhile, Henry III died on 16 November 1272. Edward succeeded to the throne without opposition - given his track record in military ability and his proven determination to give peace to the country, enhanced by his magnified exploits on crusade. In Edward's absence, a proclamation in his name delcared that he had succeeded by hereditary right and the barons swore allegeiance to him. Edward finally arrived in London in August 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Aged 35, he was a veteran warrior ('the best lance in all the world', according to contemporaries), a leader with energy and vision, and with a formidable temper. Edward was determined to enforce English kings' claims to primacy in the British Isles. The first part of his reign was dominated by Wales. At that time, Wales consisted of a number of disunited small Welsh princedoms; the South Welsh princes were in uneasy alliance with the Marcher lords (feudal earldoms and baronies set up by the Norman kings to protect the English border against Welsh raids) against the Northern Welsh based in the rocky wilds of Gwynedd, under the strong leadership of Llywelyn ap Gruffyd, Prince of Gwynedd. In 1247, under the Treaty of Woodstock, Llywelyn had agreed that he held North Wales in fee to the English king. By 1272, Llywelyn had taken advantage of the English civil wars to consolidate his position, and the Peace of Montgomery (1267) had confirmed his title as Prince of Wales and recognised his conquests. However, Llywelyn maintained that the rights of his principality were 'entirely separate from the rights' of England; he did not attend Edward's coronation and refused to do homage. Finally, in 1277 Edward decided to fight Llywelyn 'as a rebel and disturber of the peace', and quickly defeated him. War broke out again in 1282 when Llywelyn joined his brother David in rebellion. Edward's determination, military experience and skilful use of ships brought from England for deployment along the North Welsh coast, drove Llywelyn back into the mountains of North Wales. The death of Llywelyn in a chance battle in 1282 and the subsequent execution of his brother David effectively ended attempts at Welsh independence. Under the Statute of Wales of 1284, Wales was brought into the English legal framework and the shire system was extended. In the same year, a son was born in Wales to Edward and Queen Eleanor (also named Edward, this future king was proclaimed the first English Prince of Wales in 1301). The Welsh campaign had produced one of the largest armies ever assembled by an English king - some 15,000 infantry (including 9,000 Welsh and a Gascon contingent); the army was a formidable combination of heavy Anglo-Norman cavalry and Welsh archers, whose longbow skills laid the foundations of later military victories in France such as that at Agincourt. As symbols of his military strength and political authority, Edward spent some £80,000 on a network of castles and lesser strongholds in North Wales, employing a work-force of up to 3,500 men drawn from all over England. (Some castles, such as Conway and Caernarvon, remain in their ruined layouts today, as examples of fortresses integrated with fortified towns.) Edward's campaign in Wales was based on his determination to ensure peace and extend royal authority, and it had broad support in England. Edward saw the need to widen support among lesser landowners and the merchants and traders of the towns. The campaigns in Wales, France and Scotland left Edward deeply in debt, and the taxation required to meet those debts meant enrolling national support for his policies. To raise money, Edward summoned Parliament - up to 1286 he summoned Parliaments twice a year. (The word 'Parliament' came from the 'parley' or talks which the King had with larger groups of advisers.) In 1295, when money was needed to wage war against Philip of France (who had confiscated the duchy of Gascony), Edward summoned the most comprehensive assembly ever summoned in England. This became known as the Model Parliament, for it represented various estates: barons, clergy, and knights and townspeople. By the end of Edward's reign, Parliament usually contained representatives of all these estates. Edward used his royal authority to establish the rights of the Crown at the expense of traditional feudal privileges, to promote the uniform administration of justice, to raise income to meet the costs of war and government, and to codify the legal system. In doing so, his methods emphasised the role of Parliament and the common law. With the able help of his Chancellor, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Edward introduced much new legislation. He began by commissioning a thorough survey of local government (with the results entered into documents known as the Hundred Rolls), which not only defined royal rights and possessions but also revealed administrative abuses. The First Statute of Westminster (1275) codified 51 existing laws - many originating from Magna Carta - covering areas ranging from extortion by royal officers, lawyers and bailiffs, methods of procedure in civil and criminal cases to freedom of elections. Edward's first Parliament also enacted legislation on wool, England's most important export at the time. At the request of the merchants, Edward was given a customs grant on wool and hides which amounted to nearly £10,000 a year. Edward also obtained income from the licence fees imposed by the Statute of Mortmain (1279), under which gifts of land to the Church (often made to evade death duties) had to have a royal licence. The Statutes of Gloucester (1278) and Quo Warranto (1290) attempted to define and regulate feudal jurisdictions, which were an obstacle to royal authority and to a uniform system of justice for all; the Statute of Winchester (1285) codified the policing system for preserving public order. Other statutes had a long-term effect on land law and on the feudal framework in England. The Second Statute of Westminster (1285) restricted the alienation of land and kept entailed estates within families: tenants were only tenants for life and not able to sell the property to others. The Third Statute of Westminster or Quia Emptores (1290) stopped subinfeudation (in which tenants of land belonging to the King or to barons subcontracted their properties and related feudal services). Edward's assertion that the King of Scotland owed feudal allegiance to him, and the embittered Anglo-Scottish relations leading to war which followed, were to overshadow the rest of Edward's reign in what was to become known as the 'Great Cause'. Under a treaty of 1174, William the Lion of Scotland had become the vassal to Henry II, but in 1189 Richard I had absolved William from his allegiance. Intermarriage between the English and Scottish royal houses promoted peace between the two countries until the premature death of Alexander III in 1286. In 1290, his granddaughter and heiress, Margaret the 'Maid of Norway' (daughter of the King of Norway, she was pledged to be married to Edward's then only surviving son, Edward of Caernarvon), also died. For Edward, this dynastic blow was made worse by the death in the same year of his much-loved wife Eleanor (her body was ceremonially carried from Lincoln to Westminster for burial, and a memorial cross erected at every one of the twelve resting places, including what became known as Charing Cross in London). In the absence of an obvious heir to the Scottish throne, the disunited Scottish magnates invited Edward to determine the dispute. In order to gain acceptance of his authority in reaching a verdict, Edward sought and obtained recognition from the rival claimants that he had the 'sovereign lordship of Scotland and the right to determine our several pretensions'. In November 1292, Edward and his 104 assessors gave the whole kingdom to John Balliol or Baliol as the claimant closest to the royal line; Balliol duly swore loyalty to Edward and was crowned at Scone. John Balliol's position proved difficult. Edward insisted that Scotland was not independent and he, as sovereign lord, had the right to hear in England appeals against Balliol's judgements in Scotland. In 1294, Balliol lost authority amongst Scottish magnates by going to Westminster after receiving a summons from Edward; the magnates decided to seek allies in France and concluded the 'Auld Alliance' with France (then at war with England over the duchy of Gascony) - an alliance which was to influence Scottish history for the next 300 years. In March 1296, having failed to negotiate a settlement, the English led by Edward sacked the city of Berwick near the River Tweed. Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward in April 1296, speaking of 'grievous and intolerable injuries ... for instance by summoning us outside our realm ... as your own whim dictated ... and so ... we renounce the fealty and homage which we have done to you'. Pausing to design and start the rebuilding of Berwick as the financial capital of the country, Edward's forces overran remaining Scottish resistance. Scots leaders were taken hostage, and Edinburgh Castle, amongst others, was seized. Balliol surrendered his realm and spent the rest of his life in exile in England and Normandy. Having humiliated Balliol, Edward's insensitive policies in Scotland continued: he appointed a trio of Englishmen to run the country. Edward had the Stone of Scone - also known as the Stone of Destiny - on which Scottish sovereigns had been crowned removed to London and subsequently placed in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey (where it remained until it was returned to Scotland in 1996). Edward never built stone castles on strategic sites in Scotland, as he had done so successfully in Wales - possibly because he did not have the funds for another ambitious castle-building programme. By 1297, Edward was facing the biggest crisis in his reign, and his commitments outweighed his resources. Chronic debts were being incurred by wars against France, in Flanders, Gascony and Wales as well as Scotland; the clergy were refusing to pay their share of the costs, with the Archbishop of Canterbury threatening excommunication; Parliament was reluctant to contribute to Edward's expensive and unsuccessful military policies; the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk refused to serve in Gascony, and the barons presented a formal statement of their grievances. In the end, Edward was forced to reconfirm the Charters (including Magna Carta) to obtain the money he required; the Archbishop was eventually suspended in 1306 by the new Gascon Pope Clement V; a truce was declared with France in 1297, followed by a peace treaty in 1303 under which the French king restored the duchy of Gascony to Edward. In Scotland, Edward pursued a series of campaigns from 1298 onwards. William Wallace had risen in Balliol's name and recovered most of Scotland, before being defeated by Edward at the battle of Falkirk in 1298. (Wallace escaped, only to be captured in 1305, allegedly by the treachery of a fellow Scot and taken to London, where he was executed.) In 1304, Edward summoned a full Parliament (which elected Scottish representatives also attended), in which arrangements for the settlement of Scotland were made. The new government in Scotland featured a Council, which included Robert the Bruce. Bruce unexpectedly rebelled in 1306 by killing a fellow counsellor and was crowned king of Scotland at Scone. Despite his failing health, Edward was carried north to pursue another campaign, but he died en route at Burgh on Sands on 7 July 1307 aged 68. According to chroniclers, Edward requested that his bones should be carried on Scottish campaigns and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. However, Edward was buried at Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus (Hammer of the Scots) and Pactum serva (Keep troth). Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Exchequer paid to keep candles burning 'round the body of the Lord Edward, formerly King of England, of famous memory'.

  • 46. British types of English
    Иностранные языки

    ?The dialect word haway or howay means come on. In Newcastle it is often spelled and pronounced howay, while in Sunderland it is almost always haway (or ha'way; the latter spelling is prominent inSunderland A.F.C.'s slogan, "Ha'way The Lads"). The local newspapers in each region use these spellings) Pitmatic(originally "pitmatical"), also colloquially known as "yakka", is a dialect of English used in the counties of Northumberland and Durham in England. It developed as a separate dialect fromNorthumbrian and Geordie partly due to the specialised terms used by mineworkers in the local coal pits. For example, in Northumberland and Tyne and Wear the word Cuddy is an abbreviation of the name Cuthbert but in Durham Pitmatic cuddy denotes a horse, specifically a pit pony. In Lowland Scots, cuddie usually refers to a donkey or ass but may also denote a short, thick, strong horse., pitmatic, together with some rural Northumbrian communities including Rothbury, used a guttural R. This is now less frequently heard; since the closure of the area's deep mines, many younger people speak in local ways that do not usually include this characteristic. The guttural r sound can, however, still sometimes be detected, especially amongst elderly populations in more rural areas.in theory pitmatic was spoken throughout the Great Northern Coalfield, from Ashington in Northumberland to Fishburn in County Durham, early references apply specifically to its use by miners especially from the Durham district (1873) and to its use in County Durham (1930)."pitmatic" is an uncommon term in popular usage. In recent times, all three dialects have converged, acquiring features from more Standard English varieties. English as spoken in County Durham has been described as "half-Geordie, half-Teesside" (see the article about Mackem).Bragg presented a programme on BBC Radio 4 about pitmatic as part of a series on regional dialects) Multicultural London EnglishLondon English (abbreviated MLE), colloquially called Jafaican, is a dialect (and/or sociolect) of English that emerged in the late 20th century. It is spoken mainly in inner London, with the exception of areas such as Brent, Newham, Haringey and Enfield. According to research conducted at Queen Mary, University of London, Multicultural London English is gaining territory fromCockney.is said to contain many elements from the languages of the Caribbean (Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago), South Asia (Indian subcontinent), and West Africa, as well as remnants of traditional Cockney. Although the street name, "Jafaican", implies that it is "fake" Jamaican, researchers indicate that it is not the language of white kids trying to "play cool" but rather that "[it is] more likely that young people have been growing up in London exposed to a mixture of second-language English and local London English and that this new variety has emerged from that mix".is used mainly by young, urban working-class people.past tense of the verb "to be" is regularised, with "was" becoming universal for all conjugations, and "weren't" likewise for negative conjugations. This leaves "I was, you was, he was" etc., and "I weren't, you weren't, he weren't" etc.questions are limited to "isn't it", realised as "innit", and the corresponding "is it?".

  • 47. Business the plan as strategic object of the company

    too much attention to the long preparation of the annual budget and not enough - a permanent, flexible adjustment process forecasts.consequences of poor planning and forecasting are very significant and negative. In addition to the inefficient manual work and increased costs, the risks associated with inaccurate forecasts include a decline in confidence to the business with external stakeholders, which leads to a parallel decrease in market capitalization. In this context, these risks represent a real danger.mentioned above, it is possible to emphasize the following. The current process of planning is complicated by the inefficiency of its individual stages, the lack of integration with the strategic and operational planning and the inability to establish common, comparable standards of data. If we consider these issues in the broader context of the overall role of the financial system in an organization, it becomes obvious that they interfere with this system in order to become a true business partner of the corporation.the past two years many organizations have begun the process of improving the budgeting and planning. This trend has spread to all sectors, with both small and large companies. But the problem is what kind of a way the company should choose to implement the required changes. Often, instead of admitting that their organizations need to rethink the role of the planning function, the heads of financial and information departments fall into the software "trap" and try just to use new tools to solve problems.results.manufacturers have learned to incorporate the requirements of planning functions and can provide the incoming efficiency gained by automating processes and eliminating isolated decisions based on spreadsheetsresults.organizations choose the package application because of advertising slogans that promise fast and hassle-free introduction, and partly because of own aspirations as soon as possible to achieve the desired results. But without the constant work of improving the use of these applications, further advantages that they can provide, may be frustrated. In fact, the introduction of packaged applications can be a first step towards addressing the problems within the planning process, but attention should not escape the fact that these applications will lay only the groundwork, but far from comprehensive in order to achieve the expected results in increasing productivity and efficiency. Companies that focus only on the implementation of packaged applications to support planning, essentially limit themselves to improve processes and efficiency, as well as analytical and predictive capabilities.goal.need to conduct a fundamental revision of the planning process in the context of the overall situation with the management efficiency. This is necessary to achieve the ultimate goal: to improve the company's ability to predict the effectiveness of their work and at the same time create conditions for the continuous monitoring of performance and to adjust their activities.this, strategy should be closely associated with the objectives related to efficiency, and actual performance should be easily comparable to the targets. Finally, financial incentives should depend on how performance is related to the plan. This will ensure that actions are consistent with goals. Here are some key issues that will help to understand what possibilities for improvement has an organization.

  • 48. City of London

    has been a long tradition in Britain of directing the economy through the great financial institutions together known as the City, which until 1997 were located in the Square Mile of the City of London. This remains broadly the case today, though the markets for financial and related services have grown and diversified greatly., insurance companies, the Stock Exchange, money markets, commodity shipping and freight markets and other kinds of financial institutions are concentrated in the solemn buildings of the City and beyond its borders. The City of London is the largest financial center in Europe. London is also the world's largest international insurance market and has the biggest foreign exchange market.'s financial service industry gives about 6.5 % of its gross domestic products (GDP) and contributes some 35 thousand million pounds a year. The largest contributors are banks, insurance, institutions pension funds, and securities dealers. To help Britain's financial services to respond to the competition and at the same time to protect the public investment, the Government introduced 3 pieces of legislation to supervise financing the industry: the Financial Services Act (1986), the Building Societies Act (1986) and the Banking Act (1987). Under these acts investment businesses need to be authorized and they have to obey rules set in the legislation. The main responsibility to supervise were the Bank of England, the Building Societies Commission, the Treasury and the Department of Trade and Industry. The Serious Fraud office was set up to investigate and prosecute significant and complex fraud.Bank of England.Bank of England was established in 1684 by Act of Parliament and Royal Charter as a corporate body. Its entire capital stock was acquired by the Government under the Bank of England Act in 1946. It is the heart of the City of London and Britain's central bank. The Bank's main functions are to execute monetary policy, to act as banker to the Government, to issue banknote and to provide central Banking facilities.is responsible for the financial system as a whole; it is lender of last resort. The Bank's main objective is to support the Government in achieving low inflation. Unlike some other central banks the Bank can not act independently of the Government. Decisions on changes in the interest rates are taken by the Chancellor of Exchequer. The Bank's role is to advise the Chancellor and to carry out his decisions. The 1999 (November) interest rate was 5.5%.banker to the Government the Bank of England is responsible for managing the National Debt. It has the sole right in England and Wales to issue banknote. The note issue is no longer backed by gold but the Government and other securities. The Scottish and Northern Ireland Banks have limited rights to issue notes and those must be fully covered by holdings of the Bank of England notes. Coins can be provided by the Royal Mint.Bank of England can influence money market conditions through discount houses. If on any day there is a shortage of cash in Banking system, the bank relieves the shortage either by buying bills from the discount houses or lending directly to them.Bank of England is responsible for supervision of the main wholesale markets in London for money, foreign exchange or gold bullion.behalf of the Treasury the Bank manages the Exchange Equalization Account (EEA). Using the resources of EEA the Bank may intervene in the foreign exchange markets to check undue fluctuations in the exchange rate of sterling.Houses.Discount Houses are unique to the City of London (and to Britain as a country). They occupy the central position in the British monetary system. They act as intermediaries between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector promoting an orderly flow of funds between the Government and the banks. In return for acting as intermediaries the discount houses have privileged daily access to the Bank of England as lender of last resort..in Britain developed from the London gold miths of the 17th century. By the 1920s and the 1930s there were five large clearing banks with a network across the country. In February 1996 there were 539 institutions authorized under the Banking. Act of 1987. In British banking retail banks should be described as dominant.banks primarily serve personal customers and small to medium-sized businesses. They operate through more than 11.350 branchers offering cash deposits withdrawl facilities and systems for transferring funds. They provide current accounts, deposit accounts various types of loan arrangements and a growing range of financial services.main banks in England and Wales are Barklays, Lloyds, Midland, National Westminter and the TSB group. The major Scottish banks are the Bank of Scotland, Clydesdale and Royal Bank of Scotland.a relaxation of restrictions on competition among financial institutions major banks have diversified the services they provide. They have lent more money for house purchases, have more interests in leasing and factoring companies, merchant banks, securities dealers, insurance and trust companies. They provide low facilities to industrial companies ands now support a loan guarantee scheme under which 70% of the value of loans to small companies is guaranteed by the Government.card technology has revolutionized cash transfer and payments systems. There are around ninety two million plastic cards in circulation in Britain. There are different types of cards but they often combine functions. Cards can be used overseas too to obtain cash from bank ATM ( Automated Teller Machines). Cash machine cards have greatly improved customers' access to cash. All retail banks and building societies participate in nation wide networks of ATMs. About two thirds of cash now is obtained through Britain's twenty one thousand ATMs. .A lot of them are located different places at supermarkets, for instance.banks offer electronic payment of cheques, telephone banking, under which customers use a telephone to obtain account information, make transfers or pay bills. Other innovations include computer-based banking (through home computer) services over Internet and video links.banks.traditional role of merchant banks was to accept bills of exchange, to provide funds for trade and also to raise capital to British companies through the issue of bonds and other securities. These activities continue, but the role of Britain's merchant banks has diversified enormously in recent years. Although they are called banks they are more involved in providing a range of professional services, such as corporate finance and investment management, than in lending money.societies.societies are mutual institutions owned by their savers and borrowers. They have traditionally concentrated on housing finance, long-term mortgage loans against property - most usually houses purchased for occupation. Services have been extended into other areas, including banking, investment services and insurance. The Societies are one of the main places were people deposit their savings - around 60% of adults have a building society saving accounts. Building societies offer a variety of accounts with interest rates related to the time for which a saver is prepared to tie up his money. So they are major lenders for house purchases. Four of the largest Societies are planning to become banks. The largest Societies, the Halifax, Abbey National and Nationwide owe 45% of the total assets of the movement.Savings Bank.National Savings Bank is run by the department of National Savings. It provides a system of depositing and withdrawing savings at twenty thousand post offices around the country or by post. The National Savings Bank does not offer lending facilities. Its deposits are used to finance the Governments public sector needs.Institutions.investing institutions are those which collect savings and invest them into securities market and other long-term assets. The main investment institutions are insurance companies, pension funds, unit trusts and investment trusts. Together they make a vast resource of funds which are invested in securities and other assets. They own around 58% of British shares. The British insurance industry is highly sophisticated and serves millions of policyholders in Britain and overseas. Policyholders include governments, companies and individuals. The British insurance is the forth largest in the world and in proportion to its GDP is the highest in any country. There are 2 broad categories of insurance: long-term insurance for many years, such as life insurance, permanent health (medical) insurance; and general insurance for a year or less, which covers risks of damage, such as loss of property, accidents and short-term health insurance. In 1995 there were about 830 authorized to carry on insurance business in Britain. The industry as a whole employs some 207.000 people, plus about 126.000 are employed in activities related to insurance.'s is an incorporated society of private insurers in London. Originally it dealt with marine insurance. Today it deals with other classes of insurance, today it deals with other classes of insurance. Long-term life and financial guarantee business is not covered. Insurance brokers as intermediaries are a valuable part of the insurance market. Lloyd's insurance brokers play an important role in the Lloyd's market.of London Underwriters was formed in 1984 as an association for marine underwriters. Today it provides a market where member insurance companies transact marine, energy, commercial transport and aviation insurance business. The Institute issues combined policies in its own name on risks which are underwritten by member companies. About half of the 58 member companies are branches or subsidiaries of overseas companies.Funds.Funds collect savings Pension Funds collect savings from occupational pension schemes and personal pension schemes. Pension contributions are invested through intermediaries in securities and other investment markets. Pension fund have a become a major force in securities markets because they hold about 28% of the securities listed on the London Stock Exchange. Total Pension fund assets are very big. To protect them the Pensions Act was introduced in 1995 to increase confidence in the security of the funds.institutions.origin of the London Stock Exchange goes back to the coffee houses of the 17th century, where those who those who wished to invest or raise money bought and sold shares of joint-stock companies. Brokers later opened their own subscription rooms and in 1773 this was named the Stock Exchange. During the 19th century the Stock Exchange developed as the demand for capitol grew with Britain's Industrial Revolution. The Exchange also financed the construction of railways, bridges and dams across the world. Today it is one of a number of highly organized financial markets of the City. It provides trading platform and the means of raising capital for British and foreign companies, Government securities, eurobonds and depository receipts. Official list is the Exchanges main market, while AIM, the Exchanges new market is for smaller rapidly growing companies. It opened in 1995. Companies which apply for a listing on the Exchange must provide a full picture of their operations, i9ncluding their financial record, management and business prospects. If a company wants to join AIM the rules are less strict. Such companies include multimedia and high technology business.the Exchange has moved away from face-to-face dealing on the trading floor to system of dealing from member firms' offices. The quotations are displayed on electronic screen. Before 1986 only British companies were allowed to operate. In 1986 deregulation, known as the Big Bang allowed any foreign financial institution to participate in the London money market. Other changes involved a system under which negotiated commissions were allowed instead of fixed rates and dealers are permitted to trade in securities both as principals and as agents. Traditional retail stockbrokers are facing growing competition from operations running by large banks and building societies.Exchange has its administrative center in London, with regional offices in Belfast, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leads and Manchester.companies raise new capital on the London money market. The quiet-edged market, that is the market of Government shares, allows the Government to raise money by issuing stock through the Bank of England.Exchanges now going through a further period of change which has been described as the most significant period since The Big Bang.markets.'s money markets channel wholesale short-term funds between lenders and borrows. These operations are conducted by all the major banks and financial institutions. The Bank of England regulates the market. There is no physical market place; negotiations are conducted mostly by telephone or through automated dealing systems. The main financial instruments are CDs (Certificates of Deposit), bills of exchange, Treasury and local authority bills and short-term Government stocks.Futures and Traded Options.futures are legal contracts for the purchase or the sale of financial products, on a specified future date at a price agreed in the present. Trading and financial futures developed out of the numerous futures markets in commodities which originate from London's position as a port and from Britain's need to import food and raw material.are contracts which give the right to buy or sell financial instruments or physical commodities for a stated period at a predetermined price.futures and options are traded on the London International Futures and Option Exchange (LIFFE) which was established in 1982..Exchangesremains the principal international center for transactions in a large number of commodities, though the consignments themselves never pass through the ports of Britain. The need for close links with sources of finance, shipping and insurance services often determines the locations of these markets in the City of London. There are futures markets in cocoa, coffee, grains, rubber, sugar, pigmeat, potatoes there., oil for heating and petroleum are traded through the International Petroleum Exchange, Europe's only energy futures exchange., lead, zinc, nickel, aluminum, aluminum alloys and tin are treaded through the London Metal Exchange (LME), the world's largest non-ferrous base metals exchange.Baltic Exchange is the world's leading international shipping exchange. It contributed to 292 Mln pounds in net overseas earnings to Britain's balance of payments in 1995. Baltic dealers handle more than a half the world's bulk cargo, transportation of oil, ore, coal and grain. All Britain's agricultural futures markets are operated from the Baltic Exchange and physical trading and commodities is also carried out there.

  • 49. Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works
    Иностранные языки

    Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [1,89 ] Thus, when the noun sign shifts to the verb sign(ed) without any change in the word form we can say this is a case of conversion. However, it does not mean that this process takes place in all the cases of homophones [3, 68]. Sometimes, the connection has to do with coincidences or old etymological ties that have been lost. For example, mind and matter are cases of this grammatical sameness without connection by conversion-the verbs have nothing to do today with their respective noun forms in terms of semantics.is particularly common in English because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It is usually impossible in languages with grammatical genders, declensions or conjugations. [11, 43]status of conversion is a bit unclear. It must be undoubtedly placed within the phenomena of word-formation; nevertheless, there are some doubts about whether it must be considered a branch of derivation or a separate process by itself (with the same status as derivation or compounding). [5, 88]this undetermined position in grammar, some scholars assert that conversion will become even more active in the future because it is a very easy way to create new words in English. There is no way to know the number of conversions appearing every day in the spoken language, although we know this number must be high. As it is a quite recent phenomenon, the written evidence is not a fully reliable source. We will have to wait a little longer to understand its whole impact, which will surely increase in importance in the next decades.is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system. It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. Saying that, however, is saying very little because there are other types of word building in which new words are also formed without affixes (most compounds, contracted words, sound-imitation words, etc.). [3,150] the notion of conversion is to re-classification of secondary word classes within one part of speech, a phenomenon also called transposition.consists in making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. The new word has a meaning, which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it. It has also a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech. The term «conversion» first appeared in the book by Henry Sweet «New English Grammar» in 1891. Conversion is treated differently by different scientists, e.g. prof. A.I. Smirntitsky treats conversion as a morphological way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech by changing its paradigm, e.g. to form the verb «to dial» from the noun «dial» we change the paradigm of the noun (a dial,dials) for the paradigm of a regular verb (I dial, he dials, dialed, dialing). A. Marchand in his book The Categories and Types of Present-day English treats conversion as a morphological-syntactical word-building because we have not only the change of the paradigm, but also the change of the syntactic function, e.g. I need some good paper for my room. (The noun «paper» is an object in the sentence). I paper my room every year. (The verb «paper» is the predicate in the sentence) [1, 90]from the perhaps more obvious possibility to derive words with the help of affixes, there are a number of other ways to create new words on the basis of already existing ones. We have already illustrated these in the first chapter of this book, when we briefly introduced the notions of conversion, truncations, clippings, blends, and abbreviations. In this chapter we will have a closer look at these non-concatenative processes. We will begin with conversion. Conversion can be defined as the derivation of a new word without any overt marking. In order to find cases of conversion we have to look for pairs of words that are derivationally related and are completely identical in their phonetic realization.can be seen from the organization of the data, different types of conversion can be distinguished, in particular noun to verb, verb to noun, adjective to verb and adjective to noun. Other types can also be found, but seem to be more marginal (e.g. the use of prepositions as verbs, as in to down the can). Conversion raises three major theoretical problems that we will discuss in the following: the problem of directionality, the problem of zero-morphs and the problem of the morphology-syntax boundary. [11, 92]question of conversion has, for a long time, been a controversial one in several aspects. The essence of this process has been treated by a number of scholars (e. g. H. Sweet), not as a word-building act, but as a mere functional change. From this point of work the word hand in Hand me that book is not a verb, but a noun used in a verbal syntactical function, that is, hand (me) and hands (in She has small hands) are not two different words but one. Hence, the саsе cannot be treated as one of word-formation for no new word appears. [15,128]to this functional approach, conversion may be regarded as a specific feature of the English categories of parts of speech, which are supposed to be able to break through the rigid borderlines dividing one category from another thus enriching the process of communication not by the creation of new words but through the sheer flexibility of the syntactic structures.this theory finds increasingly fewer supporters, and conversion is universally accepted as one of the major ways of enriching English vocabulary with new words. One of the major arguments for this approach to conversion is the semantic change that regularly accompanies each instance of conversion. Normally, a word changes its syntactic function without any shift in lexical meaning. E. g. both in yellow leaves and in the leaves were turning yellow the adjective denotes color. Yet, in the leaves yellowed the converted unit no longer denotes color, but the process of changing color, so that there is an essential change in meaning. The change of meaning is even more obvious in such pairs as hand - to hand, face - to face, to go - a go, to make -»a make, etc. [15,180]two categories of parts of speech especially affected by conversion are nouns and verbs. Verbs made from nouns are the most numerous amongst the words produced by conversion: e. g. to hand, to back, to face, to eye, to mouth, to nose, to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to can, to coal, to stage, to screen, to room, to floor, to blackmail, to blacklist, to honeymoon, and very many others.are frequently made from verbs: do (e. g. This is the queerest do I've ever come across. Do - event, incident), go (e. g. He has still plenty of go at his age. Go - energy), make, run, find, catch, cut, walk, worry, show, move, etc.can also be made from adjectives: to pale, to yellow, to cool, to grey, to rough (e. g. We decided to rough it in the tents as the weather was warm), etc.can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings because of that, e.g.) Verbs have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting parts of a human body e.g. to eye, to finger, to elbow, to shoulder etc. They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.g. to hammer, to machine-gun, to rifle, to nail,) Verbs can denote an action characteristic of the living being denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to crowd, to wolf, to ape,) Verbs can denote acquisition, addition or deprivation if they are formed from nouns denoting an object, e.g. to fish, to dust, to peel, to paper,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the place denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to park, to garage, to bottle, to corner, to pocket,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the time denoted by the noun from which they have been converted e.g. to winter, to week-end. [11, 94]can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e.g. to tame (to become or make tame), to clean, to slim etc. Nouns can also be formed by means of conversion from verbs.nouns can denote:) instant of an action e.g. a jump, a move,) process or state e.g. sleep, walk,) agent of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a help, a flirt, a scold,) object or result of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a burn, a find, a purchase,) place of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a drive, a stop, a walk. Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentaneous actions. In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as: to have, to get, to take etc., e.g. to have a try, to give a push, to take a swim. [10, 95]frequent but also quite possible is conversion from form words to nouns. e. g. He liked to know the ins and outs. Shant go into the whys and wherefores. He was familiar with ups and downs of life. Use is even made of affixes. Thus, ism is a separate word nowadays meaning a set of ideas or principles, e. g. Freudism, existentialism and all the other -isms.all the above examples the change of paradigm is present and helpful for classifying the newly coined words as cases of conversion. But it is not absolutely necessary, because conversion is not limited to such parts of speech which possess a paradigm. That, for example, may be converted into an adverb in informal speech: I was that hungry I could have eaten a horse. [3,189]speaker realizes the immense potentiality of making a word into another part of speech when the need arises. One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e. g. love, n. - to love, v.; work, n. - to work, v.; drink, n. - to drink, v., etc.) which did, not occur due to conversion but coincided as a result of certain historical processes (dropping of endings, simplification of stems) when before that they had different forms. On the other hand, it is quite true that the first cases of conversion (which were registered n the 14th c.) imitated such pairs of words as love, n. - to love, v. for they were numerous in the vocabulary and were subconsciously accepted by native speakers as one of the typical language patterns [6, 167]

  • 50. Continental legal system
    Иностранные языки

    M. N in his work defines the general sources of the right for the legal systems, which are entered into Romano-German a legal family:legal acts led by the law.Romano-German countries of a legal family, it is considered that for the lawyer the best way of an establishment of the fair decision corresponding to the right is the reference to the law.in judgements the importance of the law in the romano-German legal system becomes obvious that to the judge in decision-making the supporting role is taken away. Actions of the judge here is better are defined by the term "submission to the law, i.e. his tusk is reduced to search and application of that rule of law which in the best way describes a disputable situation. all countries of the romano-German legal family there are hand-written constitutions behind which norms the higher legal authority expressed and admits in establishment of judicial control over constitutionality .to V.Knappa, some countries have refused judicial control over constitutionality of laws, for example the Netherlands, France where it was promoted by the reasons historical matters.estimate the practical importance of judicial control over constitutionality of laws, it is necessary to consider various factors. So, scales of this control it is, less, if the constitution concerns the category nonrigid, rather easily changed. These scales will be less and in those countries where the right to suspend the constitution is given executive power. Told concerns many countries of Africa and America. the majority of the continental countries are accepted and operate civil (either civil or trading), criminal, grazhdansko-remedial, criminally-remedial and some other codes. concept of norms accepted in a legislative order recognizes that in this system of norms containing the norms not only in certificates, accepted by a legislature, but also in the certificates proceeding from executive - administrative and administrative bodies. various countries of the Romano-German right character and the name of certificates far aren't identical. For example into France except laws in system of is standard - legal certificates enter the certificates published according to item 37 of the Constitution of France, on questions, not entering into legislation sphere. Besides to a kind of sources of the right concern ordonances- certificates Constitutions of France accepted according to item 38 the government (Ministerial council), Constitutions of the states of the European Union. According to item 76 of the Constitution of Italy legislative decreets concern system of regulatory legal acts. Also the decreets of the president which are valid the law, and regulations concern system of regulatory legal acts in Italy.- the rule of the behavior which has developed on the basis of constant and uniform repetition of given actual relationscustom rare enough in the Romano-German right, in own way the unique phenomenon which not only isn't welcomed understandably, but, on the contrary, is in every possible way limited, and in some national systems legislatively it is forbidden. a whole position of custom in Romano-German system it is right rather originally.can operate not only in addition to the law, but also except the law. Situations when the custom occupies position against the law (for example, in the navigating right of Italy where the sea custom prevails over norm of the Civil code) are possible. the custom has lost character of an independent source of the right on right Romano-German modern development.practice, judicial precedentsis such legally significant behavior of the power which took place at least one only time, but can be an example for the subsequent behavior of this power. Differently, legal precedent is a decision юрисдикционных and administrative bodies on concrete business which is accepted subsequently to the general obligatory rule at the permission of similar affairs. judgement based, for example, on analogy of the law or on the general principles, can be perceived by other courts after decision passage through cassation instance as actual precedent.researchers give particular attention to the granted kind of a source of the right.is caused, on the one hand, by the practical importance of precedent as source of the continental right, and with another - discrepancy, is more exact - uncertainty of its position, a place and a role of system of other sources of the roman-German right. same Marchenko M. N allocates three groups. The first group includes the countries which completely support precedent. In other legal systems precedent isn't perceived at all. And in the third group - Romano-German to system precedent takes rather uncertain place in right sources.precedent as one of right sources first of all it is necessary to pay attention, on historically developed in Romano's countries - the German right rather inconsistent traditions and customs. international contractsdevelopment of international communications the great value for systems of the right of the separate countries gets international law. In some states the big validity, than to internal laws is given to the international contracts. The constitution of Germany (1949) For example, establishes that the general norms of international law have advantage before laws and directly generate the rights and duties for inhabitants of federal territory (item 25). to interpretation of norms international the contract that it can be carried to the competence of supranational jurisdictions. In these cases at serious doubts in how such contract should be interpreted, national court it is necessary to refuse its interpretation. The state of affairs with Roman and Parisian contracts by which in 1951 and 1957 different European communities have been created is that. doctrineRomano - the German right the term the doctrine is used widely enough. In Marchenko's work as the doctrine understands the following: as the doctrine, the filosofsko-legal theory; as opinions of scientists-lawyers on those or other questions, concerning essence and the maintenance of various legal certificates, on questions of lawcreation and lawunderstanding; as proceedings of the most authoritative researchers in the field of the state and the right; in the form of comments of the various codes, separate laws, the annotated versions» (models) of various regulatory legal acts.doctrine develops receptions and methods of an establishment, interpretation and right realization. Besides creators be right can't be free from influence of legal doctrines: more or it is less realized, but it should take the part this or that legal concept, to perceive its offers and V.K.Babayev's recommendation. the countries of the romano-German legal family as it is possible to allocate the simple administrative circulars, specifying as the administration understands the rule of law and as she intends to apply it. Administrative officials frequently know the right only under office instructions which they receive in the form of circulars; and more often they prefer to be limited to these instructions not to have troubles from the higher heads.

  • 51. Crisler Corporation. Senior thesis

    The Daimler-Chrysler merger is one of the few examples when the merger benefits the competitiveness of the market. Chrysler Corporation manufactures lower-range trucks, minivans, and sport utilities, when Daimler-Benz majors in high-priced vehicles. No significant overlap in production will take place. Since both of the companies specialize in different areas, neither of them will have to give up on some of their production. “There was no real overlap in products they filled in each others blank spaces” said David Cole, the head of the University of Michigans Office for the Study of Automotive Transportation. In turn, this meant that there will be no decrease in competition in the market place, which is one of the main concerns of the Federal Trade Commission when a merger takes place. (In a horizontal merger, the acquisition of a competitor could increase market concentration and increase the likelihood of collusion. The elimination of head-to-head competition between two leading firms may result in unilateral anticompetitive effects).

  • 52. CRM-система как инструмент повышения эффективности бизнеса на примере АНО ДООЦ "Алые паруса"

    Авторизованный вход У каждого пользователя в системе свой пароль и свои права доступа "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1106> Авторизованный вход У каждого пользователя в системе свой пароль и свои права доступа Главное окно Из главного окна есть быстрый доступ к наиболее часто используемым модулям (панель слева): * Клиенты (управление клиентами) * Календарь (распорядок дня) * Работы (анализ продаж) * Пакеты (отправка информации по почте) * Отчеты (отчеты по продажам) * База знаний (база знаний для службы поддержки и сервиса) * Воронка (воронка продаж) "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1107>Главное окно Из главного окна есть быстрый доступ к наиболее часто используемым модулям (панель слева): * Клиенты (управление клиентами) * Календарь (распорядок дня) * Работы (анализ продаж) * Пакеты (отправка информации по почте) * Отчеты (отчеты по продажам) * База знаний (база знаний для службы поддержки и сервиса) * Воронка (воронка продаж) Список клиентов Список всех ваших клиентов. Если клиентов много - используйте фильтр. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1100>Список клиентов Список всех ваших клиентов. Если клиентов много - используйте фильтр. Фильтр компаний С помощью простого фильтра вы можете искать (фильтровать) клиентов по любым критериям. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1101> Фильтр компаний С помощью простого фильтра вы можете искать (фильтровать) клиентов по любым критериям. Карточка компании Полная информация по каждой компании в одном месте: * История контактов и планы * Контактные лица * Продукты и услуги, которые купил клиент * Работы, проведенные с клиентом (процессы продаж). Здесь же можно посмотреть общую задолженность клиента. * Договоры заключенные с клиентом или партнером * Информационные материалы отправленные клиенту по электронной почте * Группы, в которые входит клиент (общие и персональные) * Контактные лица, работающие у клиента (с телефонами, должностями, днями рождения и т.д.) * Банковские реквизиты * Дополнительные поля, которые вы добавляете сами "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1102>Карточка компании Полная информация по каждой компании в одном месте: * История контактов и планы * Контактные лица * Продукты и услуги, которые купил клиент * Работы, проведенные с клиентом (процессы продаж). Здесь же можно посмотреть общую задолженность клиента. * Договоры заключенные с клиентом или партнером * Информационные материалы отправленные клиенту по электронной почте * Группы, в которые входит клиент (общие и персональные) * Контактные лица, работающие у клиента (с телефонами, должностями, днями рождения и т.д.) * Банковские реквизиты * Дополнительные поля, которые вы добавляете сами Карточка работы Каждый процесс продажи описывается в диалоге "Работа". Здесь указывается такая важная информация как: * Причина начала работы (выставки, реклама в интернет...). Вы же спрашиваете "Как вы о нас узнали?". * Дата начала и окончания - показывает когда началась работа с клиентом и когда закончилась. * Этапы - каждый процесс продаж можно разбить на этапы. У каждого этапа может быть свой ответственный менеджер и сроки. * Продукты и услуги - список продуктов и услуг, которые собирается купить клиент. * Оплата - деньги, которые заплатил клиент за продукты и услуги. * Документы 1С - список документов, которые участвовали в этой продаже. * Долг - долг клиент по данной работе. Если продажа заканчивается отказом (клиент отказался), то указывается причина отказа и этап, на котором произошел отказ. Эта информация очень важна! "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1103>Карточка работы Каждый процесс продажи описывается в диалоге "Работа". Здесь указывается такая важная информация как: * Причина начала работы (выставки, реклама в интернет...). Вы же спрашиваете "Как вы о нас узнали?". * Дата начала и окончания - показывает когда началась работа с клиентом и когда закончилась. * Этапы - каждый процесс продаж можно разбить на этапы. У каждого этапа может быть свой ответственный менеджер и сроки. * Продукты и услуги - список продуктов и услуг, которые собирается купить клиент. * Оплата - деньги, которые заплатил клиент за продукты и услуги. * Документы 1С - список документов, которые участвовали в этой продаже. * Долг - долг клиент по данной работе. Если продажа заканчивается отказом (клиент отказался), то указывается причина отказа и этап, на котором произошел отказ. Эта информация очень важна! Карточка работы - этапы Каждая процесс продаж можно разбить на отдельные этапы. У каждого этапа свой ответственный менеджер, сроки. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1108>Карточка работы - этапы Каждая процесс продаж можно разбить на отдельные этапы. У каждого этапа свой ответственный менеджер, сроки. Карточка работы - продукты Список продуктов, которые покупает клиент и деньги, которые клиент заплатил за них. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1109>Карточка работы - продукты Список продуктов, которые покупает клиент и деньги, которые клиент заплатил за них. Календарь - Что нужно делать, когда приходишь на работу или планируешь очередную встречу? - Открывать ежедневник. Лучше электронный. Что позволяет модуль календарь: * Смотреть свои планы на сегодня. * Не только на сегодня. * Не только свои. * Анализировать контакты с клиентами. - Вы знаете сколько раз вы встречались с клиентами в прошлом месяце? - Теперь будете знать! "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1110>Календарь - Что нужно делать, когда приходишь на работу или планируешь очередную встречу? - Открывать ежедневник. Лучше электронный. Что позволяет модуль календарь: * Смотреть свои планы на сегодня. * Не только на сегодня. * Не только свои. * Анализировать контакты с клиентами. - Вы знаете сколько раз вы встречались с клиентами в прошлом месяце? - Теперь будете знать! Отчеты - настройка Строить отчеты не просто, а очень просто. И очень быстро. Какие отчеты позволяет строить этот модуль: * В разных разрезах (по продавцам, по продуктам, по регионам, по клиентам и т.д.) * Указать перион времени (за месяц, за квартал, за год, укажите любой период времени) * Динамика (любой отчет можно разбить на интервалы: декада, месяц, квартал, год) * В деньгах и по количеству * В рублях и в долларах (названия валют можно изменить) * Различные графики и диаграммы. * Дополнительные ограничения (на любой отчет можно наложить дополнительные ограничения). "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1111>Отчеты - настройка Строить отчеты не просто, а очень просто. И очень быстро. Какие отчеты позволяет строить этот модуль: * В разных разрезах (по продавцам, по продуктам, по регионам, по клиентам и т.д.) * Указать перион времени (за месяц, за квартал, за год, укажите любой период времени) * Динамика (любой отчет можно разбить на интервалы: декада, месяц, квартал, год) * В деньгах и по количеству * В рублях и в долларах (названия валют можно изменить) * Различные графики и диаграммы. * Дополнительные ограничения (на любой отчет можно наложить дополнительные ограничения). Отчеты - таблица Табличный вид отчета "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1104>Отчеты - таблица Табличный вид отчета Отчеты - круговая диаграмма Отчет в виде круговой диаграммы "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1105>Отчеты - круговая диаграмма Отчет в виде круговой диаграммы Отчеты - гистограмма Отчет виде гистограммы "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1112>Отчеты - гистограмма Отчет виде гистограммы База знаний База знаний особенно полезна службе сервиса и поддержки клиентов. Здесь можно быстро найти ответ на нужный вопрос. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1113>База знаний База знаний особенно полезна службе сервиса и поддержки клиентов. Здесь можно быстро найти ответ на нужный вопрос. Воронка продаж Воронка продаж наглядно показывает, сколько идет продаж и на каких этапах они находятся. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1114>Воронка продаж Воронка продаж наглядно показывает, сколько идет продаж и на каких этапах они находятся. Права доступа Каждый пользователь в системе имеет свои права доступа. Например, каждый менеджер по продажам видит только своих клиентов, а руководитель видит всех. Хоть это и не правильно (менеджеры по продажам должны видеть всю базу), но для многих это важно. Для удобства, можно копировать права с одного пользователя, на другого. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1115>Права доступа Каждый пользователь в системе имеет свои права доступа. Например, каждый менеджер по продажам видит только своих клиентов, а руководитель видит всех. Хоть это и не правильно (менеджеры по продажам должны видеть всю базу), но для многих это важно. Для удобства, можно копировать права с одного пользователя, на другого. Настройка справочников Все справочники, которые есть в программе, настраиваются. "> <http://www.crmpartner.ru/products/qs2/screenshots/picshow.php?picID=1116>Настройка справочников Все справочники, которые есть в программе, настраиваются.

  • 53. CRM-система как средство эффективного управления фирмой (на примере ЗАО "Сибтехнология")

    № п/пНазвание показателяФормула расчетаНазначение1. Имущественное положение1.1.Доля основных средств в совокупной стоимости активовСтоимость ОС / Суммарная стоимость активовАнализ потенциала хозяйственного развития предприятия1.2.Доля активной части основных средств(Стоимость оборудования + Стоимость транспортных средств) / Суммарная стоимость активовАнализ производственного потенциала предприятия1.3.Коэффициент износа (Коэффициент накопления амортизации)Износ ОС и НМА / Первоначальная стоимость ОС и НМААнализ стоимости ОС и НМА, уже списанных на себестоимость1.4.Коэффициент годностиТекущая балансовая стоимость ОС и НМА / Первоначальная стоимость ОС и НМААнализ стоимости ОС и НМА, предназначенной для списания в будущих периодах1 - Коэффициент износа1.5.Коэффициент выбытия ОССтоимость выбывших за период ОС / Стоимость ОС на начало периодаАнализ ОС, выбывающих по ветхости и иным причинам1.6.Коэффициент обновления ОССтоимость поступивших за период ОС / Стоимость ОС на конец периодаАнализ того, насколько быстро обновляются (модернизируются) ОС предприятия2. Ликвидность и платежеспособность2.1.Коэффициент текущей ликвидности (Коэффициент покрытия)Оборотные активы / Текущие обязательстваАнализ общей ликвидности активов2.2.Коэффициент быстрой ликвидности(Денежные средства + Дебиторская задолженность) / Текущие обязательстваАнализ ликвидности с учетом только наиболее быстрореализуемых активов2.3.Коэффициент (немедленной) абсолютной ликвидностиДенежные средства + Краткосрочные финансовые вложения / Текущие обязательстваАнализ средств, которыми немедленно можно погасить обязательства2.4.Доля собственных средств в покрытии запасовСобственные оборотные средства (средние за период) / Стоимость товаров и запасов (средняя за период)Оценка величины стоимости запасов, покрываемой за счет собственных средств предприятия2.5.Доля чистого оборотного капитала(Текущие активы - Текущие пассивы) / Суммарная стоимость активовОценка активов, необремененных долгами2.6.Маневренность собственных оборотных средств (Маневренность функционирующего капитала)Денежные средства / Собственные оборотные средстваОценка доли абсолютно ликвидного актива (денег) в общей величине2.7.Доля собственных оборотных средств в покрытии запасовСобственные оборотные средства / Стоимость товаров и запасовОценка доли запасов, стоимость которых покрывается из собственных средств2.8.Коэффициент покрытияТекущие активы / Текущие обязательстваОценка соотношения оборотных средств предприятия и его текущих (краткосрочных) обязательств, которые предполагается покрыть из оборотных средств2.9.Коэффициент покрытия запасов(Оплаченный собственный капитал - Убытки + Долгосрочные заемные средства - (Долгосрочные финансовые вложения + Долгосрочная дебиторская задолженность) + Краткосрочные заемные средства + Краткосрочная кредиторская задолженность + Авансы полученные) / Стоимость товаров и запасовОценка соотношения стоимости товаров и запасов с источниками финансирования, непосредственно предназначенными для покрытия товаров и запасов2.10.Коэффициент оборота дебиторской задолженностиОбъем продаж (по стоимости) / Средняя сумма дебиторской задолженностиОпределение величины выручки, которую «обслужила» одна денежная единица дебиторской задолженности за период2.11.Средний период сбора дебиторской задолженностиСредняя сумма дебиторской задолженности / Средняя сумма ежедневных продаж в кредитОпределение периода, в течение которого в среднем погашается дебиторская задолженность предприятия3. Финансовая устойчивость3.1.Коэффициент концентрации собственного капиталаСобственный капитал / Суммарная стоимость активовОценка вклада собственного капитала в формирование активов предприятия3.2.Доля заемного капитала в общей сумме средствДолгосрочные обязательства + Текущие обязательства / Суммарная стоимость активовОценка вклада заемного капитала в формирование активов предприятия1 - Коэффициент концентрации собственного капитала3.3.Коэффициент финансовой зависимости (Финансовый рычаг)Суммарная стоимость активов / Собственный капиталОценка стоимости активов, приходящихся на одну денежную единицу собственного капитала1 / Коэффициент концентрации собственного капитала3.4.Коэффициент маневренности собственного капиталаОборотные средства / Собственный капиталОценка стоимости оборотных средств, приходящихся на одну денежную единицу собственного капитала3.5.Соотношение собственных и привлеченных средствДолгосрочные обязательства + Текущие обязательства / Собственный капиталОценка соотношения собственных и заемных средств3.6.Доля долгосрочных обязательств в инвестиционном капиталеДолгосрочные обязательства / Долгосрочные обязательства + Собственный капиталОпределение доли долгосрочных обязательств в общей сумме средств, которыми располагает предприятие3.7.Коэффициент структуры долгосрочных вложенийСтоимость внеоборотных активов / Долгосрочные обязательстваОценка вклада долгосрочных обязательств в формирование внеоборотных активов4. Рентабельность4.1.Рентабельность собственного капитала (ROE - Return on Equity)Чистая прибыль / Собственный капиталОценка величины прибыли, приходящейся на одну денежную единицу собственного капиталаРентабельность продаж × Оборачиваемость активов × Коэффициент финансовой зависимости(Чистая прибыль / Выручка от реализации) × (Выручка от реализации / Суммарная стоимость активов) × (Суммарная стоимость активов / Собственный капитал)4.2.Рентабельность активов (Возврат (отдача) на инвестиции, ROI - Return on Investments)Чистая прибыль / Суммарная стоимость активовОценка величины прибыли, приходящейся на одну денежную единицу стоимости активовРентабельность продаж х Оборачиваемость активов(Чистая прибыль / Выручка от реализации) × (Выручка от реализации / Суммарная стоимость активов)4.3.Рентабельность затратЧистая прибыль / Себестоимость реализованной продукцииОценка величины прибыли, порожденной одной денежной единицей затрат4.4.Рентабельность продажЧистая прибыль / Объем продаж (в стоимостном выражении)Оценка величины прибыли, порожденной одной денежной единицей выручки от реализации4.5.Норма торговой наценки (маржи)Торговая наценка / Объем продаж (в стоимостном выражении)Оценка доли торговой наценки, содержащейся в одной денежной единице выручки от реализации5. Эффективность использования активов5.1.ФондоотдачаВыручка от реализации / Стоимость внеоборотных активовОпределение величины выручки, порожденной за период одной денежной единицей стоимости внеоборотных активов5.2.Производственная фондоотдачаВыручка от реализации / Стоимость технологического оборудованияОпределение величины выручки, порожденной за период одной денежной единицей стоимости производственного (технологического) оборудования5.3.Оборачиваемость активовВыручка от реализации / Суммарная стоимость активовОпределение величины выручки, порожденной за период одной денежной единицей стоимости всех активов6. Маржинальный анализ6.1.Точка безубыточности (в натуральном выражении)Совокупные постоянные затраты / Удельный маржинальный доходВычисление количества единиц продукции, реализация которого покроет все затраты предприятия, но еще не принесет ему прибыли6.2.Точка безубыточности (в стоимостном выражении)Совокупные постоянные затраты / Коэффициент маржинального дохода (Коэффициент вклада на покрытие)Вычисление выручки от реализации, покрывающей все затраты предприятия, но еще неприносящей ему прибыли6.3.Коэффициент маржинального дохода (Коэффициент вклада на покрытие)Маржинальный доход (Вклад на покрытие) / Выручка от реализацииОценка доли объема продаж, идущей на покрытие постоянных затрат (с последующим формированием прибыли)1 - (Совокупные переменные затраты / Выручка от реализации)6.4.Запас финансовой прочности(Выручка от реализации - Точка безубыточности) / Выручка от реализации × 100%Оценка возможного сокращения объемов продаж до достижения точки безубыточности6.5.Индекс безубыточности(Выручка от реализации - Точка безубыточности) / Точка безубыточности × 100%Оценка объема продаж, превышающего точку безубыточности6.6.Операционный рычаг (Операционный леверидж)Вклад на покрытие / Балансовая прибыльОценка относительного изменения прибыли при изменении выручки (объемов продаж) на 1% (оценка уровня предпринимательского риска)7. «Золотое» правило экономики предприятия7.1.Темп изменения прибыли(Прибыль текущего периода - Прибыль прошлого периода) / Прибыль прошлого периода × 100 %Определение прироста прибыли в текущем периоде относительно прибыли прошлого периода7.2.Темп изменения выручки(Выручка текущего периода - Выручка прошлого периода) / Выручка прошлого периода × 100 %Определение прироста выручки (объемов продаж) в текущем периоде относительно выручки (объемов продаж) прошлого периода7.3.Темп изменения активов(Стоимость активов в текущем периоде - Стоимость активов в прошлом периоде) / Стоимость активов в текущем периоде × 100 %Определение прироста стоимости активов (имущества) в текущем периоде относительно стоимости активов (имущества) прошлого периода7.4.Выполнение «золотого» правилаПроверка, выполняется ли условие: Темп изменения прибыли > Темп изменения выручки > Темп изменения активов > 100%Оценка эффективности использования активов и управления затратами предприятияПриложение 6. Описание этапов бизнес-процесса «Продажи»

  • 54. Cultural Values
  • 55. Cистема Aлор-Трейд

    Ïðîôèëàêòèêå ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûõ çàáîëåâàíèé ñïîñîáñòâóåò ïðàâèëüíàÿ îðãàíèçàöèÿ òðóäà è îòäûõà â øóìíûõ ïîìåùåíèÿõ. Íå ñëåäóåò äîïóñêàòü âîçäåéñòâèÿ øóìà â òå÷åíèå áîëåå 50-65 % ðàáî÷åãî âðåìåíè. Ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåìîå ìåñòî äëÿ îòäûõà íåîáõîäèìî èçîëèðîâàòü îò øóìà. Ïðè ïðåâûøåíèè íîðì ïî øóìó ðàáîòàþùèõ ïîäâåðãàþò ïåðèîäè÷åñêèì ìåäèöèíñêèì îñìîòðàì. Ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè íàðóøåíèé çäîðîâüÿ íåîáõîäèì ïåðåâîä íà äðóãóþ ðàáîòó.

  • 56. Cистема организации расчетов

    образца и развитии вексельного обращения” от 26 сентября 1994 г. № 1094.

    1. Письмо Министерства финансов Российской Федерации “О порядке отражения в бухгалтерском учете и отчетности операций с векселями, применяемыми при расчетах между предприятиями за поставку товаров, выполненные работы и оказанные услуги” от 31 октября 1994 г. № 142.
    2. Бакаев А.С. О реформировании национального бухгалтерского учета /Бухгалтерский учет/.1996, №1,
    3. Барановский Н.Т., Васькин Ф.И. Автоматизированная обработка экономической информации. М.: Финансы и статистика, 1994.-364 с.
    4. Бачурин А. Условия экономического роста. / Экономист./ 1998,№2, с12.
    5. Бугера М. Башкортостан с высоты белокаменной стены. / Экономика и управление/. 1997, №4, с157.
    6. Булатова А. С. Экономика. М.: Бек. 1994,341 с.
    7. Волохов А.В., Равкин Д.А. Вексель и вексельное обращение в России. - М.: Учебный центр Банкцентр,1994, -287с.
    8. Гудков Ф.А., Макеев А.В. Расчеты и долги предприятий. - М.: Концерн Банковский Деловой Центр, 1997,-160с.
    9. Дадашев А.З., Черник Д.Г. Финансовая система России. - М.: ИНФРА-М,1997.- 248с.
    10. Дробозина Л.А., Констонтинова Ю.Н., Окунева Л.П. и др. Общая теория финансов. - М.: Банки и биржи, 1995.-256с.
    11. Ковалев В.В. Финансовый анализ: Управление капиталом. Выбор инвестиций. Анализ отчетности. М.: Финансы и статистика, 1996.
    12. Лебедев К. Понятие, правовой режим и механизм реализации дебиторской задолженности / Хозяйство и право/, 1999. №4. С.36.
    13. Лебедев К. Понятие, состав и правовой режим кредиторской задолженности / Хозяйство и право/, 1998, №11, с.30.
    14. Макеев А.Л. Кризис неплатежей: пути преодоления /Экономика и жизнь/,
  • 57. Cистема управления персоналом ООО "ТД Купец"

    Признаки методов управленияГруппы методов управленияметоды принужденияметоды побужденияметоды убеждения1. Общепринятое название группы методов, примерно соответствующей новой группеАдминистративныеЭкономическиеСоциально- психологические2. Субстанция методовДиректива, дисциплинаОптимизация мотивовПсихология, социология3. Цель управленияВыполнение законов, директив, плановДостижение конкурентоспособности выпускаемых объектовДостижение взаимопонимания4. Структура управленияЖесткаяАдаптивная к ситуациямАдаптивная к личности5. Форма собственности, где преимущественно применяются методыГосударственнаяКорпоративная, частная, государственная и д.р.Частная6. Субъект воздействияКоллектив, индивидуумИндивидуумИндивидуум7. Форма воздействияПри помощи нормативно-методических документовМотивацияУправление социально- психологическими процессами8. Основное требование к субъекту при применении методовИсполнительность, организованностьПрофессионализм в данной областиПсихологическая устойчивость личности9. Потребности, на удовлетворение которых нацелены методыФизиологические, обеспечение безопасностиФизиологическиеВсе потребности10. Тип организационной структуры, для которой в наибольшей мере приемлемы данные методыЛинейная, функциональнаяПроблемно-целевая, матричнаяБригадная11. Преимущественное направление управляющего воздействияСверху внизВертикальное (сверху вниз и снизу вверх)Вертикальное и горизонтальное12. Уровень иерархии управления, где преимущественно применяются методыВысший и среднийВысший, средний, низшийНизший13. Характер управленческой информацииКачественная, детерминированнаяКачественная, стохастическаяКомплексная (как фактор качества), стохастическая14. Стиль руководства, характерный для данной группы методовАвторитарныйСмешанныйДемократический15. Тип темперамента субъекта управления (руководителя), наиболее адекватный данной группе методовФлегматикСангвиникСангвиник16. То же относительно объекта управления (исполнителя)СангвиникФлегматик, холерикМеланхолик17. Тип чаше всего принимаемого управленческого решенияРешения, основанные на строгом соблюдении нормативно- методических документов и директивРешения, основанные на моделировании и комплексном обоснованииРешения, основанные на суждении, интуиции, опыте лица, принимающего их18. Конкретные методы и способы управления1. Государственное регулирование экономики. 2. Стандартизация и сертификация. 3. Мониторинг экосистемы. 4. Нормативно-методическое регулирование системы управления. 5. Планирование, учет и контроль1. Экономическое стимулирование. 2. Анализ затрат, качества и других параметров систем (фотография рабочего времени, хронометраж, анкетирование, тестирование, факторный анализ и др.). 3. Экономико- математическое моделирование. 4. Балансовые методы1. Мониторинг социально- психологических процессов. 2. Моделирование социально- психологических процессов. 3. Психотехнологии. 4. Моральное стимулирование19. Рекомендуемое соотношение применяемых методов (сумма равна 10)442

  • 58. Cистема управління зовнішньоекономічною діяльністю ЗАТ "Харків'янка"

    Законом України "Про економічну самостійність Української РСР" від 13 серпня 1990 р. встановлено, що Україна самостійно здійснює керівництво зовнішньоекономічною діяльністю, бере безпосередню участь у міжнародному поділі праці та розвиває економічне співробітництво з іншими державами на основі принципів зацікавлення, рівноправності й взаємної вигоди. Підприємства й організації мають право вступати в прямі господарські зв'язки та співробітничати з підприємствами та організаціями інших держав, створювати з ними спільні підприємства, асоціації, концерни, консорціуми, союзи, інші об'єднання [2]. Принципи зовнішньоекономічної діяльності і її державного регулювання закріплені у базовому законі "Про зовнішньоекономічну діяльність" від 16 квітня 1991 р [2]. Безпосереднє здійснення підприємствами зовнішньоекономічної діяльності регулюється державою в особі її органів, недержавних органів управління економікою (товарних, фондових, валютних бірж, торгових палат, асоціацій, спілок та інших організацій координаційного типу), самих суб'єктів зовнішньоекономічної діяльності на підставі відповідних координаційних угод, що укладаються між ними. Регулювання зовнішньоекономічної діяльності здійснюється для забезпечення збалансованості економіки та рівноваги внутрішнього ринку України, стимулювання прогресивних структурних змін в економіці та створення найсприятливіших умов для залучення економіки нашої держави до системи світового поділу праці та наближення її до ринкових структур розвинених країн світу. Для розвитку відзначених вище законів у наступні роки державні органи законодавчої і виконавчої влади України прийняли значну кількість нормативно-правових актів, спрямованих на врегулювання всіх напрямків зовнішньоекономічної діяльності, у тому числі торгівлі, науково-технічного співробітництва, сфери послуг, розрахункових, кредитних й інших банківських операцій. Розглянемо загальні функції державного регулювання, які логічно випливають з системи принципів ЗЕД, та їх розподіл між органами державного регулювання .

  • 59. Cистема электрификации колбасного цеха КФХ "Кондратенко Н.И."

    Электромонтажные работы следует выполнять, как правило, в две стадии. В первой стадии внутри зданий и сооружений производятся работы по монтажу опорных конструкций для установки электрооборудования и шинопроводов, для прокладки кабелей и проводов, монтажу троллеев для электрических мостовых кранов, монтажу стальных и пластмассовых труб для электропроводок, прокладке проводов скрытой проводки до штукатурных и отделочных работ, а также работы по монтажу наружных кабельных сетей и сетей заземления. Работы первой стадии следует выполнять в зданиях и сооружениях по совмещенному графику одновременно с производством основных строительных работ, при этом должны быть приняты меры по защите установленных конструкций и проложенных труб от поломок и загрязнений. Во второй стадии выполняются работы по монтажу электрооборудования, прокладке кабелей и проводов, шинопроводов и подключению кабелей и проводов к выводам электрооборудования.

  • 60. Cистемы налогообложения юридических лиц