Методическое пособие по предмету Иностранные языки

  • 1. Basic English
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Abilities and powers of man are increasing now. Technological progress allowed to use nuclear, chemical, laser, biological, and other machines and technologies instead of hand-operated and mechanical techniques. However, scientific and technological progress, as a rule, was separated from social progress. Such approach has let a man use the means negative consequences of which are globally destructive. 100 billion tons of minerals are mined annually, and more than 90% of them go in waste. Amount of oxygen, consumed by certain countries, already exceeds its manufacture by the plants of these countries. Tropical forests-main lungs of the Earth-is more than 40% felled. The speed of its felling is more than 20 hectares per minute. Almost one thousand of species of animals and 25 thousand species of plants are now under the threat of extinction. Recently medicine has aced the problems of worsening natural ecological conditions, chronic stresses, reduction of immunity, change of nutrition ration, and many other factors, unknown by now. Felling forests, pollution of environment by industrial waste and automobiles have already caused global warmth on the planet. Misuse of pesticides, mineral fertilizers, water pollution, impact of Chernobyl accident on the people-this is not a complete list of the factors determining dangerous changes in human organism and growth of diseases and death rate. Man is now using permissive principle and its trying to take everything from his life today. Mankind has driven itself into a dead-end… However, we still have an exit from it. The quality of mans life is impossible without solving ecological problems: preservation of genetic fund of flora and fauna, preservation of clean and productive natural environments (atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils, and forests), preservation of ozone. Only having realized that the reason of the ecological crisis which burst in the 20 century was lack of unity of Man and Nature, civilization can achieve progress.

    1. Language work:
    2. Translate from Ukrainian into English using the infinitive:
    3. Вона не чекала, що її син повернеться так рано.
    4. Вони хотіли, щоб я взяла участь у дискусії.
    5. Я не можу уявити тебе одягнутою в таку сукню.
    6. Ми не хочемо примушувати тебе жити тут.
    7. Ви винайдете новий метод.
    8. Постарайтесь примусити його пояснити, що відбувається в домі.
    9. Чарльз чекав, щоб двері відчинились.
    10. Ми бачили, що шторм наближається дуже швидко.
    11. Я чув, хтось грав на фортепіано в сусідній кімнаті.
    12. Я не можу дозволити, щоб таке сталось.
    13. Finish the sentences using the infinitive and translate the sentences into English:
    14. Dick is always the first (жалітися) when anything goes wrong.
    15. The captain was the last person (покидати) the sinking ship.
    16. Who was the last (пішов з) the building on Friday?
    17. Douglas isnt the man (залякати) easily.
    18. There is some packing (зробити).
    19. There was nothing (видно) in the passage.
    20. There is nothing (боятися).
    21. Ive got kids (турбуватися).
    22. He had no home (піти).
    23. Here is the problem for you (вирішити).
  • 2. Becoming of Great Britain
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Realising that he could not control Parliament, Charles next failed in his attempt to arrest Parliamentary leaders in the House of Commons itself. Because of this episode, the monarch was in future prohibited from entering the Commons. Today Black Rod, who is a royal ceremonial appointment, is a reminder of these constitutional changes. He knocks on the door of the Commons after it has been closed against him, in order to summon members of the Commons to the State Opening of Parliament. This is normally performed each autumn by the monarch in the House of Lords. 's rejection of developing political ideals provoked anger against the Crown, and eventually a Civil War broke out in 1642. The mainly Protestant Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell won the military struggle against the largely Catholic Royalists. Charles I was beheaded in 1649, the monarchy was abolished, and England was made a republic under the Cromwells (1649-59). During this republican period, Parliament consisted only of the House of Commons, which met every three years. , Cromwellian military rule was harsh and increasingly unpopular, so that most people wanted the restoration of the monarchy. The two Houses of Parliament were re-established, and in 1660 they restored the Stuart CharIes II to the throne. Initially Charles co-operated with Parliament, but eventually his financial needs, his belief in the divine right of kings to rule without opposition, and his support of the Catholic cause lost him popular and parliamentary backing. Parliament then ended his expensive wars; forced him to sign the Test Act of 1673, which excluded Catholics and Protestant dissenters from holding public office; and passed the Habeas Corpus Act in 1769, which stipulated that no citizen could be imprisoned without a fair and speedy trial.addition to this growing power of Parliament against the monarch, the seventeenth century also saw the beginning of more organized political parties. These derived largely from the ideological and religious conflicts of the Civil War. Two groups became dominant, and this feature was to characterize future British two-party politics, in which political power has shifted between two main parties. The Whigs were mainly Cromwellian Protestants and gentry, who refused to accept the Catholic James II as successor to Charles II, and who wanted religious freedom for all Protestants. The Tries generally supported royalist beliefs, and helped Charles II to secure James's right to succeed him.James's subsequent behaviour resulted in a further reduction of royal influence. He attempted to rule without Parliament, ignored its laws, and tried to repeal the Test Act. His manipulations eventually forced the Tories to join the Whigs in inviting the Protestant William of Orange to intervene. Supported by Dutch military help, William arrived in England in 1688, James fled to France, and William succeeded to the throne. Since no force was involved, this event has been called the Bloodless or Glorious Revolution. The 1688 changes considerably affected the British constitution and politics. William III became Britain's first constitutional monarch and, because of conditions imposed upon him, it was in future practically impossible for the monarch to reign without the consent of Parliament.series of Acts at this time laid the foundations for later political and constitutional developments. The Declaration of Rights in 1689 tried to establish basic civil liberties, and prevented the monarch from making laws or raising an army without Parliament's approval. The Act of Settlement in 1701 gave religious freedom to all Protestants, and stipulated that all future English monarchs had to be Protestant. A Triennial Act established that Parliament was to be called every three years.Glorious Revolution effectively abolished the monarch's claim to divine right. It also attempted to arrange a division of powers between an executive branch (the monarch through the government of the Privy Council); a legislative branch (both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch); and the judiciary (a legal body independent of monarch and Parliament). This division, in which the legislature was supposed to control the executive, evolved slowly into its modern counterparts.power continued to grow gradually in the early eighteenth century, initially because the German-born George I lacked interest in English affairs of state. He also mistrusted the Tories with their Catholic sympathies, and appointed Whig ministers such as Robert Walpole to his Privy Council. Eventually Walpole became Chief Minister, Leader of the Whig Party and head of the Whig majority in the House of Commons, which was now mainly composed of wealthy land and property owners. Walpole's resulting control of political power enabled him to increase parliamentary influence, and he has been called Britain's first Prime Minister. But such parliamentary authority was by no means absolute, and later monarchs sought a return to royal dominance. However, George III eventually lost much of his own and royal authority after the loss of the American colonies with their Revolution against Britain in 1775. He was obliged to appoint William Pitt the Younger as his Tory Chief Minister, and it was under Pitt that the office of Prime Minister really developed.although parliamentary control continued to grow in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, there was still no widespread democracy in Britain. Political authority was now in the hands of landowners and merchants in Parliament, and the vast majority of the people did not possess the vote. Bribery and corruption were common in this political atmosphere, with the buying of those votes which did exist and the giving away or sale of public offices. The Tories were against electoral reform, as were the Whigs initially. But the country was now rapidly increasing its population and developing industrially and economically, so that pressures for political reform became irresistible. The Whigs extended voting rights to the expanding middle class in the First Reform Act of 1832. The Tory Disraeli later gave the vote to men with property and a certain income. However, the large majority of the working class were still unrepresented in Parliament because they had no votes. It was only in 1884 that the Whig Gladstone gave the franchise to all male adults. But most women had to wait until 1928 for full voting rights to be established in Britain.main elements of modern British government developed somewhat haphazardly in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and were based on the 1688 revolution and its division of powers. Government ministers gradually became responsible to the House of Commons rather than to the monarch, and were mainly members of the Commons. A growing collective responsibility meant that they all shared joint responsibility for the policies and acts of government, in addition to their individual responsibility owed to Parliament for the organization of their ministries. The prime ministership developed from the monarch's Chief Minister to 'first among equals' and eventually to the leadership of all ministers. The central force of government was now the parliamentary Cabinet of senior ministers, which had grown out of the Privy Council and the monarch's Cabinet. The ministers and the government belonged to the majority party in the House of Commons. The largest minority party became the Official Opposition, striving by its party manifesto and its performance in the Commons and the country to become the next government chosen by the people.constitutional developments were aided by the growth of more sophisticated and organized political parties, in the nineteenth century, which were conditioned by changing social and economic factors. These produced the modern struggle between opposing ideologies as represented by the various political parties. The Tories, who also became known as the Conservatives I around 1830, had been a dominant force in British politics since the eighteenth century. They believed in established values and the preservation of traditions; supported business and commerce; had strong links with the Church of England and the professions; and were opposed to what they saw as radical ideas. The Whigs, however, were developing into a more progressive force. They wanted social reform and economic freedom without government restrictions. In the period following the parliamentary reforms of 1832, the Whigs were changing into what later became the Liberal Party. They were to create an enlightened programme of liberalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Liberal Party was a mixture of people and ideas, often held together by the principle of utilitarian reform (or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people).a significant feature of the early inter-war years after 1918 was the decline of the Liberal Party, from which it was unable to recover. The new Labour Party, formed in 1906, gradually became the main opposition party to the Conservatives, and continued the traditional two-party system in British politics. It grew rapidly and was supported by the trade unions, the majority of the working class, and some middle-class voters. The first Labour government was formed in 1924 under Ramsay MacDonald, but only achieved real majority power in 1945 under Clement Attlee. It then embarked on a radical programme of social and economic reforms, which were to lay the foundations of the modern corporate and welfare state. , in this lengthy period of changing political fortunes and the triumph of the House of Commons in the parliamentary sytem, gradual reforms had been made to the House of Lords. The Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, eventually removed much of the Lords' political authority, leaving them with only a slight delaying and amending power over parliamentary bills. They could no longer interfere with financial legislation. These reforms finally demonstrated that political and taxation matters were now decided by the members of the Commons as elected representatives of the people. Other subsequent Acts have allowed the creation of non-hereditary titles, which supplement the old arrangement in which most peerages were hereditary.new challenge to parliamentary sovereignty and the political tradition in Britain has arisen due to membership of the European Community (1973). Some legal powers have already been lost to Community institutions, so that Parliament is no longer the sole legislative body in Britain. Further functions will probably be transferred to the Community as it becomes more economically and politically integrated.constitutional frameworkhave been no revolutionary upheavals in the British system of government over the centuries, despite the Civil War and the 1688 changes. Rather, existing institutions have been pragmatically adapted to new conditions. There has likewise been no deliberate attempt to establish a rigidly defined constitution, so that Britain, unlike many other countries, has no written constitution contained in any one document. Instead, the British employ a mixture of statute law (Acts of Parliament); common law (ancient judge-made law); and conventions (or principles and practices of government which, although not legally binding, are generally accepted as having the force of law).Parliament is for most purposes still the supreme legislative authority, save for some European Community legislation law and institutions can be created or changed by a simple Act of Parliament relatively quickly. The common law can be extended by the judges in the legal process, and conventions can be altered, formed or abolished by general agreement. Once a problem has been solved satisfactorily in the British system, that solution tends to be used again in similar situations, and becomes a precedent to govern future actions. Precedents are vital devices in the operation of Parliament, the administrative bodies and the courts of law. These elements, which together with some ancient documents make up the British constitutional framework, arc said to be flexible and simple enough to respond quickly to new conditions should that be necessary.somewhat haphazard constitutional system, which is largely dependent upon conventions and observing the rules of the game, has been admired in the past. The arrangements were said to combine stability and adaptability, so that a successful balance of authority and toleration was achieved. Most British governments tended to govern pragmatically when in power, in spite of very ideological party manifestos at election time. The emphasis was on whether a particular policy worked and was generally acceptable. Governments were conscious of how far they could go before displeasing their own followers and the electorate, to whom they were accountable at the next general election.the system has been increasingly criticized in recent years. Governments have become more radical in their policies, and have been able to implement them because of strong majorities in the Commons. There has been concern at the apparent absence of constitutional safeguards for the individual citizen against state power, especially since there are few legal definitions of civil liberties in Britain. There also appear to be few effective parliamentary restraints upon a strong government which is intent upon carrying out its policies.lack of adequate constitutional definitions in the British system has been seen as potentially dangerous, particularly when governments and their administrative bodies have a reputation for being too secretive. There have consequently been campaigns for more effective civil protection in the forms of a bill of rights; a written constitution; greater judicial scrutiny of the merits of parliamentary legislation; a Freedom of Information Act; and the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British domestic law. But none of these suggested reforms has been achieved, and there is considerable opposition to the various proposals. critics argue that the British political system no longer works satisfactorily. They maintain that its institutions are too centralized, and that the traditional bases are no longer adequate for the organization of a complex, mass society. It is felt that political policies have become too conditioned by party politics at the expense of consensus. Questions have consequently been raised about the democratic and representative basis of national programmes. It is argued that there must be a fundamental reform of the existing political institutions if they are to reflect a contemporary diversity. However, changes do continue to be made to the present apparatus, and it may be that the old evolutionary principles will be successfully adapted to new demands and conditions.governmental model that operates in Britain today is usually described as a constitutional monarchy, or parliamentary system. While the monarch still has a role to play on some executive and legislative levels, it is Parliament which possesses the essential legislative power, and the government of the day which governs by initiating and controlling political policy and legislation. The correct constitutional definition of Parliament is the 'Queen-in-Parliament', and all state and governmental business is therefore carried out in the name of the monarch by the politicians and officials of the system. In constitutional theory, the British people hold the political sovereignty to choose their government, while Parliament, consisting partly of their elected representatives in the Commons, possesses the legal sovereignty to make laws.various branches of this political system, although easily distinguishable from each other, are not entirely separate. The monarch is formally head of the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. A Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons and a member of the House of Lords may both be in the government of the day. A Law Lord in the House of Lords also serves the House of Lords as the highest appeal court.legislature, which consists of both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch, is for most purposes the supreme law-making body. The executive comprises the sitting government and its Cabinet, together with government ministries or departments headed by ministers or secretaries of state, who all act formally in the name of the monarch. The judiciary is composed mainly of the judges of the higher courts, who determine the common law and interpret Acts of Parliament. The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the legislative and executive branches of government.monarchycontinuity of the English monarchy has been interrupted only by the Cromwell republic of 1649-59 although there have been different lines of descent, such as the Stuarts, the Tudors and the Hanoverians. The Crown, as distinct from any particular monarch, is thus one of the oldest secular institutions in Britain. Succession to the throne is still hereditary, but only for Protestants in the direct line of descent.monarch has a number of roles, and serves formally as head of state head of the executive head of the judiciary head of the legislature commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and supreme governor of the Church of England. It follows that all ministers and officials of the central government are the monarch's servants, and judges, military officers, peers, and bishops of the Church of England swear allegiance to the Crown. In holding these and other positions, the monarch is said to personify the British state.spite of these roles, there are difficulties in defining the precise powers of the monarch, who is supposed to reign but not rule. The monarch is also expected to be politically neutral, and should not be seen to be making political decisions. In order to avoid potential constitutional crises, proposals have often been made that rules concerning the real powers of the monarch should be established. Ideally they would clarify the uncertain elements in the monarch's position, and avoid the dangers of involving the Crown in political controversy., for all practical purposes and since the old executive royal authority has been virtually abolished, the monarch acts only on the advice of political ministers, which cannot be ignored. The monarch cannot make laws, impose taxes, spend public money or act unilaterally. In this sense, contemporary Britain is governed by Her Majesty's Government in the name of the Queen., the monarch still performs some important executive and legislative duties, which are essential to the smooth running of government. These include the summoning, opening, Proroguing (or adjourning), and dissolving of Parliament; giving the Royal Assent (or signature) to bills which have been passed by both Houses of Parliament; appointing government ministers and other public figures; granting honours; holding audiences with the Prime Ministers; convening meetings of the Privy Council; giving pardons to some convicted criminals; and fulfilling international duties as head of state. In practice, most of these functions are performed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister or other ministers.central power still possessed by the monarch is the choice and appointment of the Prime Minister. Normally and by convention, this person would be the leader of the political party which has a majority in the House of Commons. However, if there is no clear majority or if the political situation is unclear, the monarch could in theory make a free choice. In practice, it appears that advice would be given by the monarch's advisers and leading politicians in order to present a suitable candidate who would be generally acceptable.constitutional conventions stipulate that the monarch has the right to be informed of and advised on all aspects of national life by receiving government documents and meeting with the Prime Minister. The monarch also has the right to encourage, warn and advise ministers. This latter role could be a source of potential power not only in Britain, but also in the Commonwealth of which the monarch is head. It is difficult to know to what extent monarchical advice on formal and informal levels is influential. Some critics suggest that it could be substantial.monarch is a permanent fixture in the British political system, unlike temporary politicians, and often has a greater knowledge of domestic and international politics. It seems that the monarchy still has a considerable part to play in the operation of government at various levels. Its practical and constitutional importance is stressed by provisions for the appointment of counsellors of state (or a regent in exceptional cases) to perform royal duties, should the monarch be absent from Britain or unable to carry out public tasks.of the costs of the royal family's official duties are met from public funds. This finance is granted from the Civil List - money which previously had to be debated and approved by Parliament each year, but which from 1990 has been frozen at current levels for a 10-year period. The monarch's private expenses as sovereign come from the Privy Purse - finance which is gathered from the revenues of some royal estates. Any other costs incurred by the monarch as a private individual must come from the Crown's own resources, which are very considerable.against the monarchy as a continuing institution in British life maintain that it is out-of-date, non-democratic, too expensive, too exclusive and too closely associated with aristocratic privilege and establishment thinking. It is argued that the monarchy's alleged aloofness from ordinary daily life contributes to class divisions in society and sustains a hierarchical structure. It is also suggested that, if the monarch's functions today are merely ceremonial and lack power or essential point, the office should be abolished and replaced by a cheaper figurehead presidency.in favour of the monarchy suggest that it has developed and adapted to modern requirements, and is not remote. It is argued that it serves as a symbol or personification of the state; demonstrates stability and continuity; has a higher prestige than politicians; is not subject to political manipulations; plays a worthwhile role in political institutions; possesses a neutrality with which people can feel secure; and performs an important ambassadorial function in Britain and overseas. The monarchy is also said to reflect family values, and has a certain glamour (some would say soap-opera quality) about it, which is attractive to many people. The British public shows considerable affection for the royal family beyond its representative role. Public opinion polls from time to time demonstrate majority support for the institution of monarchy as against a republican alternative. But the polls also suggest that the monarchy should adapt more to changes in society; that less public money should be spent on it; and that its income should be subject to income tax.Privy CouncilPrivy Council developed from a small group of royal advisers at court into the chief source of executive authority. But its powerful position was weakened in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as more of its functions were transferred to a developing parliamentary Cabinet. Its work was later devolved to newly created ministries, which were needed to cope with a rapidly changing society.its main role is to advise the monarch on a range of matters, like the resolution of constitutional issues and the approval of Orders in Council, such as the granting of Royal Charters to public bodies. Its members can be appointed to advisory and problem-solving committees and, because of its international membership and continuing constitutional character, it can be influential.ministers automatically become members on taking government office. Life membership of the council is also given by the monarch, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, to eminent people in Britain and in independent monarchical countries of the Commonwealth. There are about 380 Privy Councillors at present, but the organization tends to work for practical purposes mostly through small groups. A full council is usually only summoned on the death of a monarch; when there are serious constitutional issues at stake; or occasionally when a Commonwealth Heads of State Conference is held in London. In the case of any indisposition of the monarch, counsellors of state or an appointed regent would work partly through the Privy Council.from its practical duties and its role as a constitutional forum for experienced people, perhaps the most important task of the Privy Council today is performed by its Judicial Committee. This serves as the final court of appeal from those dependencies and Commonwealth countries which have retained this avenue of appeal. It may also be used as an arbiter for a wide range of courts and committees in Britain and overseas, and its rulings can be influential.is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and, since it is not controlled by a written constitution, it has legal sovereignty in virtually all matters, subject only to some European Community decisions. This means that it can create, abolish or amend laws for all or any part(s) of Britain on any topic. The main functions of Parliament today are to pass laws; to vote on financial bills so that government can carry on its legitimate business; to examine government policies and administration; and to scrutinize European Community legislation.pursuing these powers, Parliament is supposed to legislate according to the rule of law, precedent and tradition. Politicians are generally sensitive to these conventions and to public opinion. A set of formal and informal checks and balances - such as party discipline, the OfficiaI Opposition, public reaction and pressure groups - normally ensures that Parliament legislates according to its legal responsibilities. A government with a strong majority in the House of Commons may bow to public pressure, face rebellion from its own MPs and suffer attack by the opposition parties if the proposed laws are not widely accepted.consists of the House of Lords, the House of Commons and formally the monarch. It assembles as a unified body only on ceremonial occasions, such as the State Opening of Parliament by the monarch in the House of Lords. Here it listens to the monarch's speech from the throne, which outlines the government's broad legislative programme for the coming session. All three parts of Parliament must normally pass a bill before it can become an Act of Parliament and therefore law. A correctly created Act cannot be challenged in the law courts on its merits.Parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but it is often dissolved and a general election called before the end of this term. The maximum has sometimes been prolonged by special parliamentary legislation on occasions of national emergency like the two World Wars. A dissolution of Parliament and the issue of writs for the ensuing general election are ordered by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. If an individual MP dies, resigns or is given a peerage, a by-election is called only for that member's seat, and Parliament as a whole is not dissolved.contemporary House of Lords consists of the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, together with twenty-four senior diocesan bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of (1) hereditary peers and peeresses who have kept their titles; (2) life peers and peeresses, who have usually been created by political parties; and (3) the Lords of Appeal (Law Lords), who become life peers on their judicial appointments. The latter serve the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal for most purposes from most parts of Britain. This appeal court does not consist of the whole House of Lords, but only some nine Law Lords who have held senior judicial office, who are under the chairmanship of the Lord Chancellor, and who form a quorum of three to five when they hear appeal cases.are some 1,200 members of the House of Lords, but the active daily attendance varies from a handful to a few hundred. Peers receive no salary for their parliamentary work, but are eligible for attendance and travelling expenses should they wish to claim them. The House is presided over by the Lord Chancellor, who is a political appointee of the sitting government, who sits on the Woolsack (or stuffed woollen sofa) as Speaker (Chairman) of the House, and who controls the procedure and meetings of the House.are frequent demands that the unrepresentative, unelected House of Lords should be abolished and replaced by a second democratically elected chamber. The problem consists of which alternative model to adopt, and there is little agreement on this point. Meanwhile, the House of Lords does its job well as an experienced and less partisan corrective to the House of Commons. It retains an important revising, amending and delaying function. This may be used either to block government legislation for a time, or to persuade governments to have a second look at bills. In this sense, it is a safeguard, against over-hasty legislation by the Commons, and fulfils a considerable constitutional role at times when governments may be very powerful. This function is possible because members of the Lords tend to be more independently minded than MPs in the Commons, and do not suffer such rigid party discipline. Indeed, the House has a considerable number of Independents (or crossbenchers) who do not belong to any political party, although there appears to be a nominal Conservative majority in the total membership.to reform the House of Lords were made several times in the course of the 20th century.Parliament Act of 1911 removed from the House of Lords the power of veto a bill, except one to prolong the lifetime of a parliament. Instead, the Lords could delay a bill by up to two years. The Parliament Act of 1949 further reduced the Lord's delaying powers to one year.Labour government came tp power in 1997 on a manifesto which stated that the House of Lords must be reformed. As an initial, self-contained reform, the right of hereditary peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords will be ended by statute. This will be the first stage in process of reform to make the House of Lords more democratic and representative. The legislative powers of the House of Lords will remain unaltered.

  • 3. Brief course on lexicology
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Phraseological units might also be shared to:

    1. phrasemes two-member word-groups in which one of the members has specialized meaning dependent on the second component: “small hours”.
    2. Idioms the idiomaticity of the whole word-group; unusualness of collocability or logical incompability of member-words; usually homonymous with corresponding variable word-groups: red tape, to let the cat out of the bag.
  • 4. English in business
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    a) Directive decision makers. These people are task-oriented and have a strong need for power, wanting to feel they are in control of others. They also have a low tolerance for ambiguity and prefer to keep things pragmatic and simple. They tend to take decisions on the basis of less information, using fewer alternatives. They need to feel that the decision is theirs to make and no one else's.

    1. Analytic decision makers. These people are also task-oriented. They need to achieve things and are highly motivated when dealing with a challenge. They are more tolerant of ambiguity than directive decision makers, and can tolerate higher information loads. They take time to analyze in more detail the various possible courses of action.
    2. Conceptual decision makers. Such individuals also have a strong need for achievement. But they are people-oriented and less analytical. They are comfortable with high information loads but their data collection methods may be through talking to people, especially experts. They tend to be more creative than the more analytical decision makers and think about what can produce the best results in the long term.
    3. Behavioural decision makers. These individuals have a strong people orientation. They tend to communicate easily, using simple and understandable messages(with low cognitive complexity). They consult with others, are open to suggestions and happy to compromise. They prefer a looser sense of leadership control. "I prefer everyone to "own" the decisions that are mine".
  • 5. English language for technical colleges
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    2 форма3 форма4 формаПереводto bewas/werebeenbeingбыть, находитьсяto bearborebornbearingнестиto beatbeatbeatenbeatingбитьto beginbeganbegunbeginningначинать(ся)to bendbentbentbendingгнутьto bindboundboundbindingпереплетатьto bitebitbitten/bitbitingкусатьto blowblewblownblowingдутьto breakbrokebrokenbreakingломатьto bringbroughtbroughtbringingприноситьto buildbuiltbuiltbuildingстроитьto burstburstburstburstingгореть, жечьto buyboughtboughtbuyingпокупатьto catchcaughtcaughtcatchingловитьto choosechosechosenchoosingвыбиратьto cutcutcutcuttingрезать, рубитьto divedived/dovediveddivingнырятьto dodiddonedoingделатьto drawdrewdrawndrawingрисовать, тащитьto drinkdrankdrunkdrinkingпитьto drivedrovedrivendrivingвестиto eatateeateneatingесть, кушатьto fallfellfallenfallingпадатьto feelfeltfeltfeelingчувствоватьto feedfedfedfeedingкормитьto fightfoughtfoughtfightingбороться, дратьсяto flyflewflownflyingлетатьto forbidforbadeforbiddenforbiddingзапрещатьto forgetforgotforgottenforgettingзабыватьto forgiveforgaveforgivenforgivingпрощатьto freezefrozefrozenfreezingзамораживатьto getgotgotgettingполучать, становитьсяto givegavegivengivingдаватьto gowentgonegoingидти, ехатьto growgrewgrowngrowingрасти, выращиватьto hanghunghunghangingвисеть, вешатьto havehadhadhavingиметьto hearheardheardhearingслышатьto hithithithittingударятьto holdheldheldholdingдержатьto hurthurthurthurtingповредитьto knowknewknownknowingзнатьto laylaidlaidlayingнакрыватьto leadleadleadleadingвестиto leapleapt/leapedleapt/leapedleapingпрыгать, скакатьto leaveleftleftleavingпокидать, оставлятьto lendlentlentlendingдавать взаймыto letletletlettingпозволятьto lielaylainlyingлежатьto lightlitlitlightingзажигатьto loselostlostlosingтерятьto makemademademakingделатьto meetmetmetmeetingвстречать (ся)to paypaidpaidpayingплатитьto putputputputtingкласть, ставитьto readreadreadreadingчитатьto rideroderiddenridingехать (верхом)to ringrangrungringingзвонить, звенетьto riseroserisenrisingподниматьto runranrunrunningбежатьto saysaidsaidsayingговорить, сказатьto seesawseenseeingвидетьto sellsoldsoldsellingпродаватьto sendsentsentsendingпосещать, отправлятьto shakeshookshakenshakingтрястиto shineshoneshoneshiningсветить, сиятьto shootshotshotshootingстрелять, сниматьto showshowedshownshowingпоказыватьto singsangsungsingingпетьto sinksanksunksinkingтонутьto sitsatsatsittingсидетьto sleepsleptsleptsleepingспатьto speakspokespokenspeakingговорить, разговариватьto spendspentspentspendingтратить, проводить времяto standstoodstoodstandingстоятьto stealstolestolenstealingворовать, украстьto stickstuckstuckstickingприлипатьto strikestruckstruckstrikingбить, ударятьto swearsworeswornswearingклястьсяto sweepsweptsweptsweepingмести, подметатьto swimswamswumswimmingплаватьto taketooktakentakingвзять, братьto teachtaughttaughtteachingучить, обучатьto teartoretorntearingрватьto telltoldtoldtellingсказать, сообщатьto thinkthoughtthoughtthinkingдуматьto throwthrewthrownthrowingбросать,

  • 6. English Theoretical Grammar
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    3. It is doubtful whether the grammatical category of gender exists in Modern English for it is hardly ever expressed by means of grammatical forms. There is practically one gender-forming suffix in Modern English, the suffix ess, expressing feminine gender. It is not widely used (heir heiress, poet poetess, actor actress).

    1. The basic meaning of the category of number is the opposition of the singularity and the plurality of objects. The plurality implies an amount exceeding one. The singular number is conveyed by the basic form, i.e. by the form which has no endings and which coincides with the stem. The plural number is graphically conveyed by the s formant that materializes itself as a number of allomorphs (/s/, /z/, /iz/) depending on the character of the final sound of the stem (books, cats, dogs, potatoes, classes, bushes). However, there are other, unproductive means of forming the plural form (children, nuclei, phenomena, feet, mice). And finally, there are some nouns that do not possess the formal features of either plural or singular number (sheep, deer, swine, news, scissors, trousers).
    2. Of the two number forms, the singular number is compulsory for all nouns, except for pluralia tantum. The reason for this fact is that the singular number is capable of conveying not only the availability of quantity (one) but also the absence of quantitative measurements for uncountables. The plural form always conveys some quantitative relationship; it is due to this fact that the plural number is capable of conveying the concretion of an abstract notion: a noun denoting a generalized feature (a quality or a feeling) may also convey manifestations which are occasional (attentions, joys).
  • 7. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    The coining of clipped word-forms may result either in the ousting of one of the words from the vocabulary or in establishing a clear semantic differentiation between the two units. In a few cases the full words become new roots: chapman chap, brandywine brandy. But in most cases a shortened word exists in the vocabulary together with the longer word from which it is derived and usually has the same lexical meaning differing only in stylistic reference. The question naturally arises whether the shortened and original forms should be considered separate words. Though it is obvious that in the case of semantic difference between a shortened unit and a longer one from which it is derived they can be termed as two distinct words: cabriolet cab. Some linguists hold the work that as the two units do not differ in meaning but only in stylistic application, it would be wrong to apply the term word to the shortened unit. In fact, the shortened unit is a word-variant. Other linguists contend that even when the original word and the shortened form are generally used with some difference in style, they are both to be recognised as two distinct words. If this treatment of the process of word-shortening is accepted, the essential difference between the shortening of words and the usual process of word-formation should be pointed out.

  • 8. Lipid biosynthesis
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Protein storage doesnt take place in animals. Except for the small amount that circulates in the cells, amino acids exist in the body only in muscle or other protein-containing tissues. If the animal or human needs specific amino acids, they must either be synthesized or obtained from the breakdown of muscle protein. Adipose tissue serves as the major storage area for fats in animals. A normal human weighing 70 kg contains about 160 kcal of usable energy. Less than 1 kcal exists as glycogen, about 24 kcal exist as amino acids in muscle, and the balance-more than 80 percent of the total-exists as fat. Plants make oils for energy storage in seeds. Because plants must synthesize all their cellular components from simple inorganic compounds, plants-but usually not animals-can use fatty acids from these oils to make carbohydrates and amino acids for later growth after germination.

  • 9. Management of organization
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Within the context of strategic human resource management, staffing encompasses human resource planning, acquisition, and development aimed at providing the talent necessary for organizational success. Four key staffing activities necessarily linked to organizational strategy and structure are: (1) human resource planning, (2) selection, (3) perform ance appraisal, and (4) training. A systems approach to human resource planning will help management devise staffing strategies for future hu man resource needs. As the organization's gatekeeper for vital human resources, employee selection should be more than a haphazard process of looking around for people to fill vacancies. There are relative advantages to promoting an insider as opposed to transferring in or hiring an outsider. Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws require managers to make hiring and other personnel decisions on the basis of ability to perform rather than personal prejudice. Because interworks are the most popular employee screening device, experts recommend structured rather than traditional, informal interworks. A structured interwork may be defined as a series of job-related questions with predetermined answers that are constantly applied across all interworks for a particular job.

  • 10. Oral conversational topics on business English language
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    When asked to define marketing, most people will say "to advertise a product" or "to sell a good". It's true that selling and advertising are parts of marketing, but there is much more. Marketing provides utility or the value that comes from satisfying human needs. Consumers use utility in many different circumstances in their everyday lives. For instance, we have the right to possess a product or service in exchange for money, which is called possession utility. Also, consumers use utility when they can buy a product or service when they want it, and also at a location where they would like to buy it. The former is called time utility and the latter is referred to as place utility. Production helps us to differentiate between what consumers want by providing form utility or a product produced, and task utility or a service given. Simply put, marketing provides time, place, and possession utility, and guides decisions about what goods and services should be produced to provide form utility and task utility. There are basically two different variants to defining marketing. Micro-marketing focuses on activities performed by an individual organization, and macro-marketing focuses on the economic welfare of a whole society. Both are important when trying to understand what is marketing. The first, micro-marketing, is the performance of activities that seek to accomplish an organization's objectives by anticipating customer or client needs and directing a flow of need-satisfying goods and services from producer to customer or client. Let's take a look at this definition. To begin with, marketing applies to both profit and non-profit organizations. All organizations have some kind or "audience" or "market" that they are trying to satisfy. The point is that all organizations need to practice good marketing techniques to accomplish their objectives and reach their goals. Furthermore, a very important goal of marketing is to identify customers' needs, and meet those needs the best way that organization knows how. If the marketing function has done this, than the product or service will assuredly sell itself In addition, marketing should focus on those needs that were identified, not with production. Marketing should anticipate those needs, and then determine the products or services to be developed. While this sounds like the marketing function leads business activity, this is false. Marketing should direct, not lead other business functions such as accounting, production, and financial activities toward the overall goals of the firm. Finally and most importantly, marketing builds a relationship with customers. A purchase does not mean the end of marketing related activities, on the contrary, it is only the beginning to a long, lasting relationship with customer, and should always look for ways to keep a customer coming back. As all marketers know and understand, it is easier and less costly to keep a customer once they have them, than it is to find them in the first place. This is why relationship marketing is so important. The second, macro-marketing, is a social process that directs an economy's flow of goods and services from producers to consumers in a way that effectively matches supply and demand and accomplishes the objectives of society. Here the emphasis is on the whole system, not the individual organization. Different producers in a society have different objectives, resources, and skills. Likewise, not all consumers share the same needs, preferences, and wealth. So, macro-marketing effectively helps to match supply differences with demand differences, while trying to accomplish a society's objectives. Thus, we can say marketing has two different definitions, dealing with two different levels of the economy.

  • 11. Professional sea English language
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    1. Off-lying dangers. - An approachа) Песок Р. на юго-западной сторонеto S. isles from south-westward orканала простирается на полторыwestward requires caution in hazyмили юго-восточнее песков В., иor thick weather on account of theбольшая часть осыхает, от 2-х до 4-rocky ledges extending in those di-х футов (0,6м до 1,2м). Группа пло-rections, the principle of these areских скал С, которые ссыхают на 2Nan-deeps, about 2 miles west-фута (0,6м), лежит на севернойnorth-westward of A., C. rocks, B.кромке песка Р., которая подверже-rock and C.B. ridge, and the vari-на перемещению и изменению фор-ous ledges extending north-мы во время плохой погоды.westward from P. head at thesouth-western extremity of the is-lands. P. bank, with a least depth of13 fathoms (23m8) over it, liesnearly 3 miles southward of B.rock; the overfalls make it danger-ous to open boats in rough weather.(hazy - туманный; ledge -риф,гряда камней; ridge гребень,подводная гряда; overfall - бы-стрина)2. Hats, a group of rocky shoalsЬ) Побережье между М. и мысом В.north-eastward of I. islet, cover aокаймлено надводными и подвод-large area, with depths of less thanными скалами на расстоянии полу-3 fathoms (5m5) over it, with sev-мили от берега. Эти скалы приглу-eral heads having depths of from 3бые.to 6 feet (0m9 to lm8) over them; aboiler, which dries 2 feet (0m6) liesclose within the south-eastern cor-ner of these shoals; the approach toС bar lies between the south-western end of these shoals and thefoul ground extending from I.(boiler - котел; to dry ~ ссыхать)3. Off-lying banks. - Cape C. Bank, about 6 /2 miles north-westward ofс) Отмель с глубиной 17 футов (5м2)лежит около 1,25 кабельтова к вос-Cape C, is a rocky ridge with aтоку от мыса С. Между мысом С. иleast known depth of 12 fathomsмысом В., около 2-х миль на северо-(2 lm9) over it near its southern extremity. As the sea breaks heavily in bad weather on Cape C. bank and B. shoal, particularly during north-westerly gales their locality should be avoided at such times, especially by small and heavily laden vessels, (to break heavily -образовывать буруны) 4. Between В. Т. and В. Head, 33/4 miles south-eastward, is a succession of dark, rugged cliffs rising abruptly to an elevation of 400 feet (121m9); thence the coast trends about one mile northward to the entrance to S harbour; it maintains the same elevation, with but few trees and is intersected by deep ravines, but it rises less abruptly than westward of the head. (succession - последовательность; rugged неровный; to intersect - пересекать; ravine -ущелье, овраг) 5. Submarine cables. - Submarine cables cross the harbour from a position close to S. situated 3V4 cables north-eastward of A. point. Vessels should not anchor in the vicinity of these cables, the positions of which are indicated by wavy lines on the chart. (In the vicinity of- поблизости, в районе (чего-либо) Lвосток имеются несколько отдельно лежащих участков земли с глубинами от 7 до 18 футов (от 2,1м до 5,5м), лежащих в пределах одного кабельтова к берегу. d) Банка С, отмель из мелких ракушек и гравия, простирается на 3,5 мили на северо-восток от положения око ло 6 кабельтовых северо-восточнее маяка СР., вплотную к её южному концу имеются глубины от 7 и 11 футов (2,1м и 3,4м), а в других час тях имеются глубины от 11 до 30 футов (3,4м до 9,1м), а иногда и глубже. Банка заканчивается у севе ро-восточного конца в песчаной от мели почти в полумилю длиной, с наименьшей глубиной 15 футов (4,6м). В штормовую погоду море образует буруны на всех участках банки С, особенно на юго-западном конце, при сильных восточных вет рах нет укрытия между отмелью и берегом, т.к. неспокойное море про стирается к берегу. e) Удалённые от берега опасности. - Подход к островкам С. с юго-запада и запада требует осторожности в туманную погоду из-за скалистой гряды камней, простирающихся в тех направлениях, основными из них являются: Напдипс, около 2-х милей на запад - северо-запад от А., С, скала В., и подводная гряда С, В и различные рифы, простирающие ся на северо-запад от мыса Р. у юго- западной оконечности островов. Банка Р. с наименьшей глубиной 13 саженей (23,8м) находится почти в6. S. bank, a shoal of pulverized shell and fine gravel, extends for about 3V2 miles north-eastward from a position about 6 cables northeastward of S.P. lighthouse; close to its southern end there are depths of 7 and 11 feet (2ml and 3m4), and on other parts there are 11 to 30 feet (3m4 to 9ml), with occasionally greater depths. The bank terminates at the northeastern end in a sandy shoal nearly one mile in length, with a least depth of 15 feet (4m6). In boisterous weather the sea breaks heavily on all parts ofS. bank, especially on the south-western end; with strong easterly winds there is no shelter between the shoal and the land, the broken water extending to the coast. (broken water - неспокойное море, close to - близко, вплотную к, to terminate ~ кончать (ся), boisterous - бурный, неистовый) 7. A shoal, with a depth of 17 feet (5m2) over it, lies about 1V4 cables eastward of S head. Between S. Head and W. Point about 2 miles north-eastward there are several de tached patches, with depths of from 7 to 18 feet (2ml to 5m5) over them lying within one cable to the coast, (detached - отдельно лежащая мель) 8. The coast between M. and B. head3-х милях к югу от скалы В., быстрины создают опасность для судов в штормовую погоду. f) Хэтс, группа скалистых отмелей северо-восточнее островка И., за нимает большую площадь с глуби нами меньше, чем 3 сажени (5,5м) с несколькими мысами, на глубинах от 3 до 6 футов (0,9м до 1,8м); ко тел, который осыхает на 2 фута (0,6м) находится рядом, в юго- восточном углу этих отмелей. Под ход к бару С. находится между юго- западным концом этих отмелей и плохо держащим грунтом, прости рающимся от И. g) Удаленные от берега банки. - Банка С. около 6,5 миль к северо-западу от мыса С. - это скалистая подводная гряда с наименьшей известной глу биной 12 саженей (21,9м) возле её южной оконечности. Т.к. море об разует буруны в плохую погоду на мысе банки С. и отмели В., особен но во время северо-западных вет ров, эту местность в такое время следует обходить, особенно малень ким и тяжело груженым судам. h) Между В.Г. и мысом В. 3,75 милиis fringed by above-water and sunken rocks for as much as half a mile offshore. These rocks are steep-to. (steep-to - приглубый; to fringe - окаймлять) 9. P. sand, on the south-western side of the channel, extends lV2 miles south-eastward from W. sand, and the greater part dries from 2 to 4 feet (0m6 to lm2). C. ledge, a group of flat rocks which dry 2 feet (0m6), lies on the northern edge of P. sand, about half a mile eastward of the northern extremity of The Warren. There is small bank off the south-eastern end of P. sand which is liable to shift its position and change its shape during bad weather.на юго-восток имеется ряд темных, неровных утёсов, поднимающихся резко на высоту 400 футов (121,9м), откуда берег направляется на расстоянии 1 мили на север к входу в гавань С, он сохраняет ту же высоту с небольшим количеством деревьев и пересекается глубокими оврагами, но поднимается не так резко, чем к западу от мыса. i) Подводные кабели. - Подводные кабели пересекают гавань от места рядом с С, расположенного в 3,75 кабельтовых на северо-восток от мыса А. Судам не следует становиться на якорь в районе этих кабелей, местонахождение которых обозначено волнистыми линиями на карте.10. Read the text and say what useful information you have got

    1. Dangers. - Spur reef extends nearly a mile south-south-westward of Middle island. The western side, on which the sea always breaks, dries 3 feet (0m9); the eastern side was, in 1891, marked by a wreck. Foul ground extends one mile southward and 172 miles south-eastward from the reef.
    2. There are numerous shoal patches scattered about the northern end of the lagoon, within 2 miles of East island, with depths of from lV2 to 372 fathoms (2m7 to 6m4) over them. The position of which can best be seen on the chart. (To scatter - разбрасывать)
    3. Parry patch, with depths of 2l/4 fathoms (4ml) over it, at the entrance to Rambler bay, lies nearly 2V2 miles north-north-eastward of Marianne point. Elder rock, with a depth of 5 feet (lm5) over it, lies about 2 miles east-northeastward of Marianne point. A 3-fathom (5m5) coral patch lies 7 cables south-westward of Elder rock. About 13 cables north-eastward of Marianne point is a patch with depths of 4 fathoms (7m3) over it. About 4 cables west-north-westward of this patch is another with depths of 3 fathom (18m3) line, in the open part of the lagoon northward of those just mentioned, but ail have a greater depth than 5 fathoms (9ml) over them.
    4. Minni-Minni patch, with a depth of 17 feet (5m2) over it, lies 872 cables north-westward of the mined settlement at Minni-Minni. The lagoon southward of Minm-Mmm patch is studded with dangers; but vessels can proceed to within 3 miles of its southern end by keeping a careful look-out from aloft, and of buoying the intricate parts. (To stud - усеивать, усыпать; intricate сложный, запутанный; aloft- наверху,нареях)
    5. Dangers. ~ Bank du Vaudreuil lies maidway between the north-eastern side of Nosi Ovi and the northern shore of Rafaralahi bay between Sangajira point and Anorontsangana. This bank is broken in the centre by a passage with depths of from 5 to 8 fathoms (9ml to 14m6); there are some rocks awash on the southern part of the bank, and depths of less than 3 feet (0m9) over the northern part.
    6. A detached, 2l/2 - fathom (4m6), coral patch lies 23/4 miles north-westward; a rock with a depth of less than 6 feet (lm8) over it, lies about a mile northward; and some drying patches of reef lie about 2 miles north-north-eastward of Lavalohalika point. A 4-fathom (7m3) bank lies in the middle of the entrance to the bay, about 21/2 miles south-south-westward of the Custom house (Lat 13°55'S, Long. 47°56'E).
    7. Coast. - Outlying shoals. - Dangers.- From abreast Maromoni point the outer reef which is of the nature of a submerged barrier reef, and is a continuation of that which begins near Nosi Kivinji off the north-western side of the Am-bavatobi peninsula, continued south-westward, from 10 to 15 miles offshore as far as Bali bay, a distance of 156 miles, or, including the portion northward of Maromoni point (Lat. 14°40'S, Long. 47°28'E), about 230 miles. (Peninsula - полуостров)
  • 12. The English grammar
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Once you have decided what structure to teach, the way you aid the students understanding and practice the language can depend on a number of factors:

    1. Whether the structure is completely new, is familiar to at least some of the students but has not been focused on before, or has been presented before and is now being revised. Generally, the less familiar the language item the more controlled practice you need;
    2. the nature of the language: for example, whether it is the meaning and use or the form which is complex. The use of the present perfect is difficult to grasp for man students (Ive been here since 3 oclock where in many languages it would be I am here since 3 oclock). On the other hand, it is the complexity of the form rather than the meaning of the third conditional, with its many parts, which generally causes difficulty (If my alarm clock hadnt been broken I wouldnt have been late for the lecture);
    3. Whether the structure is more likely to be written or spoken. Some structures are mainly found in the written form and do not lend themselves to spoken practice activities for example, this sentence from a formal letter: I enclose ((the invoice/brochure/estimate). On the other hand, the students need practice in saying such utterances as Its a great (party/day/show), isnt it?
    4. the student:
    5. their level;
    6. their age;
    7. whether you can or want to use their mother tongue for explanation;
    8. the attitude of the group how confident the students are, whether they feel they already know the language item, etc;
    9. their language-learning background and expectations of how language is presented whether, for example, they expect traditional teacher-centered approach;
    10. Their preferred language-learning style for example, some students like to study grammar in an overt way while others (particularly children) are not interested in talking about the language and using such labels as gerund or demonstrative adjective.
  • 13. The History of English Syntax
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    The subordinate object clause is found in OE texts most often. It usually depends upon such verbs as sechan (say), cweDan (speak), þyncan (think), witan (know) etc. Subordinate object clauses are introduced by such conjunctions as: D{t, hif, hw{þer, also by conjunctive pronouns and adverbs: hwa, hw{t, hwilc, hu, hwær, hwider etc.attributive clauses are introduced in OE by the relative particle þe, also by a combination of þe + a demonstrative pronoun: se, seþe, þ{tþe, seoþe. clauses introduced by the particle þe are mostly of a limiting character, by the demonstrative pronoun "se" - of descriptive character.subordinate adverbial clauses those of time, place, cause, result, purpose, condition, concession are most common in OE.OE complex sentence reveals traits which attest to a lack of accuracy in the means of subordination. Correlation must also be mentioned as a traditional construction from parataxis to hypotaxis. It is a wide-spread phenomenon in complex sentences with subordinate adverbial and object clauses. In adverbial clauses of time, for example, subordinate conjunctions þa, þonne, hwanne, siþþan etc. often correlate with the adverbs þa or þonne in the main clause.conjunction "D{t" introducing a subordinate object clause may be correlated with the demonstrative pronoun "D{t" or personal pronoun "hit" functioning as objects in the main clause: e.g. Ne wiDcweDe ic þam nanwiht D{t þu swa do "I am not at all against that that you should do so".subordination is not frequent in OE, (example p.117) and it is treated in the same way as correlation, pleonastic use of pronouns, shifting from indirect to direct discourse, whish testify to immaturity of formal expression in the sphere of subordination.Englishthe ME complex sentence preserved many features inherited from OE which illustrated incomplete subordination, at the same time it aquired new properties attesting to the gradual elaboration of subordinate clauses. The development of hypotaxis was largely predetermined by the emergence of the national language and the rise of the written standard. in ME still occurs, but comparing with OE, it diminished, because it's nature appears to be different from what it used to be. The correlated elements in the main and the subordinate clauses often do not coincide in form: e.g. Auh forgif hit me nu, þet ich hit habbe itold te "forgive me it that I have told you about it".presume that such a correlation was a step made towards its total abandonment as a means reinforcing the subordinative conjunction. In ModE correlation would appear redundant at all, except for its stylistic value: e.g. he wondered more whether she could see his eagerness to get back to that which she had brought him away from. He the emphasis is achieved by putting "that" in the main clause.system of connectives in ME and later on underwent a number of changes too. Some of OE conjunctions fell into disuse: e.g. oþ þa (до того як), mid þam (з тим, щоб). Some connectives became specialized as indicators of new relationships. For example, OE temporal conjunction "sith" (з тих пір) began to express causal relationships as well. And, finally, a great number of new connectives came into being: e.g. save, except, in case, because, till, before etc.appearance of relative pronouns from interrogatives who, what, whos, whom (14th century) and the differentiation of "that, who, which" in their functions by the 18th century made it possible to indicate various kinds structural and semantic relationships in the complex sentence with subordinate attributive clauses.means of expressing subordination are growing more stabilized. In certain types of subordinate clause, first of all in object and adverbial clauses of purpose, the tense form becomes dependent on the tense of the predicate-verb in the main clause. This phenomenon, termed "sequence of tense" is considered now one of the means of expressing subordination.

  • 14. Theoretical phonetics
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки
  • 15. Адольф Гитлер. Политическая биография (Adolf Hitler)
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки
  • 16. Английский язык
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Ex. 13 Переведите на русский язык:

    1. May I come in?
    2. May I see the menu, please?
    3. May I take your earphones?
    4. May I wait here?
    5. May I listen to the song once more?
    6. May I have my passport back, please?
    7. May I join you?
    8. May I cash the cheque here?
  • 17. Английский язык
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Имя существительное артикльГлагол прединфинтивная частицаa name - имя an aim - цель the machine - машинаto name - называть to aim - нацеливаться to machine - обрабатывать механическиПредлогМодальный глагол или вспомогательный глаголin turn - по очереди without result - без результатаYou must turn to the left. Вам надо повернуть налево. Their efforts will result in success. Их усилия приведут к успеху. They should watch the TV program. Им следует посмотреть эту телепередачу.Местоимение (притяжательное, вопросительное, неопределенное, отрицательное, относительное)Местоимение (личное, вопросительное, относительное)my work - моя работа his studies - его занятия Whose plans are better ? - Чьи планы лучше?I work. - Я работаю He studies. - Он занимается. Who plans the research? - Кто планирует это научное исследование?ПредлогМодальный глагол или вспомогательный глаголNo vacant seats are left. - (Никаких) свободных мест не осталось.The car which seats 5 persons. - Машина, которая вмещает (рассчитана на) 5 человек.

  • 18. Английский язык для экономических специальностей (English for economists)
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Gates, William Henry, III (1955- ), American business executive, chairman and chief executive officer of the Microsoft Corporation, born in Seattle, Washington. Gates cofounded Microsoft in 1975 with Paul Allen, his high school friend and partner in computer language development from 1967. Fascinated by computers by the age of 12, Gates had been involved with various programming projects throughout high school. While attending Harvard in 1975, Gates teamed with Allen to develop a version of the BASIC computer programming language for the MITS Altair, the first personal computer. This work on BASIC for the Altair led Gates to drop out of Harvard in 1977 to pursue full-time his vision of «a computer on every desk and in every home,» the idea behind the Microsoft Corporation. In the early 1980s, Gates led Microsofts evolution from a developer of computer programming languages to a diversified computer software company producing computer operating systems and applications software as well as programming tools. This transition began with the introduction of MS-DOS, the operating system for the new IBM Personal Computer in 1981. Gates took a personal role in convincing other computer companies to standardize on MS-DOS, fueling computer industry growth in the 1980s through software compatibility. Gates also pushed Microsoft toward the introduction of application software such as the Microsoft Word word processing software for the IBM-PC. A key strategic move by Gates was to agree to develop application software for the Apple Macintosh prior to the release of the first Mac in 1984. This led to a strong position for Microsoft in applications that take advantage of the graphical user interface (GUI).

  • 19. Английский язык для юристов-бакалавров
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    . What are the sources of bills? Who can introduce the legislation?3. THE UNITED KINGDOM LEGISLATIONGreat Britain laws are made in Parliament at Westminster. The British Parliament consists of the monarch, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. Their work is similar: making laws (legislation), checking the work of the government (scrutiny), and debating current issues. The House of Lords is composed of life peers and hereditary peers. The House of Common is composed of Members of Parliament (Mps).idea for a new law can come from a variety of sources: bills may be introduced by any member of either House (a "Private Member's Bill"), a Minister of the Crown (a "Government Bill"), by the general public ("Public Bills"), by an individual or small group of individuals (a "Private Bill").reading is the first stage of a Bills passage through the House of Commons - usually a formality, it takes place without debate. The short title of the Bill is read out and then the Bill is printed. The Bill is published as a House of Commons paper for the first time.next stage is second reading, the first opportunity for MPs to debate the general principles and themes of the Bill.second reading is completed the Bill proceeds to committee stage. Committee stage is where detailed examination of the Bill takes placel, clause by clause, determining the intent and impact of the bills language. This is therefore often considered the most important step in the parliamentary process for researchers aiming to determine legislative intent. It is at this stage that amendments are made. If the Bill has been amended the Bill is reprinted before its next stage.committee stage is finished, the Bill returns to the floor of the House of Commons for its report stage, where the amended Bill can be debated and further amendments proposed. All MPs can suggest amendments to the Bill or new clauses (parts) they think should be added.stage is normally followed immediately by debate on the Bill's third reading. Committee stage is where detailed examination of the Bill takes place, clause by clause, determining the intent and impact of the bills language. Amendments (proposals for change) cannot be made to a Bill at third reading in the Commons.process in the House of Lords is very similar to the process in the House of Commons. The bill will have a pro forma first reading, then a second reading. After the second reading the bill will normally be referred to a Committee of the Whole House. The bill then passes through a consideration stage and a third reading. In the House of Lords amendments may be made in the Committee of the Whole House, the consideration stage, and the third reading (this is different from the House of Commons where no amendments can be made in the third reading).the Bill started in the Commons it goes to the House of Lords for its first reading. If the Bill started in the Lords it returns to the House of Lords for consideration of any amendments the Commons has made. Both Houses must agree on the exact wording of the Bill. A Bill may go back and forth between each House (Ping Pong) until both Houses reach agreement.a Bill has completed all its parliamentary stages in both Houses, it must have Royal Assent before it can become an Act of Parliament (law). Royal Assent is the Monarch's agreement to make the Bill into an Act and is a formality. When Royal Assent has been given to a Bill, the announcement is usually made in both Houses by the Lord Speaker in the Lords and the Speaker in the Commons.

  • 20. Архитектура Великобритании
    Учебники, методички Иностранные языки

    Much of the Queen's day would have been spent upstairs in the sitting-room where she would attend to urgent matters of state. She would work on her dispatch boxes at her desk, while the beloved Prince Consort would sit at his own desk submitting memoranda for the Queen's inspection in his capacity as her personal and private secretary. Later when the Queen grew she had to come down from ner suite on the first floor by a lift hand-operated by an attendant in the basement. The formal drawing-room was downstairs. The Queen described it as an extremely handsome room with its yellow Damask satin curtains and furniture to match. The marble-top table depicting works of Rome was presented to Victoria in 1859 by Pope Pious IX after her visit to Rome with the Prince of Wales. The grand piano was often used by the Queen and other members of the household to entertain guests which often included visiting foreign royalty. The piano and six matching cabinets surmounting the bookcases are decorated with porcelain plagues showing the copies of Italian old master paintings. The Queen withdrew to the drawing-room after dinner whilst the gentlemen retired to the billiards room. The two rooms were cleverly adjoined so that while technically the gentlemen were still in the Queen's presence and required to stand, curtains drawn across the column screen kept them out of sight to do as they chose. The Queen, too, played billiards. She learned the game on this ornate slit table, the frieze panels were designed by Prince Albert. The Prince also conceived the elaborate lightning above the table. Here as elsewhere in the house is the evidence of Albert's great love for Victoria. He also purchased a painting depicting Raphael painting one of his Madonnas. It was not only Albert's taste that strongly influenced the design of Osborne House. Seventeen years after Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1874, a state banqueting hall, the Hors d'oeuvres room was added to the house. Its deeply carved ceiling was made of fibrous plaster. Every surface is richly embellished. 25 workmen worked over 500 hours to produce the Peacockalone. The walls framed with tick are enriched with plaster and papier-mache. The completion of the room in 1893 coincided with the introduction of electricity in Osborne House. These lampstands were specially designed for the room in recognition of this.