Методическое пособие

  • 21. Financial Planing

    The information contained in these two financial statements becomes more important when it is compared with corresponding information for previous years, for competitors, and for the industry in which the firm operates. A number of financial ratios can also be computed from this information. These ratios provide a picture of the firm's profitability, its short-term financial position, its activity in the area of accounts receivables and inventory, and its long-term debt financing. Like the information on the firm's financial statements, the ratios can and should be compared with those of past accounting periods, those of competitors, and those representing the average of the industry as a whole.

  • 22. Gymnastics


    1. Uneven bars is the only event for women the only event in which the hands are almost constantly in use, gripping the rails.
    2. Vaulting uniquely involves the element of flight of the four events in womens gymnastics.
    3. A beginner must spend many hours learning to move around on the beam in comfort walking, running, skipping, leaping.
    разновысокие брусья
    1. The vaulting runway is sixty to eighty feet long.
    2. The intricate movements prescribed for uneven bars comprise a number of fear producing elements, as do routines in all the events.
    3. The balance beam adventure begins with the working surface of the beam itself.
    1. In gymnastic vaulting there are two pieces of equipment: the horse and takeoff board.
    2. Floor exercises is commonly regarded as the most beautiful event in gymnastics.
    3. Uneven bars is a relatively new event in womens gymnastics having been performed for the first time at the 1952 Olympics.
    1. Somersault is a leap or fall in which one turns heels over head before landing on ones feet.
    2. To skip is to jump lightly and quickly.
    3. The best gymnasts perform cartwheels, back handsprings, and somersaults on the beam.
    Ex. 4. Read the text. Insert the missing terms from the list beam, six, four, leaps, somersault, floor exercises, balance, spins, vaulting horse, balances, uneven bars, gymnastics

  • 23. IP телефония. (книга djvu)
    Компьютеры, программирование
  • 24. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages
    Иностранные языки

    The coining of clipped word-forms may result either in the ousting of one of the words from the vocabulary or in establishing a clear semantic differentiation between the two units. In a few cases the full words become new roots: chapman chap, brandywine brandy. But in most cases a shortened word exists in the vocabulary together with the longer word from which it is derived and usually has the same lexical meaning differing only in stylistic reference. The question naturally arises whether the shortened and original forms should be considered separate words. Though it is obvious that in the case of semantic difference between a shortened unit and a longer one from which it is derived they can be termed as two distinct words: cabriolet cab. Some linguists hold the work that as the two units do not differ in meaning but only in stylistic application, it would be wrong to apply the term word to the shortened unit. In fact, the shortened unit is a word-variant. Other linguists contend that even when the original word and the shortened form are generally used with some difference in style, they are both to be recognised as two distinct words. If this treatment of the process of word-shortening is accepted, the essential difference between the shortening of words and the usual process of word-formation should be pointed out.

  • 25. Lipid biosynthesis
    Иностранные языки

    Protein storage doesnt take place in animals. Except for the small amount that circulates in the cells, amino acids exist in the body only in muscle or other protein-containing tissues. If the animal or human needs specific amino acids, they must either be synthesized or obtained from the breakdown of muscle protein. Adipose tissue serves as the major storage area for fats in animals. A normal human weighing 70 kg contains about 160 kcal of usable energy. Less than 1 kcal exists as glycogen, about 24 kcal exist as amino acids in muscle, and the balance-more than 80 percent of the total-exists as fat. Plants make oils for energy storage in seeds. Because plants must synthesize all their cellular components from simple inorganic compounds, plants-but usually not animals-can use fatty acids from these oils to make carbohydrates and amino acids for later growth after germination.

  • 26. LL (k) (-грамматики)
    Математика и статистика

    ПРМ: Пусть G состоит из правил S®aAS|b, A®a|bSA. Интуитивно G является LL(1)- грамматикой, потому что, коль скоро дан самый левый нетерминал С в левовыводимой цепочке и следующий входной символ с, существует не более одного правила, применимого к С и приводящего к терминальной цепочке, начинающейся символом с. Переходя к определению LL(1)- грамматики, мы видим, что если SÞwSa`Þwb`a`Þwx и SÞwSa`Þwc`a`Þwy и цепочки x и y начинаются одним и тем же символом , то должно быть b`=c`. В данном случае если x и y начинаются символом a, то в выводе участвовало правило S®aAS и b`=c`=aAS. Альтернатива S®b здесь невозможна. С другой стороны, если x и y начинаются с b, то должно применяться правило S®b и b`=c`=b. Заметим, что случай x=y=e здесь невозможен, так как из S в грамматике G не выводится e.

  • 27. Management of organization
    Иностранные языки

    Within the context of strategic human resource management, staffing encompasses human resource planning, acquisition, and development aimed at providing the talent necessary for organizational success. Four key staffing activities necessarily linked to organizational strategy and structure are: (1) human resource planning, (2) selection, (3) perform ance appraisal, and (4) training. A systems approach to human resource planning will help management devise staffing strategies for future hu man resource needs. As the organization's gatekeeper for vital human resources, employee selection should be more than a haphazard process of looking around for people to fill vacancies. There are relative advantages to promoting an insider as opposed to transferring in or hiring an outsider. Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws require managers to make hiring and other personnel decisions on the basis of ability to perform rather than personal prejudice. Because interworks are the most popular employee screening device, experts recommend structured rather than traditional, informal interworks. A structured interwork may be defined as a series of job-related questions with predetermined answers that are constantly applied across all interworks for a particular job.

  • 28. Oral conversational topics on business English language
    Иностранные языки

    When asked to define marketing, most people will say "to advertise a product" or "to sell a good". It's true that selling and advertising are parts of marketing, but there is much more. Marketing provides utility or the value that comes from satisfying human needs. Consumers use utility in many different circumstances in their everyday lives. For instance, we have the right to possess a product or service in exchange for money, which is called possession utility. Also, consumers use utility when they can buy a product or service when they want it, and also at a location where they would like to buy it. The former is called time utility and the latter is referred to as place utility. Production helps us to differentiate between what consumers want by providing form utility or a product produced, and task utility or a service given. Simply put, marketing provides time, place, and possession utility, and guides decisions about what goods and services should be produced to provide form utility and task utility. There are basically two different variants to defining marketing. Micro-marketing focuses on activities performed by an individual organization, and macro-marketing focuses on the economic welfare of a whole society. Both are important when trying to understand what is marketing. The first, micro-marketing, is the performance of activities that seek to accomplish an organization's objectives by anticipating customer or client needs and directing a flow of need-satisfying goods and services from producer to customer or client. Let's take a look at this definition. To begin with, marketing applies to both profit and non-profit organizations. All organizations have some kind or "audience" or "market" that they are trying to satisfy. The point is that all organizations need to practice good marketing techniques to accomplish their objectives and reach their goals. Furthermore, a very important goal of marketing is to identify customers' needs, and meet those needs the best way that organization knows how. If the marketing function has done this, than the product or service will assuredly sell itself In addition, marketing should focus on those needs that were identified, not with production. Marketing should anticipate those needs, and then determine the products or services to be developed. While this sounds like the marketing function leads business activity, this is false. Marketing should direct, not lead other business functions such as accounting, production, and financial activities toward the overall goals of the firm. Finally and most importantly, marketing builds a relationship with customers. A purchase does not mean the end of marketing related activities, on the contrary, it is only the beginning to a long, lasting relationship with customer, and should always look for ways to keep a customer coming back. As all marketers know and understand, it is easier and less costly to keep a customer once they have them, than it is to find them in the first place. This is why relationship marketing is so important. The second, macro-marketing, is a social process that directs an economy's flow of goods and services from producers to consumers in a way that effectively matches supply and demand and accomplishes the objectives of society. Here the emphasis is on the whole system, not the individual organization. Different producers in a society have different objectives, resources, and skills. Likewise, not all consumers share the same needs, preferences, and wealth. So, macro-marketing effectively helps to match supply differences with demand differences, while trying to accomplish a society's objectives. Thus, we can say marketing has two different definitions, dealing with two different levels of the economy.

  • 29. Political Economy and Republican Virtue: The Principle of Federal Authority
  • 30. Professional sea English language
    Иностранные языки

    1. Off-lying dangers. - An approachа) Песок Р. на юго-западной сторонеto S. isles from south-westward orканала простирается на полторыwestward requires caution in hazyмили юго-восточнее песков В., иor thick weather on account of theбольшая часть осыхает, от 2-х до 4-rocky ledges extending in those di-х футов (0,6м до 1,2м). Группа пло-rections, the principle of these areских скал С, которые ссыхают на 2Nan-deeps, about 2 miles west-фута (0,6м), лежит на севернойnorth-westward of A., C. rocks, B.кромке песка Р., которая подверже-rock and C.B. ridge, and the vari-на перемещению и изменению фор-ous ledges extending north-мы во время плохой погоды.westward from P. head at thesouth-western extremity of the is-lands. P. bank, with a least depth of13 fathoms (23m8) over it, liesnearly 3 miles southward of B.rock; the overfalls make it danger-ous to open boats in rough weather.(hazy - туманный; ledge -риф,гряда камней; ridge гребень,подводная гряда; overfall - бы-стрина)2. Hats, a group of rocky shoalsЬ) Побережье между М. и мысом В.north-eastward of I. islet, cover aокаймлено надводными и подвод-large area, with depths of less thanными скалами на расстоянии полу-3 fathoms (5m5) over it, with sev-мили от берега. Эти скалы приглу-eral heads having depths of from 3бые.to 6 feet (0m9 to lm8) over them; aboiler, which dries 2 feet (0m6) liesclose within the south-eastern cor-ner of these shoals; the approach toС bar lies between the south-western end of these shoals and thefoul ground extending from I.(boiler - котел; to dry ~ ссыхать)3. Off-lying banks. - Cape C. Bank, about 6 /2 miles north-westward ofс) Отмель с глубиной 17 футов (5м2)лежит около 1,25 кабельтова к вос-Cape C, is a rocky ridge with aтоку от мыса С. Между мысом С. иleast known depth of 12 fathomsмысом В., около 2-х миль на северо-(2 lm9) over it near its southern extremity. As the sea breaks heavily in bad weather on Cape C. bank and B. shoal, particularly during north-westerly gales their locality should be avoided at such times, especially by small and heavily laden vessels, (to break heavily -образовывать буруны) 4. Between В. Т. and В. Head, 33/4 miles south-eastward, is a succession of dark, rugged cliffs rising abruptly to an elevation of 400 feet (121m9); thence the coast trends about one mile northward to the entrance to S harbour; it maintains the same elevation, with but few trees and is intersected by deep ravines, but it rises less abruptly than westward of the head. (succession - последовательность; rugged неровный; to intersect - пересекать; ravine -ущелье, овраг) 5. Submarine cables. - Submarine cables cross the harbour from a position close to S. situated 3V4 cables north-eastward of A. point. Vessels should not anchor in the vicinity of these cables, the positions of which are indicated by wavy lines on the chart. (In the vicinity of- поблизости, в районе (чего-либо) Lвосток имеются несколько отдельно лежащих участков земли с глубинами от 7 до 18 футов (от 2,1м до 5,5м), лежащих в пределах одного кабельтова к берегу. d) Банка С, отмель из мелких ракушек и гравия, простирается на 3,5 мили на северо-восток от положения око ло 6 кабельтовых северо-восточнее маяка СР., вплотную к её южному концу имеются глубины от 7 и 11 футов (2,1м и 3,4м), а в других час тях имеются глубины от 11 до 30 футов (3,4м до 9,1м), а иногда и глубже. Банка заканчивается у севе ро-восточного конца в песчаной от мели почти в полумилю длиной, с наименьшей глубиной 15 футов (4,6м). В штормовую погоду море образует буруны на всех участках банки С, особенно на юго-западном конце, при сильных восточных вет рах нет укрытия между отмелью и берегом, т.к. неспокойное море про стирается к берегу. e) Удалённые от берега опасности. - Подход к островкам С. с юго-запада и запада требует осторожности в туманную погоду из-за скалистой гряды камней, простирающихся в тех направлениях, основными из них являются: Напдипс, около 2-х милей на запад - северо-запад от А., С, скала В., и подводная гряда С, В и различные рифы, простирающие ся на северо-запад от мыса Р. у юго- западной оконечности островов. Банка Р. с наименьшей глубиной 13 саженей (23,8м) находится почти в6. S. bank, a shoal of pulverized shell and fine gravel, extends for about 3V2 miles north-eastward from a position about 6 cables northeastward of S.P. lighthouse; close to its southern end there are depths of 7 and 11 feet (2ml and 3m4), and on other parts there are 11 to 30 feet (3m4 to 9ml), with occasionally greater depths. The bank terminates at the northeastern end in a sandy shoal nearly one mile in length, with a least depth of 15 feet (4m6). In boisterous weather the sea breaks heavily on all parts ofS. bank, especially on the south-western end; with strong easterly winds there is no shelter between the shoal and the land, the broken water extending to the coast. (broken water - неспокойное море, close to - близко, вплотную к, to terminate ~ кончать (ся), boisterous - бурный, неистовый) 7. A shoal, with a depth of 17 feet (5m2) over it, lies about 1V4 cables eastward of S head. Between S. Head and W. Point about 2 miles north-eastward there are several de tached patches, with depths of from 7 to 18 feet (2ml to 5m5) over them lying within one cable to the coast, (detached - отдельно лежащая мель) 8. The coast between M. and B. head3-х милях к югу от скалы В., быстрины создают опасность для судов в штормовую погоду. f) Хэтс, группа скалистых отмелей северо-восточнее островка И., за нимает большую площадь с глуби нами меньше, чем 3 сажени (5,5м) с несколькими мысами, на глубинах от 3 до 6 футов (0,9м до 1,8м); ко тел, который осыхает на 2 фута (0,6м) находится рядом, в юго- восточном углу этих отмелей. Под ход к бару С. находится между юго- западным концом этих отмелей и плохо держащим грунтом, прости рающимся от И. g) Удаленные от берега банки. - Банка С. около 6,5 миль к северо-западу от мыса С. - это скалистая подводная гряда с наименьшей известной глу биной 12 саженей (21,9м) возле её южной оконечности. Т.к. море об разует буруны в плохую погоду на мысе банки С. и отмели В., особен но во время северо-западных вет ров, эту местность в такое время следует обходить, особенно малень ким и тяжело груженым судам. h) Между В.Г. и мысом В. 3,75 милиis fringed by above-water and sunken rocks for as much as half a mile offshore. These rocks are steep-to. (steep-to - приглубый; to fringe - окаймлять) 9. P. sand, on the south-western side of the channel, extends lV2 miles south-eastward from W. sand, and the greater part dries from 2 to 4 feet (0m6 to lm2). C. ledge, a group of flat rocks which dry 2 feet (0m6), lies on the northern edge of P. sand, about half a mile eastward of the northern extremity of The Warren. There is small bank off the south-eastern end of P. sand which is liable to shift its position and change its shape during bad weather.на юго-восток имеется ряд темных, неровных утёсов, поднимающихся резко на высоту 400 футов (121,9м), откуда берег направляется на расстоянии 1 мили на север к входу в гавань С, он сохраняет ту же высоту с небольшим количеством деревьев и пересекается глубокими оврагами, но поднимается не так резко, чем к западу от мыса. i) Подводные кабели. - Подводные кабели пересекают гавань от места рядом с С, расположенного в 3,75 кабельтовых на северо-восток от мыса А. Судам не следует становиться на якорь в районе этих кабелей, местонахождение которых обозначено волнистыми линиями на карте.10. Read the text and say what useful information you have got

    1. Dangers. - Spur reef extends nearly a mile south-south-westward of Middle island. The western side, on which the sea always breaks, dries 3 feet (0m9); the eastern side was, in 1891, marked by a wreck. Foul ground extends one mile southward and 172 miles south-eastward from the reef.
    2. There are numerous shoal patches scattered about the northern end of the lagoon, within 2 miles of East island, with depths of from lV2 to 372 fathoms (2m7 to 6m4) over them. The position of which can best be seen on the chart. (To scatter - разбрасывать)
    3. Parry patch, with depths of 2l/4 fathoms (4ml) over it, at the entrance to Rambler bay, lies nearly 2V2 miles north-north-eastward of Marianne point. Elder rock, with a depth of 5 feet (lm5) over it, lies about 2 miles east-northeastward of Marianne point. A 3-fathom (5m5) coral patch lies 7 cables south-westward of Elder rock. About 13 cables north-eastward of Marianne point is a patch with depths of 4 fathoms (7m3) over it. About 4 cables west-north-westward of this patch is another with depths of 3 fathom (18m3) line, in the open part of the lagoon northward of those just mentioned, but ail have a greater depth than 5 fathoms (9ml) over them.
    4. Minni-Minni patch, with a depth of 17 feet (5m2) over it, lies 872 cables north-westward of the mined settlement at Minni-Minni. The lagoon southward of Minm-Mmm patch is studded with dangers; but vessels can proceed to within 3 miles of its southern end by keeping a careful look-out from aloft, and of buoying the intricate parts. (To stud - усеивать, усыпать; intricate сложный, запутанный; aloft- наверху,нареях)
    5. Dangers. ~ Bank du Vaudreuil lies maidway between the north-eastern side of Nosi Ovi and the northern shore of Rafaralahi bay between Sangajira point and Anorontsangana. This bank is broken in the centre by a passage with depths of from 5 to 8 fathoms (9ml to 14m6); there are some rocks awash on the southern part of the bank, and depths of less than 3 feet (0m9) over the northern part.
    6. A detached, 2l/2 - fathom (4m6), coral patch lies 23/4 miles north-westward; a rock with a depth of less than 6 feet (lm8) over it, lies about a mile northward; and some drying patches of reef lie about 2 miles north-north-eastward of Lavalohalika point. A 4-fathom (7m3) bank lies in the middle of the entrance to the bay, about 21/2 miles south-south-westward of the Custom house (Lat 13°55'S, Long. 47°56'E).
    7. Coast. - Outlying shoals. - Dangers.- From abreast Maromoni point the outer reef which is of the nature of a submerged barrier reef, and is a continuation of that which begins near Nosi Kivinji off the north-western side of the Am-bavatobi peninsula, continued south-westward, from 10 to 15 miles offshore as far as Bali bay, a distance of 156 miles, or, including the portion northward of Maromoni point (Lat. 14°40'S, Long. 47°28'E), about 230 miles. (Peninsula - полуостров)
  • 31. Round London Sightseeng Tour
    Медицина, физкультура, здравоохранение

    Now we are going to Buckingham Palace. The Palace was built by the Duke of Buckingham in 1705, hence, the name of the building. Originally it was not intended to become the Royal residence. For centuries Monarch lived first in Westminster Palace and then in St.James Palace. In 1762, George III bought the Palace from the Duke and presented it to his wife. And only in the 19th century, when Queen Victoria was on the throne, Buckingham Palace was turned into the residence of the Monarch. As a matter of fact, it serves two functions. It is a family home and the place where presidents, kings and politicians come to meet the Queen. Buckingham Palace is like a small town with its own police station, two post offices, a bar, two sports clubs, a disco, a cinema and a swimming pool. There are 600 rooms and 3 miles of red carpet. Every day at Buckingham Palace there is a famous ceremony the Changing of the Guard, at 11 p.m. Every day a new Guard of 30 guardsmen marches to the Palace and takes the place of the old guard. A large crowd of people gather to see this famous and traditional ceremony.

  • 32. The English grammar
    Иностранные языки

    Once you have decided what structure to teach, the way you aid the students understanding and practice the language can depend on a number of factors:

    1. Whether the structure is completely new, is familiar to at least some of the students but has not been focused on before, or has been presented before and is now being revised. Generally, the less familiar the language item the more controlled practice you need;
    2. the nature of the language: for example, whether it is the meaning and use or the form which is complex. The use of the present perfect is difficult to grasp for man students (Ive been here since 3 oclock where in many languages it would be I am here since 3 oclock). On the other hand, it is the complexity of the form rather than the meaning of the third conditional, with its many parts, which generally causes difficulty (If my alarm clock hadnt been broken I wouldnt have been late for the lecture);
    3. Whether the structure is more likely to be written or spoken. Some structures are mainly found in the written form and do not lend themselves to spoken practice activities for example, this sentence from a formal letter: I enclose ((the invoice/brochure/estimate). On the other hand, the students need practice in saying such utterances as Its a great (party/day/show), isnt it?
    4. the student:
    5. their level;
    6. their age;
    7. whether you can or want to use their mother tongue for explanation;
    8. the attitude of the group how confident the students are, whether they feel they already know the language item, etc;
    9. their language-learning background and expectations of how language is presented whether, for example, they expect traditional teacher-centered approach;
    10. Their preferred language-learning style for example, some students like to study grammar in an overt way while others (particularly children) are not interested in talking about the language and using such labels as gerund or demonstrative adjective.
  • 33. The gas-dynamic calcualation of the axial turbine stage

    If m=1 law of circulation constancy is implemented. This law of profiling is used for comparatively short blades (), because in this case reactivity rate across blade height is changed very essentially. And using long blades the reactivity rate can be negative near sleeve.longer blades profiling with index rate m<1 is applied. Particularly, for law of profiling with constant angle of the stream output from nozzle diaphragm is realized.obtain small m angle is increased. It causes increase of the axial gas velocity, which can reach local sonic speed at exit from working wheel. It will mean choking of the turbine stage. As a result, it is no point in increasing of angle more then on 20-25° at first stages. At these values negative reactivity rate can occur near blade root, especially at high values of loading coefficient.a result of this, profiling on the base of equation (1) is common, because it gives possibility to avoid negative values of the reactivity rate near the blade root by matching of rate index m at the all values.

  • 34. The History of English Syntax
    Иностранные языки

    The subordinate object clause is found in OE texts most often. It usually depends upon such verbs as sechan (say), cweDan (speak), þyncan (think), witan (know) etc. Subordinate object clauses are introduced by such conjunctions as: D{t, hif, hw{þer, also by conjunctive pronouns and adverbs: hwa, hw{t, hwilc, hu, hwær, hwider etc.attributive clauses are introduced in OE by the relative particle þe, also by a combination of þe + a demonstrative pronoun: se, seþe, þ{tþe, seoþe. clauses introduced by the particle þe are mostly of a limiting character, by the demonstrative pronoun "se" - of descriptive character.subordinate adverbial clauses those of time, place, cause, result, purpose, condition, concession are most common in OE.OE complex sentence reveals traits which attest to a lack of accuracy in the means of subordination. Correlation must also be mentioned as a traditional construction from parataxis to hypotaxis. It is a wide-spread phenomenon in complex sentences with subordinate adverbial and object clauses. In adverbial clauses of time, for example, subordinate conjunctions þa, þonne, hwanne, siþþan etc. often correlate with the adverbs þa or þonne in the main clause.conjunction "D{t" introducing a subordinate object clause may be correlated with the demonstrative pronoun "D{t" or personal pronoun "hit" functioning as objects in the main clause: e.g. Ne wiDcweDe ic þam nanwiht D{t þu swa do "I am not at all against that that you should do so".subordination is not frequent in OE, (example p.117) and it is treated in the same way as correlation, pleonastic use of pronouns, shifting from indirect to direct discourse, whish testify to immaturity of formal expression in the sphere of subordination.Englishthe ME complex sentence preserved many features inherited from OE which illustrated incomplete subordination, at the same time it aquired new properties attesting to the gradual elaboration of subordinate clauses. The development of hypotaxis was largely predetermined by the emergence of the national language and the rise of the written standard. in ME still occurs, but comparing with OE, it diminished, because it's nature appears to be different from what it used to be. The correlated elements in the main and the subordinate clauses often do not coincide in form: e.g. Auh forgif hit me nu, þet ich hit habbe itold te "forgive me it that I have told you about it".presume that such a correlation was a step made towards its total abandonment as a means reinforcing the subordinative conjunction. In ModE correlation would appear redundant at all, except for its stylistic value: e.g. he wondered more whether she could see his eagerness to get back to that which she had brought him away from. He the emphasis is achieved by putting "that" in the main clause.system of connectives in ME and later on underwent a number of changes too. Some of OE conjunctions fell into disuse: e.g. oþ þa (до того як), mid þam (з тим, щоб). Some connectives became specialized as indicators of new relationships. For example, OE temporal conjunction "sith" (з тих пір) began to express causal relationships as well. And, finally, a great number of new connectives came into being: e.g. save, except, in case, because, till, before etc.appearance of relative pronouns from interrogatives who, what, whos, whom (14th century) and the differentiation of "that, who, which" in their functions by the 18th century made it possible to indicate various kinds structural and semantic relationships in the complex sentence with subordinate attributive clauses.means of expressing subordination are growing more stabilized. In certain types of subordinate clause, first of all in object and adverbial clauses of purpose, the tense form becomes dependent on the tense of the predicate-verb in the main clause. This phenomenon, termed "sequence of tense" is considered now one of the means of expressing subordination.

  • 35. Theoretical phonetics
    Иностранные языки
  • 36. USB- порт
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Вполне понятно, что устройство USB 2.0 сможет реализовать высокую скорость, только если по пути от него к хост-контроллеру (тоже 2.0) будут встречаться только хаб» 2.0. Если это правило нарушить и между ним и контроллером 2.0 окажется старый хаб, то связь может быть установлена только в режиме FS. Если такая скорость, устройство и клиентское ПО устроит (к примеру, для принтера и сканера это выльется только в большее время ожидания пользователя), то подключенное устройство работать будет, но появится сообщение о неоптимальной конфигурации соединений. По возможности ее следует исправить, благо переключения кабелей USB можно выполнять «на ходу». Устройства и ПО, критичные к полосе пропускания шины, в неправильной конфигурации работать откажутся и категорично потребуют переключений. Если же хост-контроллер старый, то все прелести USB 2.0 окажутся недоступными пользователю. В этом случае придется менять хост-контроллер (менять системную плату или приобретать PCI-карту контроллера). Контроллер и хабы USB 2.0 позволяют повысить суммарную пропускную способность шины и для старых устройств. Если устройства FS подключать к разным портам хабов USB 2.0 (включая и корневой), то для них суммарная пропускная способность шины USB возрастет по сравнению с 12 Мбит/с во столько раз, сколько используется портов высокоскоростных хабов.

  • 37. VB, MS Access, VC++, Delphi, Builder C++ принципы(технология), алгоритмы программирования
    Компьютеры, программирование
  • 38. Windows XP - для начинающих
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Программа дефрагментации объединяет ">фрагментированные <ms-its:C:\WINDOWS\Help\howto.chm::/HELP=glossary.hlp%20TOPIC=gls_fragmentation>%20%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%bc%d0%bf%d1%8c%d1%8e%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b0,%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%81%d0%bb%d0%b5%20%d1%87%d0%b5%d0%b3%d0%be%20%d0%ba%d0%b0%d0%b6%d0%b4%d1%8b%d0%b9%20%d1%84%d0%b0%d0%b9%d0%bb%20%d0%b8%d0%bb%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%bf%d0%ba%d0%b0%20%d1%82%d0%be%d0%bc%d0%b0%20<ms-its:C:\WINDOWS\Help\howto.chm::/HELP=glossary.hlp%20TOPIC=gls_volume>%20%d0%b7%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%bc%d0%b0%d0%b5%d1%82%20%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%b8%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b5%20%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b5%d1%80%d1%8b%d0%b2%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b5%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b2%d0%be.%20"> файлы и папки на жестком диске <ms-its:C:\WINDOWS\Help\howto.chm::/HELP=glossary.hlp%20TOPIC=harddisk_def> компьютера, после чего каждый файл или папка тома <ms-its:C:\WINDOWS\Help\howto.chm::/HELP=glossary.hlp%20TOPIC=gls_volume> занимает единое непрерывное пространство. Фрагментация - разбиение файла на несколько частей, хранящихся в разных областях диска. Фрагментация порождается в процессе удаления-добавления файлов на диске. Она замедляет доступ к диску и уменьшает (как правило, несущественно) общее быстродействие диска. В результате дефрагментации доступ к файлам и папкам выполняется эффективнее. Объединяя отдельные части файлов и папок, программа дефрагментации также объединяет в единое целое свободное место на диске, что делает менее вероятной фрагментацию новых файлов.

  • 39. А. А. Ананьев "Супы"

    Для приготовления супов, так же как и бульонов, используют различные ароматические коренья, лук, морковь, которые улучшают вкус, аромат, внешний вид блюд. Как уже указывалось выше, ароматические вещества, содержащиеся в кореньях, очень летучи, они легко отделяются с водяными парами во время варки супа. Для того чтобы устранить потери ароматических веществ, лук, морковь, петрушку и другие коренья предварительно пассеруют (поджаривают) с жиром. Жир обладает способностью улавливать и прочно удерживать ароматические вещества, поэтому пассерованные овощи придают супам особенно хороший вкус и устойчивый аромат. Однако и пассерованные овощи могут утратить свой аромат, если их варят слишком долго. Во избежание этого пассерованные коренья надо закладывать в суп за 1015 минут до его готовности. Непосредственно перед окончанием варки нужно также класть в суп лавровый лист и перец.

  • 40. А. Волканов "Домашний кондитер"

    Сахарный песок, свежие дрожжи, теплое молоко, хорошо вымешивают с небольшим количеством муки с таким расчетом, чтобы получилось не очень крутое тесто, которое ставят на 2 часа в теплое место (2830°) для подъема. Тем временем готовят заливку: растирают добела желтки с сахаром, добавляют соль, вливают подогретое молоко и хорошо вымешивают. Подошедшее тесто помещают в большую посуду, добавляют в него заливку, муку и замешивают не очень круто (чтобы тесто не приставало к рукам). В тесто небольшими порциями добавляют, продолжая вымешивать, распущенное масло, взбитые белки и хорошо все растирают, после чего накрывают полотном и оставляют для подъема. Подошедшее тесто осаждают и после вторичного подъема распределяют по формам, заранее смазанным маслом и застланным пропитанной маслом бумагой. Формы следует заполнить не более чем на половину их емкости и до выпечки укрыть полотенцем, чтобы тесто не сохло. Когда тесто хорошо подойдет, его смазывают два раза яйцом и выпекают на небольшом огне. Продолжительность выпечки зависит от веса кулича (кулич в 1 кг 45 минут, в 11/2 кг 1 час, в 2 кг 11/2 часа).