• 81. Economic integration in Central Asia
  • 82. Education in Great Britain

    Science has great influence on our life. It provides with base of modern technology, materials, sources of power and so on. Modern science and technology have changed our life in many different ways. During the present century our life changed greatly. Thanks to radio and television we can do a great number of jobs; it was radio and TV that made it possible to photograph the dark side of the moon and to talk with the first cosmonaut while he was orbiting the Earth. On of the wonders of our age is the “electronic brain”, or giant calculating machine, which can to some extent duplicate human senses. The desk computer is expected to function as your personal librarian, to carry out simple optimization computations, to control your budget or diet, play several hundred games, etc. further development of the computer is believed to lead to a situation in which most of the knowledge accepted by mankind will be stored in the computers and made accessible to anyone with the home computers. It is natural that the advent of minicomputers with extensive memories and possibilities will lead to a new higher level in information culture. Among other things, we shall be able to organize educational process in the countrys colleges and universities and also in the system of school education on a new basic. Knowledge is the most valuable wealth, and minicomputers will help us to make it accessible for everyone. Agricultural scientists develop better varieties of plants. The development of antibiotics and other drugs has helped to control many diseases. Studies in anatomy and physiology have let to amazing surgical operations and the inventions of lifesaving machines, that can do the work of such organs as heart, lungs and so on. Nuclear fission when a tremendous amount if energy is setting free is very important discovery.

  • 83. England under Henry VIII


    • Hans Holbein (1497-1543)* - the German painter. Known as Hans Holbein Jr.
    • the Battle of Spurs** was held on the 16th of August, 1513 a.d. During it the French cavalry fled because of the advancing armies of Henry VIII and Maximilian I.
    • Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530)***, Chancellor of England since 1515 till 1529. Since 1514 - the Archbishop of York, since 1515 - the Cardinal. In 1529 he was arrested for treason.
    • Wittemberg**** - the Saxon city where in 1517 Luther read his 95 thesises against the Catholic Church.
    • the Reformation***** - the movement against the Ca-tholic Church in Western and Central Europe. It's crea-tor was Luther.
    • Martin Luther (1483-1546)****** - the leader of the Re-formation. He also translated the Bible into German.
    • John Wickliffe (1330-1384)******* - the English refor-mator. He said that the Pope was not necessary and wan-ted the Church to abandon its lands.
    • Thomas More (1487 - 1535)******** - the great lawer and political leader, was against the Reformation. Being a writer, he created "Utopia". Anne Boleyn, the second wife of the King, knowing that More had helped the King to dismiss Catherine of Aragon, caused Henry to execute this clever and honest Chancellor of England.
    • Act of Six Articles*********. Was written in 1539. It abolished the monasteries and showed that England was interested in religion and that damage inflicted to the Church was a crime. So, many Protestants were executed.
  • 84. Enigma
  • 85. Ernest Miller Hemingway

    On returning to America Hemingway began writing articles for newspapers in Toronto(Canada). In 1921 he went to Europe as a traveling correspondent. Until 1928 he lived mainly in Paris and was in the centre of European political life all the time. Hemingway was always in the right place at the right time to get the biggest news. He covered important conferences (Genoa, Lausanne), interworked leading statesmen, wrote on the coming revolution in Spain and followed the anti-fascist movement. In Paris he made friends with many writers. He toured many countries: he absorbed people, places and life like a sponge. He devoted 36 years of his life ( from 1920 to 1956) to journalism and may well be considered one of the most experienced journalists of the 20th century. He made it his principle to write the absolute truth. He learned to write in a clear and lucid manner. Later he used his news accounts in many short stories and novels. In 1920 he covered the Graeco-Turkish War as a journalist. “I remember”, he said thirty years later, “coming home from the Near East… absolutely heartbroken at what was going on and in Paris trying to decide whether I would put my whole life into trying to do something about it and be a writer.” He decided to become a writer and quit his job as reporter. This immediately told on him materially. He described his condition as being “bellyempty” and “hollow hungry” . In Paris he even caught pigeons in parks to have some food. For a long time he had no money. His first book “Three Stories and Ten Poems” was given a limited publication in Paris in 1923. His short-story book “In Our time” was published in 1924. His first novels on the so-called “lost generation”, “The Sun Also Rises” and “The Torrents of Spring”, were published in 1926. The year of 1929 was marked by the publishing of his famous novel “A Farewell to Arms”. From 1928 to 1938 the writer lived in Key West, Florida. He traveled a lot in France and Spain, wrote the best book on corrida that had appeared anywhere in the world, “Death in the Afternoon” (1932). He also took part in the first African safari (big game hunting), which he later described in the book “Green Hills of Africa” (1935). The short-story book “Winner Take Nothing” was published in 1933. “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” (1936) and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” (1936) belong to the most prominent of his short stories. In 1935 Hemingway published in the New Masses a pamphlet on the death of war veterans, whom the American Government had sent to work on reefs in the sea during a hurricane, thus causing their death.

  • 86. Fascismul - simbolulu negru al secolului XX

    Desigur, asemenea clase mijlocii conservatoare erau suporterii potentiali sau chiar convertiti la fascism, din cauza configuratiei bataliei politice interbelice. Amenintarea la adresa societatii liberale si a tuturor valorilor sale parea sa vina exclusiv dinspre dreapta; amenintarea la adresa ordinii sociale dinspre stânga. Reprezentantii clasei de mijloc si-au ales politica conform temerilor lor. Conservatorii traditionali de obicei simpatizau cu demagogii fascismului si erau pregatiti sa se alieze cu ei împotriva inamicului major. Hitler a fost adus la putere de o coalitie a dreptei traditionale, pe care el mai târziu a înghitit-o. Generalul Franco a inclus în frontul sau national Falanga spaniola, destul de slaba pe atunci, din cauza ca el reprezenta uniunea întregii drepte împotriva spectrelor anilor 1789 si 1917, între care nu a facut deosebiri subtile. A fost destul de norocos ca sa nu se alature oficial, în al doilea razboi mondial, lui Hitler, dar a trimis o trupa de voluntari, "Divizia Albastra", care a luptat împotriva comunistilor atei din Rusia cot la cot cu nemtii. Maresalul Petain cu siguranta ca nu a fost fascist si nici simpatizant nazist. Unul dintre motivele pentru care dupa razboi a fost atât de dificil sa se faca distinctie între fascistii devotati si colaborationistii progermani pe de o parte, si principalul organism de sprijin al regimului de la Vichy al maresalului Petain, pe de alta parte, a fost acela ca, de fapt, nu exista o linie clara de demarcatie. Cei ai caror parinti i-au urât pe Dreyfus, pe evrei si republica - câteva figuri de la Vichy erau destul de în vârsta pentru a fi facut acest lucru - pe nesimtite au început sa se transforme în fanatici ai unei Europe hitleriste. Pe scurt, alianta "fireasca" a dreptei din perioada interbelica a mers de la conservatorii traditionali, prin reactionarii de stil vechi, catre marginile exterioare ale patologiei fasciste. Fortele traditionale ale conservatismului si contrarevolutiei erau puternice, dar adesea inerte. Fascismul le-a conferit în aceeasi masura o dinamica si, mai important, exemplul victoriei în lupta cu dezordinea. (Nu era oare un argument proverbial în favoarea Italiei fasciste acela ca " Mussolini a facut ca trenurile sa circule conform orarului"?) Exact asa cum dinamismul comunistilor a exercitat o influenta asupra stângii dezorientate si fara cârma dupa 1933, succesele fascismului, în special dupa ce national-socialistii au preluat puterea în Germania, l-au facut pe acesta sa para progresist. Chiar faptul ca la vremea respectiva fascismul si-a facut o intrare proeminenta, fie si de scurta durata, pe scena politica a Marii Britanii conservatoare, demonstreaza puterea acestui "efect demonstrativ". Faptul ca fascismul 1-a convertit pe unul dintre cei mai importanti politicieni ai natiunii si a câstigat sprijinul unuia dintre lorzii de presa majori ai sai este mai semnificativ decât faptul ca miscarea lui sir Oswald Mosley a fost rapid abandonata de catre politicieni respectabili si ca ziarul Daily Mail al lordului Rothermere si-a retras curând sprijinul pentru Uniunea Britanica a Fascistilor. Deoarece Marea Britanie era înca universal si pe buna dreptate considerata ca un model de stabilitate politica si sociala.

  • 87. Finanzierung In Deutschland
    Иностранные языки

    Die langfristigen Darlehen werden vor allem von den Realkreditinstituten - privaten Hypothekenbanken und offentlich-rechtlichen Grundkreditanstalten - und den Spezialkreditinstituten - wie etwa der Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau - sowie den Girozentralen und den Sparkassen gewahrt,die bei ihren Ausleihungen auf den „Bodensatz der sich bei ihnen kurz-, mittel- und langfristig ansammelnden Mittel zuruckgreifen. Die Kredite der genannten Institute werden im allgemeinen nur im Rahmen erstrangiger Sicherheiten ausgegeben, bei Realkreditinstituten fast ausschliesslich im Rahmen erstelliger Hypotheken. Die Ruckzahlung der Darlehen geschieht normalerweise entweder durch regelmassig zu leistenden gleichbleibende Annuitaten, die sich aus - im Laufe der Zeit steigenden - Tilgungsquoten und - im Laufe der Zeit zuruckgehenden - Zinsbetragen zusammensetzen, oder durch regelmassige Zahlung gleicher Tilgungsbetrage.

  • 88. Forex. Мировой валютный рынок, технический анализ движения цены, волновая теория Эллиота, уровни Фиб...

    На рынке существует три типа тенденций. Определение тенденций, которое дает Доу, выглядит следующим образом: при восходящей тенденции каждый последующий пик и каждый последующий спад выше предыдущего. Другими словами, у бычьей тенденции должен быть абрис кривой с последовательно возрастающими пиками и спадами. Соответственно, при нисходящей тенденции каждый последующий пик и спад будет ниже, чем предыдущий. Такое определение тенденции является основополагающим и служит отправной точкой в анализе тенденций. Доу выделял три категории тенденций: первичную, вторичную и малую. Наибольшее значение он придавал именно первичной, или основной тенденции, которая длится более года, а иногда и несколько лет. Вторичная, или промежуточная тенденция, является корректирующей по отношению к основной тенденции и длится, обычно, от трех недель до трех месяцев. Подобные промежуточные поправки составляют от 1/3 до 2/3 (очень часто половина или 50%) расстояния, пройденного ценами во время предыдущей тенденции. Малые, или краткосрочные тенденции длятся не более трех недель и представляют собой краткосрочные колебания в рамках промежуточной тенденции.

  • 89. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
    Иностранные языки
  • 90. Great Britain
    Иностранные языки

    Birmingham is the most important city in the Midlands, one of Englands most productive regions, with large industrial areas such as the Black Country in the West Midlands. However, there is also a lot of farming country, for example in the counties of Shropshire, Worcestershire and Leicestershire. This region has some beautiful countryside in the Peak District National Park, the Cotswold Hills and the Malvern Hills.upon-Avon is well-known all over the world. Here, at Henley Street, a son was born to John and Mary Shakespeare in April 1564. His mother was the daughter of Robert Arden, an important farmer in Warwickshire. His father was a rich citizen whose business was making and selling leather gloves.parents did not guess that their son, William, was going to be such an important figure in English poetry and drama, and that his plays would still be acted four hundred years later-not only in England, but all over the world!still a teenager of nineteen, William married Anne Hathaway, a farmers daughter some years older than himself. We dont know how he earned his living during these early years. He may have helped his father in the family business or he may have been a country schoolmaster for a time. During these years his three children were born: Susannah, the eldest, then twins-a son, Hamnet (not Hamlet!), and another girl, Judith. In 1587 Shakespeare went to work in London, leaving Anne and the children at home. One story says this is because he killed some deer which belonged to a rich landowner nearby, and that he had to run away from the law.soon began to act and to write plays. By 1592 he was an important member of a well-known acting company, and in 1599 the famous Globe Theatre was built on the south bank of the river Thames. It was in this theatre that most of his plays were performed and, like all Elizabethan theatres, it was a round building with a stage in the centre open to the sky. If it rained, the actors got wet! If the weather was too bad, there was no performance.1603, the year when Queen Elizabeth I died, Shakespeare was already the leading poet and dramatist of his time. He continued to write for the next ten years, but in 1613 he finally stopped writing and went to live in Stradford where he died in 1616. He is buried in Holy Trinity Church, Stradford-upon-Avon.Jonson, who lived from 1572 to 1637, and who was also a famous writer of plays, called Shakespeare Sweet swan of Avon. Shakespeare has been known as the Swan of Avon ever since.has been a town where Oxford now stands for many centuries-even before 912, the first written record of its existence.University began to establish itself in the middle of the 12th century, and by 1300 there were already 1,500 students. At this time Oxford was a wealthy town, but by the middle of the 14th century it was poorer, because of a decline in trade and because of the terrible plague, which killed many people in England. Relations between the students and the townspeople were very unfriendly, and there was often fighting in the streets. On 10th February 1355, the festival of St. Scholastica, a battle began which lasted two days. The townspeople were punished for this in two ways: they had to walk through the town to attend a special service on every St. Scholasticas day until 1825. Worse than this, the University was given control of the town for nearly 600 years., there are about 12,000 students in Oxford, and the University and the town live happily side by side!, Oxford is not only famous for its University and its magnificent architecture. (The best-known description of Oxford is by Matthrew Arnold, the 19th century poet, who wrote about that sweet city with her dreaming spires.) In the 20th century, it has developed quickly as an industrial and commercial centre. The British Leyland factory at Cowley, for example, is an important part of Britains motor industry. It is also an important centre in the world of medicine, it is the home of Oxfam, the charity which raises millions of pounds to help poor people all over the world; and its airport contains Europes leading airtraining school.

  • 91. Greenpeace
    Иностранные языки

    Являясь всемирной организацией, Гринпис сосредоточился на борьбе с самыми серьезными мировыми опасностями, угрожающими разнообразию и окружающей среде нашей планеты. Организация проводит кампании, направленные на остановку климатических изменений, защиту старых лесов, спасение океанов, прекращение охоты на китов, протестует против генной инженерии, ядерной угрозы, уничтожения токсических химикатов.

  • 92. Haratyan - the popular actor
    Иностранные языки

    In 1997 debuted on a stage in a role of the dreamer and George's romanticism in performance About mice and people on D.Stejnbeka's stories (реж. M.Gorevoj), put by theatrical company « Moscow enterprise ». Middle-aged Crisis (1998) which the criticism has named a confession of generation has played a serious and sad role of the doctor of "first aid" of Sergey in G.Sukacheva's film. By the end of 1990th years as the majority of known actors, it began to be removed actively in teleserials.

  • 93. How to write exam essay
    Иностранные языки
  • 94. HTML и базы данных
    Компьютеры, программирование

    имя атрибутавозможные значениясмыслпримечанияTYPETEXT, PASSWORD, CHECKBOX, RADIO, SUBMIT, RESET, FILE, HIDDEN, IMAGE тип поля для вводапо умолчанию TEXTNAMEстрокаимя для идентификации поля, когда его содержимое передается серверутребуется для всех атрибутов, кроме SUBMIT и RESETVALUEстрокапервоначальное значение вводного поля; для атрибутов SUBMIT или RESET - текстовая меткаобязателен, если TYPE = RADIO или CHECKBOXCHECKEDустановленныйкогда TYPE = RADIO или CHECKBOX, инициализирует поле к установленному состояниюSIZEцелоевидимый размер поля; количество символовMAXLENGTHцелоемаксимальное количество символов, разрешенных в текстовом полепо умолчанию не ограниченоSRCURLадрес изображениядля полей с фоновыми изображениямиALIGNTOP, MIDDLE, BOTTOM, LEFT, RIGHTвыравнивание изображения для графических управляющих кнопокпо умолчанию BOTTOMРазличные значения атрибута TYPE соответствуют различным видам вводных полей.

  • 95. Indirect speech acts in modern English discourse. - Косвенные речевые акты в современном английском ...
  • 96. Industry overwork
    Иностранные языки

    The meat market's capacity is estimated to be 8 million tons, porks share is 2.6 million tons (without breaking down the meat into chilled and frozen types). In value terms, the capacity is US$ 15-17 billions. In Russia, average consumption of meat per capita equals 55 kg, 17.8 kg (32%) of which are pork. In terms of meat consumption, Russia lags behind European countries, where a person eats about 80 kg a year. However, due to the general improve of the countrys economy and, consequently, well-being of its citizens, meat consumption in Russia is growing. The growth potential is partially proved by the dynamics of the market volume: the long downfall that lasted throughout 1990s came to an end in 2000-2001, when the market began to grow. In 2002-2005 it gained 20% on the whole, and pork's share has grown 33%.

  • 97. Internet. Службы и возможности
    Компьютеры, программирование

    Не только сетевой аналог печатной прессы можно встретить в Интернете. Все чаще на верхние строчки рейтингов попадают сетевые издания, существующие лишь в Сети. Почему же возрастает спрос именно на такие издания? Чем сетевая газета отличается от обычной?

    1. Во-первых: жанр "сетевой" прессы определяется спецификой Сети как медийной среды и особенностями восприятия информации с экрана монитора. В первую очередь это гипертекстовые ссылки, которые обеспечивают доступ к архивам и другим электронным ресурсам. Таким образом, читатель имеет дело не с линейным текстом, а с расширенным объемом информации.
    2. Во-вторых: многочисленные формы обратной связи (гостевые книги, форумы, конференции, интерактив) дают читателю возможность участвовать в производстве информационного продукта и размывают грань между автором и читателем. Стилистические особенности сетевого текста отчасти связаны с тем, что еще в обозримом прошлом читатели сетевой прессы знали авторов лично или по переписке. Отсюда некоторая вольность в обращении со словами и тяготение к разговорной лексике. Кроме того, обычное для "нормальной" прессы подавление авторской индивидуальности через тщательную редактуру в сетевой прессе пока широко не распространено.
    3. В-третьих: сетевые СМИ обладают целым рядом преимуществ по сравнению с печатной прессой. Это возможность незамедлительной публикации материалов, благодаря которой сетевые издания оказываются оперативнее газет и телевидения, ведь оперативность газеты ограничена сроком выхода номера, а оперативность телевидения - временем выхода в эфир новостей; оперативность же сетевого издания вообще ничем не ограничена. Эта идея породила "ленту новостей". Однако, по мнению некоторых сетевых журналистов, по-настоящему в ней заинтересован весьма и весьма узкий круг потребителей информации. Представитель "молчаливого большинства" не нуждается в том безумном количестве разнообразных новостей, которые проходят по каналам информационных агентств.
    4. В-четвертых: относительно малая себестоимость сетевых проектов и отсутствие централизации благоприятствуют расцвету специализированных газет и журналов. Тем самым обеспечивается гарантированная Конституцией свобода слова и самовыражения.
  • 98. Interpol
    Иностранные языки

    Интерпол является второй по величине международной организацией после Организации Объединенных Наций. Сейчас организация насчитывает 184 страны члена организации. Финансируется эта организация путем ежегодных взносов стран членов этой организации, что составляет в общем 30 миллионов евро, хотя бюджет Европола составляет 50 миллионов евро в год. Штаб-квартира организации расположена в Лионе, Франция, прежде штаб-квартира находилась в Сейнт Клауд, городке, расположенном в предместьях Парижа.

  • 99. IP-телефония
    Компьютеры, программирование

    .%20%d0%9f%d1%80%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b8%d0%bd%d1%8b%20%d0%b7%d0%b0%d0%b4%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b6%d0%b5%d0%ba%20%d0%b2%20%d0%bf%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%b0%d1%87%d0%b5%20%d0%b3%d0%be%d0%bb%d0%be%d1%81%d0%be%d0%b2%d1%8b%d1%85%20%d0%b4%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d1%85%20%d0%bf%d0%be%20%d1%81%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%b8%20IP,%20%d0%b2%20%d0%b1%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d1%88%d0%be%d0%b9%20%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%bf%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%20%d1%81%d0%b2%d1%8f%d0%b7%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%8b%20%d1%81%20%d0%be%d1%81%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%bd%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d1%8f%d0%bc%d0%b8%20%d1%82%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%81%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%80%d1%82%d0%b0%20%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%be%d0%b2.%20%d0%9f%d1%80%d0%be%d1%82%d0%be%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%bb%20TCP%20%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%b5%d1%81%d0%bf%d0%b5%d1%87%d0%b8%d0%b2%d0%b0%d0%b5%d1%82%20%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%bd%d1%82%d1%80%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%20%d0%b4%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b0%d0%b2%d0%ba%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%be%d0%b2,%20%d0%be%d0%b4%d0%bd%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%be%20%d0%b4%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b0%d1%82%d0%be%d1%87%d0%bd%d0%be%20%d0%bc%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d0%b9%20%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%82%d0%be%d0%bc%d1%83%20%d0%bd%d0%b5%20%d0%b8%d1%81%d0%bf%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d0%b7%d1%83%d0%b5%d1%82%d1%81%d1%8f%20%d0%b4%d0%bb%d1%8f%20%d0%bf%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%b0%d1%87%d0%b8%20%d0%b3%d0%be%d0%bb%d0%be%d1%81%d0%b0.%20UDP%20%d0%b1%d1%8b%d1%81%d1%82%d1%80%d0%be%20%d0%be%d1%82%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%b2%d0%bb%d1%8f%d0%b5%d1%82%20%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%b5%d1%82%d1%8b%20,%20%d0%be%d0%b4%d0%bd%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%be%20%d0%b2%d0%be%d1%81%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%b5%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d1%8f%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d1%85%20%d0%b4%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d1%85%20%d0%bd%d0%b5%20%d0%b3%d0%b0%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%bd%d1%82%d0%b8%d1%80%d1%83%d0%b5%d1%82%d1%81%d1%8f,%20%d1%87%d1%82%d0%be%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d0%b2%d0%be%d0%b4%d0%b8%d1%82%20%d0%ba%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d1%8f%d0%bd%d1%8b%d0%bc%20%d1%87%d0%b0%d1%81%d1%82%d1%8f%d0%bc%20%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%b7%d0%b3%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%be%d1%80%d0%b0%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%20%d0%b2%d0%be%d1%81%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%b8%20(%d0%be%d0%b1%d1%80%d0%b0%d1%82%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%bc%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%be%d0%b1%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%b7%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%b0%d0%bd%d0%b8%d0%b8)%20%d0%b7%d0%b2%d1%83%d0%ba%d0%b0.%20%d0%9d%d0%b5%d0%bc%d0%b0%d0%bb%d1%8b%d0%b5%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bc%d1%8b%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d0%bd%d0%be%d1%81%d0%b8%d1%82%20%d0%b4%d0%b6%d0%b8%d1%82%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%20(%d0%be%d1%82%d0%ba%d0%bb%d0%be%d0%bd%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d1%8f%20%d0%b2%20%d0%bf%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b8%d0%be%d0%b4%d0%b5%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d1%83%d0%bf%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%b8%d1%8f-%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d1%91%d0%bc%d0%ba%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%be%d0%b2),%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%8f%d0%b2%d0%bb%d1%8f%d1%8e%d1%89%d0%b8%d0%b9%d1%81%d1%8f%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%b0%d1%87%d0%b5%20%d1%87%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%b7%20%d0%b1%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d1%88%d0%be%d0%b5%20%d1%87%d0%b8%d1%81%d0%bb%d0%be%20%d1%83%d0%b7%d0%bb%d0%be%d0%b2%20%d0%b2%20%d0%bd%d0%b0%d0%b3%d1%80%d1%83%d0%b6%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b9%20IP-%d1%81%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%b8.%20%d0%9d%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b0%d1%82%d0%be%d1%87%d0%bd%d0%be%20%d0%b2%d1%8b%d1%81%d0%be%d0%ba%d0%b0%d1%8f%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%be%d0%bf%d1%83%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%bd%d0%b0%d1%8f%20%d1%81%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%81%d0%be%d0%b1%d0%bd%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d1%8c%20%d1%81%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%b8%20(%d0%bd%d0%b0%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d0%bc%d0%b5%d1%80%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%20%d0%be%d0%b4%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b2%d1%80%d0%b5%d0%bc%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%bd%d0%be%d0%b9%20%d0%bd%d0%b0%d0%b3%d1%80%d1%83%d0%b7%d0%ba%d0%b5%20%d0%bd%d0%b5%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d0%ba%d0%b8%d0%bc%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d0%b7%d0%be%d0%b2%d0%b0%d1%82%d0%b5%d0%bb%d1%8f%d0%bc%d0%b8),%20%d1%81%d0%b5%d1%80%d1%8c%d1%91%d0%b7%d0%bd%d0%be%20%d0%b2%d0%bb%d0%b8%d1%8f%d0%b5%d1%82%20%d0%bd%d0%b5%20%d1%82%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d0%ba%d0%be%20%d0%bd%d0%b0%20%d0%b7%d0%b0%d0%b4%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b6%d0%ba%d0%b8%20(%d1%82.%d0%b5.%20%d1%80%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%20%d0%b4%d0%b6%d0%b8%d1%82%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d0%b0),%20%d0%bd%d0%be%20%d0%b8%20%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%b8%d0%b2%d0%be%d0%b4%d0%b8%d1%82%20%d0%ba%20%d0%b1%d0%be%d0%bb%d1%8c%d1%88%d0%b8%d0%bc%20%d0%bf%d0%be%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d1%8f%d0%bc%20%d0%bf%d0%b0%d0%ba%d0%b5%d1%82%d0%be%d0%b2">Общая приемлемая задержка по стандарту - не более 250 миллисекунд <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/VoIP>. Причины задержек в передаче голосовых данных по сети IP, в большой степени связаны с особенностями транспорта пакетов. Протокол TCP обеспечивает контроль доставки пакетов, однако достаточно медленный и потому не используется для передачи голоса. UDP быстро отправляет пакеты , однако восстановление потерянных данных не гарантируется, что приводит к потеряным частям разговора при восстановлении (обратном преобразовании) звука. Немалые проблемы приносит джиттер (отклонения в периоде поступления-приёмки пакетов), появляющийся при передаче через большое число узлов в нагруженной IP-сети. Недостаточно высокая пропускная способность сети (например при одновременной нагрузке несколькими пользователями), серьёзно влияет не только на задержки (т.е. рост джиттера), но и приводит к большим потерям пакетов

  • 100. Is The World Becoming Characterized More By Peace or By War?
    Иностранные языки