География

  • 1. Анализ эффективности гидроразрыва пласта на разведочных скважинах
    Доклад

    Бурение новых скважин требует привлечения значительных капитальных вложений. Для уточнения характера насыщения и фильтрационно-емкостных свойств продуктивных пластов в слабоизученных зонах месторождения проводится расконсервация и пробная эксплуатация разведочных скважин. Бурение разведочных скважин на Южно-Пырейном и Восточно-Таркосалинском месторождениях производилось в 1980-1990 гг., т.е. период консервации скважин, в среднем, составляет 10 - 15 лет.

  • 2. "Зелёные деньги" Республики Беларусь
    Доклад

    (около 1/4 общего объема лесосеки). Согласно соглашению между Минлесхозом и Всемирным банком, который выдал отрасли кредит на развитие лесного хозяйства с условием либерализации цен на древесину и создания системы продажи леса на корню, на аукционах должно продаваться до 80% леса. Конечные цены на аукционах превышают стартовые в 56 раз, что вызывает недовольство неконкурентоспособных госпредприятий, проигрывающих торги. Оставшаяся часть древесины (около 3,3 млн. куб. м) реализуется по договорным ценам (превышающим таксовые на 3040%) строителям, предприятиям леспрома и т.п.

  • 3. "Прибалт": слово и представление
    Информация

    В официальных советских текстах латышей, литовцев и эстонцев, желая объединить их общим именем, называли "братскими народами Советской Прибалтики", а в менее торжественных контекстах - "прибалтийскими народами". Что же касается рассматриваемого здесь слова "прибалт", то оно получило распространение совсем в другой коммуникативной среде. Едва ли не чаще всего встречается оно в 1940-50-е годы в контекстах, связанных с ГУЛАГом. Приведем некоторые примеры: "В целом же среди двухсот заключенных преобладают украинки и прибалты, сопротивляющиеся присоединению к СССР (Н. Семпер (Соколова) - Дружба народов,1997, 3 , с 110); Оставались в лагере еще люди войны, каратели и коллаборационисты. И хотя "катушка" была теперь в 15 лет, прежний закон "обратной силы не имел", они досиживали свои 25-летние срока. Было немало оуновцев и "лесных братьев"-прибалтов, немало верующих, особенно иеговистов (Л. Ситко. Дубровлаг при Хрущеве. Новый мир, 1997, 10 с.148); Когда нас привезли в Воркуту, был январь, шестидесятиградусные морозы...Разбежались по баракам. Украинки с украинками, прибалтки с прибалтками. Завтра в пять утра развод.(Письмо И.Гогуа от 24 апреля 1949 г.// Ирина Червакова. Песочные часы. История жизни Ирины Гогуа в восьми кассетах, письмах и комментариях. - Дружба народов, 1997, 5, с. 104); Большинство ссыльных в Нижне-Шадринске и его окрестностях составляли прибалты, они работали на лесоповале. Основное же население - так называемые чалдоны. Они произошли от ссыльных каторжников....ссыльных кулаков они считали братьями по несчастью, прибалтов изменниками, а уж интеллигентов - истинными врагами (Е.В.Баева. Трудные годы. Воспоминания // Наука и жизнь, N 5, 1999, с. 44); А скажи крымскому татарину, калмыку или чечену - "тридцать седьмой" - он только плечами пожмет. А Ленинграду что тридцать седьмой, когда прежде был тридцать пятый? А повторникам или прибалтам не тяжче был 48-й - 49-й? И если попрекнут меня ревнители стиля и географии, что еще упустил я в России реки, так и потоки еще не названы, дайте страниц! Из потоков и остальные сольются. А.Солженицын. Архипелаг ГУЛАГ); К тому ж за это время семью У., как и семьи многих прибалтов, выселили в Сибирь (там же).

  • 4. 25 Экзаменационных билетов по географии за 11 класс с ответами
    Информация

    Макрорайоны США. Северо-Восток самый маленький по площади. Играл и играет важную роль в жизни страны. Отсюда началась европейская колонизация страны, здесь сформировался главный промышленный пояс США. Географический рисунок хозяйства и расселения определяется Северовосточным мегалополисом. Здесь находятся города Вашингтон и Нью-Йорк, крупные промышленные центры Бостон, Филадельфия, Питсбург и др. Одна из главных угольно-металлургических баз страны расположена в районе Питсбурга. Средний Запад расположен к югу от Великих озер. Промышленные центры Чикаго, Детройт. Развита черная металлургия, автомобильная промышленность. Приозерный мегалополис. Это житница страны. Здесь находятся «молочный пояс», «кукурузный пояс», «пояс яровой пшеницы», «пояс озимой пшеницы». Юг значительное время развивался медленнее Северо-Востока и Среднего Запада из-за преобладания рабовладельческого плантационного хозяйства. Сейчас первое место в стране по добычи нефти (Техас, Мексиканский залив), угля, фосфоритов (Флорида). «Хлопковый пояс» сократился в размерах, сельское хозяйство стало многоотраслевым и интенсивным. Флорида центр туризма. Запад самый молодой по времени освоения. Калифорния главный научный и военно-промышленный арсенал США, главный сельскохозяйственный штат. Лос-Анджелес центр добычи нефти, золота, развития кинематографии и одновременно центр отраслей элоктронно-аэрокосмической ориентации.

  • 5. 30 экзаменационных билетов по географии
    Методическое пособие

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность. Состав, значение в хозяйстве, особенности размещения. Энергетическая проблема человечества и пути ее решения. Проблемы охраны окружающей среды.

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность состоит из топливной промышленности и энергетики. Топливная промышленность комплекс отраслей, занимающихся добычей и переработкой топливно-энергетического сырья. Включает угольную, газовую, нефтяную, торфяную, сланцевую и уранодобы-вающую промышленность. В условиях НТР роль топливной промышленность возрастает в связи с развитием электрификации и теплофикации производств, обусловливающих интенсивный рост потребления энергии.

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность прошла в своем развитии несколько этапов: угольный (до середины XX в.), нефтяной и газовый (до 80-х гг. XX в.); в настоящее время мировая энергетика вступила в переходный этап этап постепенного перехода от использования минерального топлива к возобновимым и неисчерпаемым энергоресурсам.

    Нефтяная промышленность. Нефть добывают примерно в 80 странах, но географию этой отрасли определяют страны «первой десятки». Основная особенность более 4/5 запасов и около 1/2 добычи нефти приходится на развивающиеся страны, которые и являются главными экспортерами нефти, особенно страны ОПЕК. В результате образовался огромный территориальный разрыв между основными районами добычи нефти и районами ее потребления. Крупнейшими экспортерами нефти являются страны Персидского залива. Большими запасами обладают Россия, США, Китай, Иран и др.

    Газовая промышленность. Крупнейшие производители Россия, США, Канада, Нидерланды. В последнее время добыча газа растет в некоторых развивающихся странах. Алжир, Малайзия, Индонезия, ОАЭ продают сжиженный природный газ в страны Европы и Японию.

    Угольная промышленность. Уголь добывают примерно в 60 странах мира, но географию отрасли, как и у нефтяной промышленности, определяют страны «первой десятки». Китай, США, Россия дают больше половины всей мировой добычи. Уголь добывают в основном в экономически развитых странах: ФРГ, Великобритания, Польша, Австралия, ЮАР и др.

    Электроэнергетика. В структуре производства электроэнергии преобладают тепловые электростанции (63% всей выработки), затем гидроэлектростанции (20%) и атомные (17%). Эти данные характерны для мирового производства. В разных регионах и странах электроэнергетика имеет свои особенности: в ЮАР почти вся электроэнергия вырабатывается на ТЭС, в Норвегии на ГЭС, во Франции большинство энергии дают АЭС (76%). Франция, Япония, Республика Корея продолжают, в отличие от многих других стран, наращивать мощности атомной энергетики и после Чернобыльской катастрофы. Странами, выделяющимися по количеству производимой электроэнергии, являются США, Россия, Япония, ФРГ, Канада.

    Растет интерес к использованию нетрадиционных ресурсов для выработки электроэнергии: геотермальная энергетика, сооружение приливных, солнечных электростанций, использование энергии ветра.

    Энергетическая проблема связана с сырьевой. Это проблемы обеспечения человечества топливом и сырьем. Решение проблемы заключается в использовании достижений НТР для уменьшения потери топлива и сырья, использование альтернативных источников энергии, вовлечение в эксплуатацию новых месторождений.

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность оказывает влияние на окружающую среду: при добыче полезных ископаемых нарушается почвенный

    покров, «съедаются» целые природные ландшафты, при добыче и транспортировке нефти и газа происходит загрязнение Мирового океана и т. п. Мировая тепловая энергетика выбрасывает в окружающую среду вредные вещества, изменяется состав атмосферы, происходит ее тепловое загрязнение. При строительстве ГЭС изменяется микроклимат территории, ее гидрологический режим и т. п. Атомная энергетика породила проблему захоронения радиоактивных отходов (не говоря о Чернобыле). Пути решения экологических проблем, связанных с топливно-энергетической промышленностью, создание очистных сооружений, внедрение малоотходных и безотходных технологий, продуманное размещение производств.

  • 6. 4 capitals of Great Britain
    Информация

    Out of the mess left behind by the consequences of the Jacobite rebellion came a number of Scottish Intellectuals, many from Edinburgh, including Adam Smith, who felt it was time to put the history of the Clans of Scotland behind them and that this was a time for Scotland to modernise. They promoted the idea of Britishness, and led Great Britain and the British Empire into a golden age of economic and social reform and prosperity. It was during this period, that Edinburgh expanded beyond the limits of its city walls, with the creation of the New Town, following the draining of the Nor Loch, which has since become Princes Street Gardens. Edinburgh became a major cultural centre, earning it the nickname Athens of the North because of the Greco-Roman style of the New Towns' architecture, as well as the rise of the Scottish/British intellectual elite in the city, who were increasingly leading both British and European intellectual thought. Edinburgh is particularly noted for its fine architecture, especially from the Georgian period. In 17th-century Edinburgh, a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories,[citation needed] and thus are thought to be the pioneers for the modern-day skyscraper. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh.

  • 7. About Canada
    Информация

    Government: Canada's Parliament consists of a Monarch and a bicameral legislature: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. The government is comprised of the party with a plurality of seats in the House of Commons, ie., more seats than any other party. Presently, the Conservative Party makes up the current government having won the federal election of October 14, 2008 with a plurality of 143 seats out of possible 308. Because it only holds a minority government, the Conservative Party has had to rely on other parties to help pass its legislation. Prior to the Conservative Partys first victory in 2006, the Liberal Party had held power for 13 consecutive years with three majority governments. The Conservative Partys breakthrough was the first ever electoral victory for a right-of-centre party in a federal election. Traditionally, the left-of-centre Liberal Party could rely on the vast majority of seats from the ultra-moderate province of Ontario, where nearly 40% of the nations population resides. In the 1993 federal election the Liberal Party had won 98 out of a possible 99 seats in Ontario, and 101 seats out of 103 in the 2000 election. However, after the “Unite the Right" movement was successful in merging the right-of-centre Canadian Alliance Party and the moderate Progressive Conservative Party in 2003, the Liberals were not as successful in Ontario, winning only 75 out of a possible 108 seats in the 2004 election. In the 2006 election, the Conservative Party won 40 seats out of 108 in Ontario-the then best showing for any right-of-centre party in decades in Ontario. In the 2008 election, the Conservatives won 51 seats. Undoubtedly, in the 2006 election the Conservative Partys improved showing in Ontario was caused in part by a major scandal involving the Liberal Partys misappropriation of over $100 million of government funds in Quebec related to advertising contracts. As a result, voters in Quebec abandoned the Liberal Party in droves reducing its seats in that province to 13 in 2006 from 21 in the 2004 election. The Conservative Party was able to gain 10 seats in Quebec, the most a moderate-to-conservative party was able to win in Quebec in four previous federal elections.

  • 8. Appendix a for the course paper "Australia"
    Курсовой проект

    capital of Australia is very famous city - Canberra. Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia.. Queensland is Australias second largest state, covering 1 722 000 km2 and the third most populous with more than 3.6 million inhabitants. It occupies 22.5 per cent of the continent in the north-east and has boundaries with New South Wales, South Australia and the Northern Territory. It is bounded by the Gulf of Carpentaria, Torres Strait and the Coral Sea in the north, and the South Pacific Ocean in the east. The total coastline is 7400 km with the corals of the Great Barrier Reef fringing the eastern coastline for more than 2000 kilometres. Brisbane, the capital, is located in the south-eastern corner of the State. The people of Queensland enjoy an outdoor lifestyle with world class beaches and waterways, national parks, rainforests and tropical reefs. Our pleasant climate (average summer temperatures of 25 degrees Celsius, average winter temperatures of 15 degrees Celsius) means that Queenslanders enjoy more winter sunshine and warmth than most other Australian states. With up-to-date technology and services, the lowest taxes in Australia and plenty of space to develop and expand, Queensland is the preferred location for many new businesses each year.'s enviable lifestyle ensures that its current population of over 3.6 million continues to grow and prosper.State flag dates from the time when Queensland was a self-governing British colony with its own navy. In 1865, the Governor of Queensland was told by the Admiralty in London that the colony's vessels of war should fly the Blue Ensign, imposed with the colony's badge, on the stern, and a blue pennant at the mastheadSouth Wales. New South Wales is in the south-east part of the Australian continent and is the most populous and heavily industrialized State in Australia, with a highly urbanized population.capital of New South Wales is Sydney, the site of the country's oldest European settlement and its largest and most cosmopolitan city, with ethnic communities from more than 100 countries. The city's icons include The Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney Harbour Bridge and The Sydney Opera House. Sydney hosted the 2000 Olympic Games, an important international finance centre and home to one of the world's great seaports.total area of the State is 802 000 km2 or 10.4 per cent of Australia's total area and includes Lord Howe, a small island in the Pacific Ocean. We have included information on the people of each region to show some simple statistics on the local demographics. When learning about a new place it's helpful to see how many people live there. The histories of each region are unique and have mounded communities to what they are today. Knowing a places past can help you know the people just a little better. In a similar way, the government and local councils are helping to mould the future of each region and its people.appreciation for the landscape gives insight into the environment and its inhabitants. Both inland and offshore geography has had an impact on how the country has developed.Capital Territory. For more than 20,000 years the region has been home to the Ngunnawal people. Rock paintings in Namadgi National Park and archeological evidence found at Birrigai Rock Shelter at Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve are evidence of their long occupation the region.first European settler in the district was a Joshua John Moore who took up the first land grant and established a stock station called 'Canberry' in 1824. It has been suggested that the name Cranberry is based on an Aboriginal name for the area Canberra. Moore's property is approximately where Canberra's city centre is currently sited.1901 the New South Wales Government commissioned a report suggesting possible locations for the seat of Government for the new Commonwealth of Australia. The report short-listed three places, Bondable, Yass-Canberra, and Orange. The decision for the Yass-Canberra option was made in 1908 by the Commonwealth Parliament and shortly afterwards the Commonwealth surveyor, Charles Scrivener, was dispatched to choose a site.1911 an international competition for a city plan was held. It was awarded to an American landscape architect named Walter Burley Griffin and his wife and partner, Marion Mahoney Griffin. In the same year, The Australian Government took possession of 2 357km2 of land from New South Wales (NSW) to form the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) as the site for the Australian national capital. Canberra lies between Sydney, 307km north-east, and Melbourne 655km south-west.1913 Canberra became the official name for the area at the laying of a foundation stone on Capital Hill. Today the majority of the population of the ACT lives and work in Canberra.is nearly 300km from Sydney and some 650km from Melbourne. A planned city, it is laid out around an artificial lake. The Territory became self-governing in 1989. National government remains its main industry, but private sector employment has expanded and includes production of sophisticated scientific and communications equipment, and computer software. With Canberra being a relatively new and carefully planned city in Australia, some people think its a bit on the boring and conservative side. Being the nations seat of government and politics probably doesnt help that image. But to the contrary, Canberra is a graceful and industrious city surrounded by an awesome and mostly untouched natural environment. And its residents have a nearly utopian approach towards conserving the citys quality of life.. Hugging the tip of the Australian east coast, Victoria is Australia's second-smallest state, covering 227,600 square kilometers - roughly the size of the British Isles.'s capital, Melbourne is located around the shores of Port Phillip Bay. The city itself sits beside the Yarra River, about five kilometers from the bay.occupies the south east corner of the continent between latitudes 34 and 39 south and longitudes 141 and 150 east. It covers 227 600 km2 - about the same area as England, Wales and Scotland; three-fifths of Japan and slightly larger than the US State of Utah. About 36 per cent of Victoria is covered by forest with the major forest belt in the east. The highest peaks are Mt Bogong (1986 m) and Mt Feathertop (1922 m). Victorias 1800 km coastline borders on Bass Strait, which separates the mainland from Tasmania, and in the west on the Southern Ocean. Its a generally rugged coastline but includes many wide sandy beaches and three large, almost fully enclosed harbors. Melbourne and Geelong are on the shores of the most important of these harbors, Port Phillip Bay.vary widely but most of the State falls within the warm, temperate belt of the south-east corner of Australia, characterized by warm and dry summers and cool to mild, wet, winters. Daily summer temperatures range from 14 to 23 C in the coastal areas, 11 to 20 C in the mountains and 16 to 31 C inland. In winter, temperatures range from 7 C to 14 C in coastal areas, 0 C to 5 C in the mountains and 5 C to 16 C inland. Snow settles on the Australian Alps in the north-east of Victoria from June to September. Rainfall is heaviest in the eastern highlands, in Gippsland in the east of the State and in the Otway Ranges in western Victoria. Some areas receive annual rainfalls of more than 1000 mm. Lowest falls are in the Mallee region, where the average is 327 mm. Melbournes average rainfall is about 660 mm a year.. Separated from mainland Australia by the 240 km stretch of Bass Strait, Tasmania is a land apart a place of wild and beautiful landscapes; friendly, welcoming people; a pleasant, temperate climate; wonderful wine and food; a rich history; and a relaxed island lifestyle. Tasmania is an island roughly the size of West Virginia, located 240 km off the south-east corner of mainland Australia. Next stop south is Antarctica, 2000 km away.is a natural island a land of dramatic coastlines, rugged mountains, tall forests and sparkling highland lakes. Over a third of the state is reserved in a network of National Parks and the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, a refuge and habitat for rare plants and animals, including survivors of the ancient southern super continent, Gondwana.population of Tasmania is 485,000. Main centres are Hobart (the capital city with 200,000 people) Launceston (98,500) Burnie (18,000) and Devonport (25,000).has more than 2000 km of walking tracks and 18 national parks. The Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area covers 1.38 million hectares. Hobart has the nations second-lowest rainfall (626 mm or 24 inches) of all Australian capital cities.average summer temperature is a comfortable 21°C (70°F). Winters average is 12°C (52° F).Australia. South Australia has a healthy Mediterranean climate with cool wet winters and hot dry summers. The average summer temperature is 29 degrees Celsius, although each year brings one or two hot periods (generally with low humidity)., the capital city of South Australia, jealously guards its reputation as Australias arts capital, boasting a multitude of festivals, a vibrant live music scene, galleries, design and fashion, theatre, architecture The average winter temperature is a mild 15 degrees Celsius. 2,500 hours of sunshine a year means South Australians enjoy outdoor living almost year round. Outdoor sports, eating and events are easy to enjoy because of the weather, excellent facilities and easy accessibility.Australia has many contrasts with rugged outback wilderness, scenic mountain ranges, an extensive coastline, offshore islands and a large, meandering river. Surprisingly, the driest State in the driest continent has more than 3,700 kilometers of varied coastline and the Murray River weaves its magic through 650 kilometers of South Australia.are also national parks and world heritage listed areas to explore and an outdoor adventure to suit everyone. South Australia is known as a wine and food centre with 13 wine regions and a higher ratio of cafes and restaurants to residents than any other city in Australia. The wine industry in South Australia benefits from a variety of terrain, character and climate. Few other regions of the world can match our range of warm and cool-ripening conditions.Australia. The state of Western Australia, is Australias face on the Indian Ocean. Its capital Perth is closer to Singapore and Jakarta than it is to Canberra. The majority of people live in and around Perth.Australia is the largest Australian State. With an area of more than 2 500 000 sq km, a 12 500 km coastline and spanning 2 400km from north to south, it occupies a third of the continent.the narrow Timor Sea separates its northern coastline from equatorial islands of the Indonesian Archipelago and to the south is the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.its tropical north, to temperate areas in its south-west corner, Western Australia experiences a variety of climatic conditions. With distance from the coast, rainfall decreases and temperature variations are more pronounced. Perth averages eight hours sunshine per day and 118 clear days per year. Mean monthly maximum temperatures range from 17ºC in July to 30ºC in February. Even in the coldest months, minimum temperatures rarely fall below 5ºC. Most of its 802mm annual rainfall occurs in the winter months.

  • 9. Argentina
    Информация
  • 10. Boryspil
    Информация

    У березні 1917 року до влади в Україні прийшла Центральна Рада. На її чолі стояли М.Грушевський, В. Вінниченко, С. Петлюра. Головна мета Центральної Ради полягала у створенні незалежної Української держави. У січні 1918 року було проголошено УНР, у тому ж 1918 році Україна була втягнута в громадянську війну. В квітні 1920 року на територію України вступили частини польської армії, а з ними війська Української Народної Республіки. Відступаючі загони Червоної Армії реквізували у селян фураж, коней, продовольство. Це викликало невдоволення населення. Більшість селянства рішуче взялася за зброю. Повстали і селяни Борисполя. Вони відмовилися давати "оброк" кіньми, возами, продовольством. Був скликаний мітинг. Червоноармійці направили своїх делегатів, але бориспільці заявили, що не впустять війська у місто. Більшовики напали на Бориспіль у неділю, на свято Георгія. Почали обстрілювати місто з усіх боків гарматними залпами. Місто горіло. Червоноармійці швидко захопили Бориспіль. Люди тікали, ховаючись у болотах, лозах, очеретах. Були и такі, що чекали на черівоноармійців, виходили зустрічати їх з хлібом сіллю, але вбивали і їх. Поранених добивали багнетами прямо на вулицях, у лікарні. Потім стали вишукувати чоловіків та, зібравши більше 200 чоловік, погнали до Броварського шляху і там розстріляли. Вбивали у дворах, заганяли людей в клуні, а потім підпалювали їх. Більше двох тижнів більшовики тероризували і грабували населения Борисполя.

  • 11. Chicago
    Доклад
  • 12. Chicago
    Информация

    The worlds first skyscraper was constructed in Chicago, in 1885, spawning the innovative Chicago School of architecture. The central part of the city has several of the worlds tallest buildings, including the Sears Tower, which at 110 storeys high is the tallest in the United States. Construction of tall office buildings continues.

  • 13. City of London
    Дипломная работа

    has been a long tradition in Britain of directing the economy through the great financial institutions together known as the City, which until 1997 were located in the Square Mile of the City of London. This remains broadly the case today, though the markets for financial and related services have grown and diversified greatly., insurance companies, the Stock Exchange, money markets, commodity shipping and freight markets and other kinds of financial institutions are concentrated in the solemn buildings of the City and beyond its borders. The City of London is the largest financial center in Europe. London is also the world's largest international insurance market and has the biggest foreign exchange market.'s financial service industry gives about 6.5 % of its gross domestic products (GDP) and contributes some 35 thousand million pounds a year. The largest contributors are banks, insurance, institutions pension funds, and securities dealers. To help Britain's financial services to respond to the competition and at the same time to protect the public investment, the Government introduced 3 pieces of legislation to supervise financing the industry: the Financial Services Act (1986), the Building Societies Act (1986) and the Banking Act (1987). Under these acts investment businesses need to be authorized and they have to obey rules set in the legislation. The main responsibility to supervise were the Bank of England, the Building Societies Commission, the Treasury and the Department of Trade and Industry. The Serious Fraud office was set up to investigate and prosecute significant and complex fraud.Bank of England.Bank of England was established in 1684 by Act of Parliament and Royal Charter as a corporate body. Its entire capital stock was acquired by the Government under the Bank of England Act in 1946. It is the heart of the City of London and Britain's central bank. The Bank's main functions are to execute monetary policy, to act as banker to the Government, to issue banknote and to provide central Banking facilities.is responsible for the financial system as a whole; it is lender of last resort. The Bank's main objective is to support the Government in achieving low inflation. Unlike some other central banks the Bank can not act independently of the Government. Decisions on changes in the interest rates are taken by the Chancellor of Exchequer. The Bank's role is to advise the Chancellor and to carry out his decisions. The 1999 (November) interest rate was 5.5%.banker to the Government the Bank of England is responsible for managing the National Debt. It has the sole right in England and Wales to issue banknote. The note issue is no longer backed by gold but the Government and other securities. The Scottish and Northern Ireland Banks have limited rights to issue notes and those must be fully covered by holdings of the Bank of England notes. Coins can be provided by the Royal Mint.Bank of England can influence money market conditions through discount houses. If on any day there is a shortage of cash in Banking system, the bank relieves the shortage either by buying bills from the discount houses or lending directly to them.Bank of England is responsible for supervision of the main wholesale markets in London for money, foreign exchange or gold bullion.behalf of the Treasury the Bank manages the Exchange Equalization Account (EEA). Using the resources of EEA the Bank may intervene in the foreign exchange markets to check undue fluctuations in the exchange rate of sterling.Houses.Discount Houses are unique to the City of London (and to Britain as a country). They occupy the central position in the British monetary system. They act as intermediaries between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector promoting an orderly flow of funds between the Government and the banks. In return for acting as intermediaries the discount houses have privileged daily access to the Bank of England as lender of last resort..in Britain developed from the London gold miths of the 17th century. By the 1920s and the 1930s there were five large clearing banks with a network across the country. In February 1996 there were 539 institutions authorized under the Banking. Act of 1987. In British banking retail banks should be described as dominant.banks primarily serve personal customers and small to medium-sized businesses. They operate through more than 11.350 branchers offering cash deposits withdrawl facilities and systems for transferring funds. They provide current accounts, deposit accounts various types of loan arrangements and a growing range of financial services.main banks in England and Wales are Barklays, Lloyds, Midland, National Westminter and the TSB group. The major Scottish banks are the Bank of Scotland, Clydesdale and Royal Bank of Scotland.a relaxation of restrictions on competition among financial institutions major banks have diversified the services they provide. They have lent more money for house purchases, have more interests in leasing and factoring companies, merchant banks, securities dealers, insurance and trust companies. They provide low facilities to industrial companies ands now support a loan guarantee scheme under which 70% of the value of loans to small companies is guaranteed by the Government.card technology has revolutionized cash transfer and payments systems. There are around ninety two million plastic cards in circulation in Britain. There are different types of cards but they often combine functions. Cards can be used overseas too to obtain cash from bank ATM ( Automated Teller Machines). Cash machine cards have greatly improved customers' access to cash. All retail banks and building societies participate in nation wide networks of ATMs. About two thirds of cash now is obtained through Britain's twenty one thousand ATMs. .A lot of them are located different places at supermarkets, for instance.banks offer electronic payment of cheques, telephone banking, under which customers use a telephone to obtain account information, make transfers or pay bills. Other innovations include computer-based banking (through home computer) services over Internet and video links.banks.traditional role of merchant banks was to accept bills of exchange, to provide funds for trade and also to raise capital to British companies through the issue of bonds and other securities. These activities continue, but the role of Britain's merchant banks has diversified enormously in recent years. Although they are called banks they are more involved in providing a range of professional services, such as corporate finance and investment management, than in lending money.societies.societies are mutual institutions owned by their savers and borrowers. They have traditionally concentrated on housing finance, long-term mortgage loans against property - most usually houses purchased for occupation. Services have been extended into other areas, including banking, investment services and insurance. The Societies are one of the main places were people deposit their savings - around 60% of adults have a building society saving accounts. Building societies offer a variety of accounts with interest rates related to the time for which a saver is prepared to tie up his money. So they are major lenders for house purchases. Four of the largest Societies are planning to become banks. The largest Societies, the Halifax, Abbey National and Nationwide owe 45% of the total assets of the movement.Savings Bank.National Savings Bank is run by the department of National Savings. It provides a system of depositing and withdrawing savings at twenty thousand post offices around the country or by post. The National Savings Bank does not offer lending facilities. Its deposits are used to finance the Governments public sector needs.Institutions.investing institutions are those which collect savings and invest them into securities market and other long-term assets. The main investment institutions are insurance companies, pension funds, unit trusts and investment trusts. Together they make a vast resource of funds which are invested in securities and other assets. They own around 58% of British shares. The British insurance industry is highly sophisticated and serves millions of policyholders in Britain and overseas. Policyholders include governments, companies and individuals. The British insurance is the forth largest in the world and in proportion to its GDP is the highest in any country. There are 2 broad categories of insurance: long-term insurance for many years, such as life insurance, permanent health (medical) insurance; and general insurance for a year or less, which covers risks of damage, such as loss of property, accidents and short-term health insurance. In 1995 there were about 830 authorized to carry on insurance business in Britain. The industry as a whole employs some 207.000 people, plus about 126.000 are employed in activities related to insurance.'s is an incorporated society of private insurers in London. Originally it dealt with marine insurance. Today it deals with other classes of insurance, today it deals with other classes of insurance. Long-term life and financial guarantee business is not covered. Insurance brokers as intermediaries are a valuable part of the insurance market. Lloyd's insurance brokers play an important role in the Lloyd's market.of London Underwriters was formed in 1984 as an association for marine underwriters. Today it provides a market where member insurance companies transact marine, energy, commercial transport and aviation insurance business. The Institute issues combined policies in its own name on risks which are underwritten by member companies. About half of the 58 member companies are branches or subsidiaries of overseas companies.Funds.Funds collect savings Pension Funds collect savings from occupational pension schemes and personal pension schemes. Pension contributions are invested through intermediaries in securities and other investment markets. Pension fund have a become a major force in securities markets because they hold about 28% of the securities listed on the London Stock Exchange. Total Pension fund assets are very big. To protect them the Pensions Act was introduced in 1995 to increase confidence in the security of the funds.institutions.origin of the London Stock Exchange goes back to the coffee houses of the 17th century, where those who those who wished to invest or raise money bought and sold shares of joint-stock companies. Brokers later opened their own subscription rooms and in 1773 this was named the Stock Exchange. During the 19th century the Stock Exchange developed as the demand for capitol grew with Britain's Industrial Revolution. The Exchange also financed the construction of railways, bridges and dams across the world. Today it is one of a number of highly organized financial markets of the City. It provides trading platform and the means of raising capital for British and foreign companies, Government securities, eurobonds and depository receipts. Official list is the Exchanges main market, while AIM, the Exchanges new market is for smaller rapidly growing companies. It opened in 1995. Companies which apply for a listing on the Exchange must provide a full picture of their operations, i9ncluding their financial record, management and business prospects. If a company wants to join AIM the rules are less strict. Such companies include multimedia and high technology business.the Exchange has moved away from face-to-face dealing on the trading floor to system of dealing from member firms' offices. The quotations are displayed on electronic screen. Before 1986 only British companies were allowed to operate. In 1986 deregulation, known as the Big Bang allowed any foreign financial institution to participate in the London money market. Other changes involved a system under which negotiated commissions were allowed instead of fixed rates and dealers are permitted to trade in securities both as principals and as agents. Traditional retail stockbrokers are facing growing competition from operations running by large banks and building societies.Exchange has its administrative center in London, with regional offices in Belfast, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leads and Manchester.companies raise new capital on the London money market. The quiet-edged market, that is the market of Government shares, allows the Government to raise money by issuing stock through the Bank of England.Exchanges now going through a further period of change which has been described as the most significant period since The Big Bang.markets.'s money markets channel wholesale short-term funds between lenders and borrows. These operations are conducted by all the major banks and financial institutions. The Bank of England regulates the market. There is no physical market place; negotiations are conducted mostly by telephone or through automated dealing systems. The main financial instruments are CDs (Certificates of Deposit), bills of exchange, Treasury and local authority bills and short-term Government stocks.Futures and Traded Options.futures are legal contracts for the purchase or the sale of financial products, on a specified future date at a price agreed in the present. Trading and financial futures developed out of the numerous futures markets in commodities which originate from London's position as a port and from Britain's need to import food and raw material.are contracts which give the right to buy or sell financial instruments or physical commodities for a stated period at a predetermined price.futures and options are traded on the London International Futures and Option Exchange (LIFFE) which was established in 1982..Exchangesremains the principal international center for transactions in a large number of commodities, though the consignments themselves never pass through the ports of Britain. The need for close links with sources of finance, shipping and insurance services often determines the locations of these markets in the City of London. There are futures markets in cocoa, coffee, grains, rubber, sugar, pigmeat, potatoes there., oil for heating and petroleum are traded through the International Petroleum Exchange, Europe's only energy futures exchange., lead, zinc, nickel, aluminum, aluminum alloys and tin are treaded through the London Metal Exchange (LME), the world's largest non-ferrous base metals exchange.Baltic Exchange is the world's leading international shipping exchange. It contributed to 292 Mln pounds in net overseas earnings to Britain's balance of payments in 1995. Baltic dealers handle more than a half the world's bulk cargo, transportation of oil, ore, coal and grain. All Britain's agricultural futures markets are operated from the Baltic Exchange and physical trading and commodities is also carried out there.

  • 14. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)
    Информация

    No place in Britain is more than 120 km from the sea. But although the British are crowded very closely in a very small country, there is one respect in which they are very fortunate. This is their climate. Perhaps, this is a surprising statement because almost everyone has heard how annoying the weather usually is in England. Because of the frequent clouds and the moisture that hangs in the air even on fairly clear days, England has less sunshine than most countries, and the sunlight is weaker then in other places where the air is dry and clear. What is worse, sunshine rarely lasts long enough for a person to have time to enjoy it. The weather changes constantly. No ordinary person can guess from one day to another which season he will find himself in when he wakes in the morning. Moreover, a day in January may be as warm as a warm day in July and a day in July may be as cold as the coldest in January.

  • 15. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)
    Сочинение
  • 16. Countries and cities
    Вопросы
  • 17. CША (Соединенные Штаты Америки)
    Информация

    До появления европейцев почти ½ территории была занята лесами, покрывавшими всю восточную часть и преобладавшими на склонах Кольдилер; значительное пространство Внутренних равнин занимали степи. В настоящее время более 1/3 территории вырублено, степи распаханы; естественная растительность довольно хорошо сохранилась лишь в горных районах. Сведение растительности и интенсивное использование земель привели к эрозиям почв. На северо востоке страны и вблизи Великих озер естественная растительность представлена хвойно широколиственными лесами из сосны, черной, белой и красной ели, бальзаминные пихты, клена, липы и ясеня, покрытыми развиты дерново подзолистые почвы. На юге эти леса сменяются широколиственными лесами разнообразного состава. На центральных равнинах они почти вырублены и местами замещены вторичными, главным образом дубовыми лесами. Они сохранились в Аппалачах, где покрывают склоны гор до 800м, переходя выше в смешанные и хвойные леса. Под широколиственными лесами образовались бурые лесные почвы, которые на большей части распаханы, местами сильно пострадали от эрозии. К югу 35 39градусов с. ш. в лесах появляются магнолии, лавры и другие жестколиственные вечнозеленые растения. На Приатлантической и Примексиканской низменностях преобладают сосновые боры, чистые или примесью жестколистных пород. Для влажных субтропиков на юго-востоке США характерны красноземные и желтоземные почвы. Центральные районы к западу от Миссисипи прежде были покрыты высокотравной растительностью прерией, состоявшей главным образом из злаков. Под прерией образовались плодородные почвы. Сейчас большая часть этой территории используется в земледелии; на нераспаханных территориях растительность сильно обеднена в результате выпаса скота. К западу от 100градусов з. д. прерии постепенно переходят в сухие степи на каштановых почвах, которые распаханы только на отдельных участках, но интенсивно используется для выпаса скота. В растительном покрове здесь преобладают низкие злаки: гама бизоновая и проволочная трава, швейник, а также полынь. Степные ландшафты характерны для отдельных районов Кордильер: Колумбийского плато, Калифорнийской долины, некоторых частей плато Колорадо. Значительные территории Большого Бассейна занимают пустыни и полупустыни. В котловинах на бурых почвах и сероземах полынь, лебеда и другие кустарнички и травы, южнее 380 с. ш. распространены креозотовые кустарники и крупные кактусы, юкки и др. суккуленты. Центральной части котловин часто заняты солончаки.

  • 18. Description of Canada
    Курсовой проект

    A Canadian CF-18 Hornet in La Baie (Bagotville), Quebec. CF-18s have supported NORAD air sovereignty patrols and participated in combat during the Gulf War of 1991 and Kosovo and Bosnia in the late 1990s. Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner. Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and declining to participate in the Iraq War. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Franco phone. Canada is noted for having a strong and positive relationship with the Netherlands, and the Dutch government traditionally gives tulips, a symbol of the Netherlands, to Canada each year in remembrance of the latter country's contribution to its liberation. Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of about 67,000 regular and 26,000 reserve personnel. The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the army, navy, and air force. Major CF equipment holdings include 1,400 armored fighting vehicles, 33 combat vessels, and 861 aircraft. Strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, the First World War, and the Second World War. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. Canada was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union. Two warships of the Canadian Navythe Halifax-class frigate HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) (centre) and the Iroquois-class destroyer HMCS Algonquin (DDG 283)at Pearl Harbor upon departing to participate in RIMPAC, the world's largest international maritime exercise. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada has since served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989, and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere. The number of Canadian military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions has decreased greatly in the past two decades. As of June 30, 2006, 133 Canadians served on United Nations peacekeeping missions worldwide, including 55 Canadian military personnel, compared with 1044 military personnel as of December 31, 1996. Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). Canadian Leopard 1C2(1A5) during a live fire exercise in Fort Bliss, Texas. Since 2001, Canada has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force. Canada has committed to withdraw from Kandahar Province by 2011, by which time it will have spent an estimated total of $11.3 billion on the mission. Canada and the U.S. continue to integrate state and provincial agencies to strengthen security along the Canada-United States border through the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative. In February 2007, Canada, Italy, Britain, Norway, and Russia announced their funding commitments to launch a $1.5 billion project to help develop vaccines they said could save millions of lives in poor nations, and called on others to join them. In August 2007, Canadian sovereignty in Arctic waters was challenged after a Russian expedition that planted a Russian flag at the seabed at the North Pole. Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.

  • 19. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia
    Информация

    Certainly, the today's level of economic integration does not answer necessities national economic of Republic of Kazakhstan and Russian Federation. Available on it is necessary to evaluate the today facts of economic interaction between two countries as insufficient and requiring in serious adjusting. The priority of a development of the Kazakhstan-Russian economic links is possible to support with existing numerous perspective directions of a development, it:

    • Trade-economic cooperating of Republic of Kazakhstan and Russian Federation;
    • Frontier cooperating Republic Of Kazakhstan and Russian Federation;
    • Development of industrial-cooperation links in machine-building and chemical complexes, by means of creation of share financial and industrial groups;
    • Cooperating and development fuel and energy of complexes of Russia and Kazakhstan;
    • Cooperating in sphere of transport;
    • Cooperating of Kazakhstan and Russia in mastering vehicle launching of Baikonur;
    • Cooperating in mastering natural riches of the Caspian sea;
    • Scientific - technological cooperating;
    • Cooperating in the market of agricultural production.
  • 20. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia
    Дипломная работа