Авторефераты по всем тема  >>  Авторефераты по сельскому хозяйств 1 (/p>

)

)

06.03.03 Ц, - 2009 - :, :,, : 23 2009. 1000 212.019.01 : 241037,.,,.3

.: (4832) 649629 : (4832) 746744

E-mail : mail@bgita.ru - л 2009

. (.),.,,,,,.,, ( ),,

. (1992),, (, 1993

.)., [1998],,., [www.iufro.ru]

,, Ц.,,, [ Е, 2000.]

,

. Ц,

:p>

1) ;p>

2) ;p>

3) ;p>

4) ;p>

5)

., 98 315. ( ) 1,6 37.,,,, 1,3 4,1. 6 8.,,,,

,

1 :p>

-,, - ( );p>

- Ц, ;p>

-,

2 Ц

, :p>

- ;p>

- ;p>

-,, - л ,

,

:p>

- ;p>

- ;p>

- Ц

(2005), (2007), (2008), (2004 - 2006.) 2009 - 2018

. : ( :, 1996), ( :, 2002), ( :, 2004), Ц.. ( :, 1998, 2008, 2009), ( :, 2008), ( :, 2008), л ( :p>

, 2009), л XXI ( :p>

, 2009)

. 20, 3 9,

. 1988 - 2009.,,,,,,.,

. 304.,,,,,, 30, 36. 417

1 1.1. 1916

. л [1994],, [., 1983;,, 1989;, 1992;, 1984, 2005;, 2000;p>

, 2000, 2001;,, 2004; Е, 2004;, 2005, 2007.]

1.2 Ц,,. [1964, 1969],. [1964, 1969],. [1966], F. Halberg and A. Reinberg [1967],.. [1984],. Pittendrich [1993], [,, 1989, Е, 2000;, 2004, 2007.].,,

(,,,.) [, 1905;, 1969;, 1978;, 1983;, 1995;, 2000.].,,

.,, [, 1973; Е, 2000]

,..,,,.,,

,,., 2Ц5, [.4]

2 2.1,, ( )

( ),,., ( ) 2 - 3. [1944, 1968]. 2 - 3 ( 70 %)

, (17%),,,

,,,,,.,,,

Ц, Ц. I II., ( л ) [, 1986]. , [, 1961;, 1967;, 1969;p>

, 1971;,, 1979;, 1985;, 1989;p>

, 1992.].,,,,, Ц. (III II. ) (IV V. )

, ( ), [,1954;,1960;p>

, 1964;, 1964;, 1967;, 1968;, 1968;, 1968;, 1972;, 1975;, 1983;, 1991;, 1992;, 1993;, 2000;,, 2002;,, 2003;,, 2007.].

2.2 (,.), [., 1989]:,, ( ),, ),,,,, ( ),, 3-5 [., 1992] -137>5 2

.

( 16128-70, 5669-83),,,,, [., 1957, 1964;, 1962;,, 1972;, 1982;., 1988;.., 1992; Е, 1972, 1993;, 1982; Е, 1995.]

[, 1954;, 1966;, 1975;p>

, 1980;, 1983;, 2004.].,,, [Schmidt-Vogt, 1976;,, 2003;, 2005]

(d1,3). d1,3 [, 1974;,, 1982;, 1984;, 1987;, 2000, 2002;, 2002;,, 2003.].. [1974],.. [1977],.. [1996, 2000]

( ),, ( 1,3 ).

,,, 3

:p>

-, Ц, ( ) 0,70;p>

-

:p>

- 0,1 (Zd1,3);p>

- d1,3 ( );p>

- Zd1,3,, Zd1,3,, (i) - d1,3

(,%) ( ) ( :p>

i>1 i<1),. [1989]:p>

- - >90 %;p>

- - 75,1Ц90 %;p>

- - 60,1Ц75%

: [,, 1969;p>

., 1970;, 1986.].

, 1951]... [1962],

[, 1970;, 1973;, 1991;, 1991;, 2003, 2007; :p>

(t) (F) (P = 95; 99; 99,9%),

,,,. Ц

, Microsoft Excel

3 3.1,,, [Douglass, 1941; Fritts, 1976;, 1968;, 1965, 1972;, 1974;, 1974;,, 1977;,, 2000;, 2000;, 2000, 20.].,, [, 1972;, 1978;,, 1983;, 1986;, 1992;., 1997;, 2000.]

(d1,3) 1,3

., 211., 116... 140 d1,3 S, XIX... S d1,3 : I - d1,3 ; II - d1,3, ; III - d1,3. S d1,3 140,, I II,, II,. S d1,3,

II, л , [,, 2005;,, 2005.],, 100

1,1. 90 d1,3 (i), d1,3:, i>1,, i<1. d1,3, d1,3 65, i. 5 %

,,, ( > 90%). : ( 2), ( 2-3), ( 3), ( 2), 2-3)

d1,(i>1 i<1),, 15%., 10%,. i

, i, d1,3

i (i>1) (i<1) d1,3. d1,3. d1,3. d1,3 1.. [1974],.. [1997],. [1998]

(1880Ц2008.) (i.) 1064 90. i. 2%. i 5-18 %

d1,3 i. i.=1, (>50 %) (i.> i.<1),

,, d1,3, d1,3:, i. >1,, i.<1. 1884 - 2003. 60 (. 1)

1 - - d1,3 d1,3 1 1884 - 1918 35 i. > 2 1919 - 1943 25 i. < 3 1944 - 1979 36 i. > 4 1980 - 2003 24 i. < (F.>F., P = 95%) i

d1,3 (1884Ц1943. 1944Ц2003.) (. 1).,,.,,

i. (R2 >0,5), Ц.., л d1,3., 1962, 1969, 1973, 2007. ( i. >1). (i) 12 - 43 %

л

2.1. 0.y = - 0,0144 x + 28,587 y = - 0,0118 x + 24,3R2 = 0,451 R2 = 0,31860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 20 1 - i. ( 1: 1884 - 1943., 2: 1944 - 2003.), d1,3, d1,3 ( ), (W). (Si),. [1975]. - (,. ), [., 2001]. Si ( ),. Si л ,

icp. Si,, Ц, 1968; Fritts, 1976.].,

(Si>0) (Si<0),, Si. (V) [,,, 2001]

- - i <1, cp

- i >1 - cp

icp. Si ( <75 %), ( <60 %)

i W cp

,.., ( ), A. Douglass [1941];. [1965, 1972];. [1974];. [2000, 2001];. [2001]. : 1) (icp. <1), (icp.>1); 2) - i >1, cp

- icp.<1. ( <60%)

icp. Si, icp. W

icp.(1880Ц2006.).,,, W ( - 7% 10%) d1,3 (. 2)

(, ) d1,3

2,R = 0,100, m =0,R 1,0,0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 2 2 - ( ) d1,3 1880 - 2006. (R2),. [1993,.7], Е., .,, [, 1935;, 1969;, 1978;, 1979, 2008;, 2000;p>

,, 2001; 2000;, 2003;, 2000, 2007.]

, 24,5 : 35,5, 21 34. , [, 1978;, 1984;p>

, 1993;, 2006.].,,,,,, [, 1978;,, 1984;, 2000, 2002;, 2007.]

3.2. ( ), [, 1969;,, 1983;, 1986;, 1992;, 2000.]

, 16 - 25%, d1,3 ( d1,3: 1>icp.>1 - 1 - > icp.>1Ц2 ), 12 - 16 (F.>F. P=99%).,, (t.>t. P=99 %) : 1) 12,31,044% 1< icp.<1+;p>

2) 29,2 1,044% 1>icp.>1Ц; 3) 36,41,044% 1 - > icp.>1 - 2

,, [, 1975;, 1986;,, 1989;, 1991;, 1991.]

[,, 1982;p>

, 1984].., [, 1908;, 1950, 1960;, 1975;, 1972] : 1874Ц1885., 1938Ц1943., 1998Ц2003

.. d1,3, d1,3.. d1,3,,

[, 1947, 1951;,, 1975;, 1978;p>

,, 1983;., 1990;, 2002.]., 52- 94- d1,3 (2004Ц2006.) ( 6 ),., d1,3

,, 20-30- ( ),, d1, 16Ц22%

,,, [, 1994;, 1956;, 1975;p>

, 1993.].., ( 1,7 ) d1,3

, d1,3., : I - 30 %, II - 1../, - 2../

I. (1969), 30%. II,, [ Е, 1984]. I ( ), II,

( 2, 2-3, 3, 2, 2-3, 3),, d1,3, (F.>F. =99 %)., 0,5%

, d1,3, 3,18 0,598 %, d1,3 Ц15,870,598% (t. >t

P=99%). I, d1,3 (87,2%), 58,7%, - 28,5%. I, d1,3 (79,7%). 48,6%, - 31,1%

d1,3., 1949Ц1979. ( d1,3),,

100.

1980Ц2003. ( d1,3) 17 (70,8% ). II. 3.

(. 3), d1,3 ( <35%),

i > i < i > i < 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 20 3 - (i.>1, i.<1) (. ) d1,3 ( - 1,6, - 1,4 ). =99%.,, ( ) л

, d1,3,. [Shannon, 1948], 1,94, d1,3 (t.>t P=99%).,

d1,3

3.3 [, 1938;, 1975;,1983;., 1989, 2002]

., : л (tension) л (relaxation) [, 1964],, 1984], [.,1991], [ 2004, 2007]. Ц, л

,,,.

,. ( ), ( ), ( )

, :p>

-,.,,. - (activus);p>

-,.,,. л . - (passivus)

,

: - - (d1,3), - - d1,3.. л (. 3.2), ( ) (л )

4 4.1 Ц,

л ,

л ,,, ( ) -,,

(.) ( ). ( )

[,, 1999]:p>

1).,,.;p>

2). = ,,.

, ( ) ( )

,, (, ):p>

-,, - ( );p>

- Ц, ;p>

-,

,, ( ),

[, 1999;, 2000.]:p>

1), ( ) - - ;p>

2),.. :p>

- ;p>

- ;p>

- ;p>

3) :,

,, [, 1964; Halberg, 1969;, 1987, 1989; Е, 2000;, 2004, 2007.].,,,,

,, :p>

- ;p>

-,,, [, 1978;,, 1984;, 2004, 20.].

,,

4.2 - ( )

.,. л

,.

л . - ( ), ( )

( ) :p>

- ;p>

- ;p>

-

4.3,,.),,

, - [,, 1983;,, 1990; ManualЕ, 1994;, 1995;,, 1996;., 1996;, 1998;, 2002;, 2003;, 2003.]

,,,,

:p>

-, ;p>

-,, ;p>

- ( л )

4.4. [2005],,

.

,,.

,.,,

:p>

- ;p>

-,..

.,..,,

4.5

,,,,, ( ) 8,2../. 11,7../.,,

1, ( ) ( ),

2 ( ) :p>

2.1,, - ( )

2.2 Ц,

2.3,

3.,,

4,,

5 л .,.,

6 л . - ( ), ( )

7 (,, I ) ( )

8,.,

9

, ( ) ( ):p>

1

2,,

3 -

4 ( 20 - 30 ) ( - ) ( ), d1,3 10 - 20%

5 :.,.,,

, 1.,. : /.. - :, 2004. - 160

2.,. /.. - :, 1998. - 88

3.,. :,, /.. - :., 2007. - 116

1.,. /.,.,. //. - 2001. - 1. Ц. 33 - 34

2.,. /. //. - 2009. - 4. Ц. 16 - 17

3.,. /. //. - 2009. - 5. Ц. 69 - 72

4.,. ( ) /.,. //. - 2008. - 4. Ц. 23

5.,. /. //. - 1996. - 4. Ц. 18 - 19

6.,. /. //. - 2008. - 4. Ц. 24 - 25

7.,. /. //. - 2008. - 5. Ц. 23 - 24

8.,. /. //.Ц2008. - 3. Ц. 145 - 148

9.,. /. //. - 2007. - 5. Ц. 15 - 17

1.,. /.,. //. Ц. - :, 1996. Ц. 79-80

2.,. /.,.,. //. - 2000. - 2. Ц. 23 - 25

3.,. : 242 - 94 /.. - :, 1994. - 4

4.,. : 31 - 90 /.. - :, 1990. - 4

5.,. /. // л XXI - :, 2009. Ц. 13 - 16

6.,. /. //. - 2008. - 5. Ц. 23 - 36

7.,. /

// л : - :, 2008. Ц.203 - 205

8.,. (Picea abies) /. //. Ц

8. - :, 2008. Ц. 91 - 97

   Авторефераты по всем тема  >>  Авторефераты по сельскому хозяйств